Facts on the Ground

Archaeological Practice and Territorial Self-Fashioning in Israeli Society
Author: Nadia Abu El-Haj
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226002152
Category: Social Science
Page: 363
View: 9173

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Archaeology in Israel is truly a national obsession, a practice through which national identity—and national rights—have long been asserted. But how and why did archaeology emerge as such a pervasive force there? How can the practices of archaeology help answer those questions? In this stirring book, Nadia Abu El-Haj addresses these questions and specifies for the first time the relationship between national ideology, colonial settlement, and the production of historical knowledge. She analyzes particular instances of history, artifacts, and landscapes in the making to show how archaeology helped not only to legitimize cultural and political visions but, far more powerfully, to reshape them. Moreover, she places Israeli archaeology in the context of the broader discipline to determine what unites the field across its disparate local traditions and locations. Boldly uncovering an Israel in which science and politics are mutually constituted, this book shows the ongoing role that archaeology plays in defining the past, present, and future of Palestine and Israel.

The Genealogical Science

The Search for Jewish Origins and the Politics of Epistemology
Author: Nadia Abu El-Haj
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226201406
Category: History
Page: 311
View: 3444

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The Genealogical Science analyzes the scientific work and social implications of the flourishing field of genetic history. A biological discipline that relies on genetic data in order to reconstruct the geographic origins of contemporary populations—their histories of migration and genealogical connections to other present-day groups—this historical science is garnering ever more credibility and social reach, in large part due to a growing industry in ancestry testing. In this book, Nadia Abu El-Haj examines genetic history’s working assumptions about culture and nature, identity and biology, and the individual and the collective. Through the example of the study of Jewish origins, she explores novel cultural and political practices that are emerging as genetic history’s claims and “facts” circulate in the public domain and illustrates how this historical science is intrinsically entangled with cultural imaginations and political commitments. Chronicling late-nineteenth- to mid-twentieth-century understandings of race, nature, and culture, she identifies continuities and shifts in scientific claims, institutional contexts, and political worlds in order to show how the meanings of biological difference have changed over time. In so doing she gives an account of how and why it is that genetic history is so socially felicitous today and elucidates the range of understandings of the self, individual and collective, this scientific field is making possible. More specifically, through her focus on the history of projects of Jewish self-fashioning that have taken place on the terrain of the biological sciences, The Genealogical Science analyzes genetic history as the latest iteration of a cultural and political practice now over a century old.

Kein Land für sich allein

Studien zum Kulturkontakt in Kanaan, Israel/Palästina und Ebirnari für Manfred Weippert zum 65. Geburtstag
Author: Manfred Weippert,Ulrich Hübner,Ernst Axel Knauf
Publisher: Saint-Paul
ISBN: 9783525530436
Category: History
Page: 331
View: 7542

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Die Erfindung des Landes Israel

Mythos und Wahrheit
Author: Shlomo Sand
Publisher: Ullstein eBooks
ISBN: 3843703426
Category: Body, Mind & Spirit
Page: 400
View: 2103

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Gehört Israel den Juden? Was bedeutet überhaupt Israel? Wer hat dort gelebt, wer erhebt Ansprüche auf das Land, wie kam es zur Staatsgründung Israels? Shlomo Sand, einer der schärfsten Kritiker der israelischen Politik gegenüber den Palästinensern, stellt den Gründungsmythos seines Landes radikal in Frage. Überzeugend weist er nach, dass entgegen der israelischen Unabhängigkeitserklärung und heutiger Regierungspropaganda die Juden nie danach gestrebt haben, in ihr „angestammtes Land“ zurückzukehren, und dass auch heute ihre Mehrheit nicht in Israel lebt oder leben will. Es gibt kein „historisches Anrecht“ der Juden auf das Land Israel, so Sand. Diese Idee sei ein Erbe des unseligen Nationalismus des 19. Jahrhunderts, begierig aufgegriffen von den Zionisten jener Zeit. In kolonialistischer Manier hätten sie die Juden zur Landnahme in Palästina und zur Vertreibung der palästinensischen Bevölkerung aufgerufen, die dann nach der Staatsgründung 1948 konsequent umgesetzt wurde. Nachdrücklich fordert Sand die israelische Gesellschaft auf, sich von den Mythen des Zionismus zu verabschieden und die historischen Tatsachen anzuerkennen.

Israel ist umgezogen


Author: Diana Pinto
Publisher: Suhrkamp Verlag
ISBN: 3633730583
Category: Political Science
Page: 238
View: 1231

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Israel ist umgezogen – weg von den feindseligen Nachbarn und dem alten, vergeblichen Traum eines säkularen Zionismus, hin zu einem Land der boomenden High-Tech-Industrie, das in der archaischen Vergangenheit seine Zukunft neu entwirft, weltläufig, ethnisch abgeschottet und geprägt von der politischen Agenda der Religiösen. Dana Pinto zeigt Israel auf dem Weg in einen autistischen Ultramodernismus, der die Probleme des jüdischen Staates zu lösen versucht, indem er sie überspringt. »Israel ist umgezogen« ist ein kritisches Buch über Israel, entstanden aus Liebe zu einem Land, das sich dringend fragen muß, wohin die Reise geht. Die Beziehungen zu den alten Partnern in Europa und den USA verlieren mehr und mehr an Gewicht, und weder die Erinnerung an die Shoah noch der traditionelle zionistische Gründungskonsens sind länger Eckpfeiler des israelischen Selbstverständnisses. Die eigene Zukunft sieht das Land eher in der boomenden Hightech-Industrie mit starker Orientierung an China und in der Wiederverwurzelung in einer archaischen Vergangenheit – dank des Internets weltläufig und entgrenzt, zugleich ethnisch abgeschottet und politisch geprägt von den Vorstellungen der Nationalreligiösen und Ultraorthodoxen. In Form eines Reiseberichtes legt Dana Pinto das konzise Porträt eines Landes im Umbruch vor. In Gesprächen mit säkularen und orthodoxen, jüdischen und arabischen Israelis und in Beobachtungen, in denen sie die kleinsten Alltagsszenen gekonnt mit den Mitteln des engagierten Essays darstellt, gelingt es der Autorin zugleich, Hoffnung zu wecken für eine Zukunft jenseits der Gewalt.

