Finding Time for the Old Stone Age

A History of Palaeolithic Archaeology and Quaternary Geology in Britain, 1860-1960
Author: Anne O'Connor
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 0199215472
Category: History
Page: 423
View: 9981

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This study looks at the fascinating attempts from the Victorian era to the middle of the 20th century to reconstruct Britain's prehistoric past, to provide a chronology for stone tools and to relate these finds to geological sequences. The debates around this subject were often amazingly fiery and although a serious scholarly study this book is also great fun, with a host of colourful characters.

The British Palaeolithic

Hominin Societies at the Edge of the Pleistocene World
Author: Paul Pettitt,Mark White
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 0415674549
Category: Social Science
Page: 592
View: 381

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The British Palaeolithic provides the first academic synthesis of the entire British Palaeolithic, from the earliest occupation (currently understood to be around 980,000 years ago) to the end of the Ice Age. Landscape and ecology form the canvas for an explicitly interpretative approach aimed at understanding the how different hominin societies addressed the issues of life at the edge of the Pleistocene world. Commencing with a consideration of the earliest hominin settlement of Europe, the book goes on to examine the behavioural, cultural and adaptive repertoires of the first human occupants of Britain from an ecological perspective. These themes flow throughout the book as it explores subsequent occupational pulses across more than half a million years of Pleistocene prehistory, which saw Homo heidelbergensis, the Neanderthals and ultimately Homo sapiens walk these shores. The British Palaeolithic fills a major gap in teaching resources as well as in research by providing a current synthesis of the latest research on the period. This book represents the culmination of 40 years combined research in this area by two well known experts in the field, and is an important new text for students of British archaeology as well as for students and researchers of the continental Palaeolithic period.

Natural History Societies and Civic Culture in Victorian Scotland


Author: Diarmid A Finnegan
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317315731
Category: History
Page: 272
View: 7359

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The relationship between science and civil society is essential to our understanding of cultural change during the Victorian era. Finnegan's study looks at the shifting nature of this process during the nineteenth century, using Scotland as the focus for his argument.

The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of Death and Burial


Author: Sarah Tarlow,Liv Nilsson Stutz
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191650390
Category: Social Science
Page: 872
View: 5681

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The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of Death and Burial reviews the current state of mortuary archaeology and its practice, highlighting its often contentious place in the modern socio-politics of archaeology. It contains forty-four chapters which focus on the history of the discipline and its current scientific techniques and methods. Written by leading, international scholars in the field, it derives its examples and case studies from a wide range of time periods, such as the middle palaeolithic to the twentieth century, and geographical areas which include Europe, North and South America, Africa, and Asia. Combining up-to-date knowledge of relevant archaeological research with critical assessments of the theme and an evaluation of future research trajectories, it draws attention to the social, symbolic, and theoretical aspects of interpreting mortuary archaeology. The volume is well-illustrated with maps, plans, photographs, and illustrations and is ideally suited for students and researchers.

Evidential Reasoning in Archaeology


Author: Robert Chapman,Alison Wylie
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1472534697
Category: Social Science
Page: 264
View: 8945

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How do archaeologists work with the data they identify as a record of the cultural past? How are these data collected and construed as evidence? What is the impact on archaeological practice of new techniques of data recovery and analysis, especially those imported from the sciences? To answer these questions, the authors identify close-to-the-ground principles of best practice based on an analysis of examples of evidential reasoning in archaeology that are widely regarded as successful, contested, or instructive failures. They look at how archaeologists put old evidence to work in pursuit of new interpretations, how they construct provisional foundations for inquiry as they go, and how they navigate the multidisciplinary ties that make archaeology a productive intellectual trading zone. This case-based approach is predicated on a conviction that archaeological practice is a repository of considerable methodological wisdom, embodied in tacit norms and skilled expertise Â? wisdom that is rarely made explicit except when contested, and is often obscured when questions about the status and reach of archaeological evidence figure in high-profile crisis debates.

Stone Tools and the Evolution of Human Cognition


Author: April Nowell,Iain Davidson
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Social Science
Page: 234
View: 485

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Stone tools are the most durable and common type of archaeological remain and one of the most important sources of information about behaviors of early hominins. Stone Tools and the Evolution of Human Cognition develops methods for examining questions of cognition, demonstrating the progression of mental capabilities from early hominins to modern humans through the archaeological record. Dating as far back as 2.5-2.7 million years ago, stone tools were used in cutting up animals, woodworking, and preparing vegetable matter. Today, lithic remains give archaeologists insight into the forethought, planning, and enhanced working memory of our early ancestors. Contributors focus on multiple ways in which archaeologists can investigate the relationship between tools and the evolving human mind--including joint attention, pattern recognition, memory usage, and the emergence of language. Offering a wide range of approaches and diversity of place and time, the chapters address issues such as skill, social learning, technique, language, and cognition based on lithic technology. Stone Tools and the Evolution of Human Cognition will be of interest to Paleolithic archaeologists and paleoanthropologists interested in stone tool technology and cognitive evolution.

Sapiens

A Brief History of Humankind
Author: Yuval Noah Harari
Publisher: Harper Collins
ISBN: 0062316109
Category: Science
Page: 464
View: 8703

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New York Times Bestseller A Summer Reading Pick for President Barack Obama, Bill Gates, and Mark Zuckerberg From a renowned historian comes a groundbreaking narrative of humanity’s creation and evolution—a #1 international bestseller—that explores the ways in which biology and history have defined us and enhanced our understanding of what it means to be “human.” One hundred thousand years ago, at least six different species of humans inhabited Earth. Yet today there is only one—homo sapiens. What happened to the others? And what may happen to us? Most books about the history of humanity pursue either a historical or a biological approach, but Dr. Yuval Noah Harari breaks the mold with this highly original book that begins about 70,000 years ago with the appearance of modern cognition. From examining the role evolving humans have played in the global ecosystem to charting the rise of empires, Sapiens integrates history and science to reconsider accepted narratives, connect past developments with contemporary concerns, and examine specific events within the context of larger ideas. Dr. Harari also compels us to look ahead, because over the last few decades humans have begun to bend laws of natural selection that have governed life for the past four billion years. We are acquiring the ability to design not only the world around us, but also ourselves. Where is this leading us, and what do we want to become? Featuring 27 photographs, 6 maps, and 25 illustrations/diagrams, this provocative and insightful work is sure to spark debate and is essential reading for aficionados of Jared Diamond, James Gleick, Matt Ridley, Robert Wright, and Sharon Moalem.

Man, the Primeval Savage

His Haunts and Relics from the Hill-tops of Bedfordshire to Blackwall
Author: Worthington George Smith
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Anthropology
Page: 349
View: 627

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Archaeology in Latin America


Author: Benjamin Alberti,Gustavo G. Politis
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134597835
Category: Social Science
Page: 304
View: 3841

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This pioneering and comprehensive survey is the first overview of current themes in Latin American archaeology written solely by academics native to the region, and it makes their collected expertise available to an English-speaking audience for the first time. The contributors cover the most significant issues in the archaeology of Latin America, such as the domestication of camelids, the emergence of urban society in Mesoamerica, the frontier of the Inca empire, and the relatively little known archaeology of the Amazon basin. This book draws together key areas of research in Latin American archaeological thought into a coherent whole; no other volume on this area has ever dealt with such a diverse range of subjects, and some of the countries examined have never before been the subject of a regional study.

History of the Australian Vegetation

Cretaceous to Recent
Author: Robert S. Hill
Publisher: University of Adelaide Press
ISBN: 1925261476
Category: Science
Page: 443
View: 6326

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The Australian vegetation is the end result of a remarkable history of climate change, latitudinal change, continental isolation, soil evolution, interaction with an evolving fauna, fire and most recently human impact. This book presents a detailed synopsis of the critical events that led to the evolution of the unique Australian flora and the wide variety of vegetational types contained within it. The first part of the book details the past continental relationships of Australia, its palaeoclimate, fauna and the evolution of its landforms since the rise to dominance of the angiosperms at the beginning of the Cretaceous period. A detailed summary of the palaeobotanical record is then presented. The palynological record gives an overview of the vegetation and the distribution of important taxa within it, while the complementary macrofossil record is used to trace the evolution of critical taxa. This book will interest graduate students and researchers interested in the evolution of the flora of this fascinating continent.

Africa from MIS 6-2

Population Dynamics and Paleoenvironments
Author: Sacha C. Jones,Brian A. Stewart
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9401775206
Category: Science
Page: 424
View: 8276

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Bringing together archaeological, paleoenvironmental, paleontological and genetic data, this book makes a first attempt to reconstruct African population histories from out species' evolution to the Holocene. Africa during Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 6 to 2 (~190-12,000 years ago) witnessed the biological development and behavioral florescence of our species. Modern human population dynamics, which involved multiple population expansions, dispersals, contractions and extinctions, played a central role in our species’ evolutionary trajectory. So far, the demographic processes – modern human population sizes, distributions and movements – that occurred within Africa during this critical period have been consistently under-addressed. The authors of this volume aim at (1) examining the impact of this glacial-interglacial- glacial cycle on human group sizes, movements and distributions throughout Africa; (2) investigating the macro- and micro-evolutionary processes underpinning our species’ anatomical and behavioral evolution; and (3) setting an agenda whereby Africa can benefit from, and eventually contribute to, the increasingly sophisticated theoretical and methodological palaeodemographic frameworks developed on other continents.

Analytical Chemistry in Archaeology


Author: A. M. Pollard
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521655729
Category: Science
Page: 404
View: 9202

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This book is an introductory manual that explains the basic concepts of chemistry behind scientific analytical techniques and that reviews their application to archaeology. It explains key terminology, outlines the procedures to be followed in order to produce good data, and describes the function of the basic instrumentation required to carry out those procedures. The manual contains chapters on the basic chemistry and physics necessary to understand the techniques used in analytical chemistry, with more detailed chapters on Atomic Absorption, Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy, Neutron Activation Analysis, X-ray Flourescence, Electron Microscopy, Infra-red and Raman Spectroscopy, and Mass Spectrometry. Each chapter describes the operation of the instruments, some hints on the practicalities, and a review of the application of the technique to archaeology, including some case studies. With guides to further reading on the topic, it is an essential tool for practitioners, researchers and advanced students alike.

The late Neolithic tell settlement at Polgár-Csőszhalom, Hungary

the 1957 excavation
Author: Eszter Bánffy,Ida Bognár-Kutzián
Publisher: British Archaeological Reports Ltd
ISBN: N.A
Category: Social Science
Page: 243
View: 1409

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In 1957, preliminary investigations revealed a major Late Neolithic settlement mound, which also happened to be the northernmost tell settlement on the Great Hungarian Plain. Although the trial was limited to a small trench, the several meters thick deposits yielded exciting finds and several richly furnished burials. The brief preliminary report and the various references to the excavation made it quite obvious that the tell was one of the key sites of the Hungarian Neolithic and thus the full publication of the tell and its finds was, quite understandably, eagerly awaited by prehistorians. The siteAes investigation was resumed in 1989 as part of the excavations preceding the construction of the M3 motorway. The excavator directed the large-scale excavation of the tell and its enclosure of five ditches, and of the extensive horizontal settlement beside it. This excavation was preceded by various geophysical surveys and palaeoenvironmental sampling in order to reconstruct the settlementAes one-time environment and to determine the exact date of its occupation. However, until the results of the new excavation are published in detail, this monograph will be the single available study on the Polga -Cszhalom site, the eponymous site of a Late Neolithic culture.

Investigating Archaeological Cultures

Material Culture, Variability, and Transmission
Author: Benjamin W. Roberts,Marc Vander Linden
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441969705
Category: Social Science
Page: 393
View: 2865

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Defining "culture" is an important step in undertaking archaeological research. Any thorough study of a particular culture first has to determine what that culture contains-- what particular time period, geographic region, and group of people make up that culture. The study of archaeology has many accepted definitions of particular cultures, but recently these accepted definitions have come into question. As archaeologists struggle to define cultures, they also seek to define the components of culture. This volume brings together 21 international case studies to explore the meaning of "culture" for regions around the globe and periods from the Paleolithic to the Bronze Age and beyond. Taking lessons and overarching themes from these studies, the contributors draw important conclusions about cultural transmission, technology development, and cultural development. The result is a comprehensive model for approaching the study of culture, broken down into regions (Russia, Continental Europe, North America, Britain, and Africa), materials (Lithics, Ceramics, Metals) and time periods. This work will be valuable to all archaeologists and cultural anthropologists, particularly those studying material culture.

Quaternary of the Thames


Author: D.R. Bridgland
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 940110705X
Category: Science
Page: 441
View: 5757

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This volume describes important sites in the Pleistocene deposits of the Thames terrace system laid down by the Thames and its tributaries. It correlates the Thames sequence with deposits found elsewhere in Britain, on the European continent and on the ocean floor.

Nation/Nazione

Irish Nationalism and the Italian Risorgimento
Author: Colin Barr,Michele Finelli,Anne O'Connor
Publisher: Univ College Dublin Press
ISBN: 9781906359591
Category: History
Page: 245
View: 9819

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Nation-Nazione brings together scholars of Ireland and Italy to examine the multiple intersections, impacts, and influences that flowed between Italy and Ireland, and Italian and Irish nationalists in the nineteenth century. The book contributes to a fuller understanding of the national movements of both places, and the often surprising and unexpected intersections from electoral politics to culture to military force, as well as the abiding impact of Italian events, myths, and personalities in Ireland, and Irish in Italy. For Irish historians, it questions the image of Irish isolation or exceptionalism, just as it reminds Italians that the most distant corners of Europe impacted on their own national history.