Gilgameschs Erben

von Sumer zur demokratischen Zivilisation
Author: Abdullah Öcalan
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9783926529169
Category:
Page: 363
View: 5089

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Choreographies of Shared Sacred Sites

Religion, Politics, and Conflict Resolution
Author: Elazar Barkan,Karen Barkey
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231538065
Category: Political Science
Page: 384
View: 1373

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This anthology explores the dynamics of shared religious sites in Turkey, the Balkans, Palestine/Israel, Cyprus, and Algeria, indicating where local and national stakeholders maneuver between competition and cooperation, coexistence and conflict. Contributors probe the notion of coexistence and the logic that underlies centuries of "sharing," exploring when and why sharing gets interrupted—or not—by conflict, and the policy consequences. These essays map the choreographies of shared sacred spaces within the framework of state-society relations, juxtaposing a site's political and religious features and exploring whether sharing or contestation is primarily religious or politically motivated. Although religion and politics are intertwined phenomena, the contributors to this volume understand the category of "religion" and the "political" as devices meant to distinguish between the theological and confessional aspects of religion and the political goals of groups. Their comparative approach better represents the transition in some cases of sites into places of hatred and violence, while in other instances they remain noncontroversial. The essays clearly delineate the religious and political factors that contribute to the context and causality of conflict at these sites and draw on history and anthropology to shed light on the often rapid switch from relative tolerance to distress to peace and calm.

Joseph Wulf

Ein Historikerschicksal in Deutschland
Author: Klaus Kempter
Publisher: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht
ISBN: 3647369659
Category: History
Page: 422
View: 7988

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Der Auschwitz-Überlebende Joseph Wulf (1912–1974) war in den 1950er Jahren der erste, der in Deutschland Bücher zum Holocaust publizierte. Vor einigen Jahren entspann sich um ihn eine Kontroverse über die frühe bundesrepublikanische NS-Forschung. In ihrem Zentrum stand die Frage, ob die deutsche Zeitgeschichtsforschung nationalapologetisch war und die jüdische Geschichtserfahrung – die Perspektive der Opfer – systematisch ausklammerte. Klaus Kempter beleuchtet diese Frage anhand von Leben und Werk Joseph Wulfs neu. Er verdeutlicht: Das vorherrschende, durch seinen Suizid 1974 scheinbar bestätigte Bild Wulfs als tragische und gescheiterte Existenz ist zu korrigieren. Wulf war aufgrund seiner Herkunft und seines Lebenswegs ein Außenseiter, doch seine Publikationen trugen wesentlich zur Aufklärung über den Nationalsozialismus bei. Die Monografie erscheint zum 100. Geburtstag des Historikers am 22. Dezember.

Ritual, Performance, and Politics in the Ancient Near East


Author: Lauren Ristvet
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107065216
Category: History
Page: 331
View: 5737

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In this book, Lauren Ristvet rethinks the narratives of state formation by investigating the interconnections between ritual, performance, and politics in the ancient Near East. She draws on a wide range of archaeological, iconographic, and cuneiform sources to show how ritual performance was not set apart from the real practice of politics; it was politics. Rituals provided an opportunity for elites and ordinary people to negotiate political authority. Descriptions of rituals from three periods explore the networks of signification that informed different societies. From circa 2600 to 2200 BC, pilgrimage made kingdoms out of previously isolated villages. Similarly, from circa 1900 to 1700 BC, commemorative ceremonies legitimated new political dynasties by connecting them to a shared past. Finally, in the Hellenistic period, the traditional Babylonian Akitu festival was an occasion for Greek-speaking kings to show that they were Babylonian and for Babylonian priests to gain significant power.

On Sovereignty and Other Political Delusions


Author: Joan Cocks
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 178093355X
Category: Political Science
Page: 208
View: 6828

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Winner of the 2015 David Easton Prize, awarded by the American Political Science Association (APSA) Global forces are eroding the ability of states to exert sovereign control over their populations, territories, and borders. Yet when dominated subjects across the world dream of freedom, they continue to conceive of it in sovereign terms. Sovereign freedom haunts the imagination of oppressed ethnic minorities, popular masses ruled by foreign powers or homegrown tyrants, indigenous peoples, and individuals chafing under customary or governmental restrictions. On Sovereignty and Other Political Delusions draws on political theory and on two case studies – the encounter between Anglo-American settlers and Native American tribes, and the search for Jewish sovereignty in Palestine – to probe the allure of the idea of sovereign freedom and its self-defeating logic. It concludes by shifting its sights from political to economic sovereign power and by pursuing intimations of non-sovereign freedom in the contemporary age.

Interpretation and Method

Empirical Research Methods and the Interpretive Turn
Author: Dvora Yanow,Peregrine Schwartz-Shea
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317467361
Category: Political Science
Page: 552
View: 1815

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Exceptionally clear and well-written chapters provide engaging discussions of the methods of accessing, generating, and analyzing social science data, using methods ranging from reflexive historical analysis to critical ethnography. Reflecting on their own research experiences, the contributors offer an inside, applied perspective on how research topics, evidence, and methods intertwine to produce knowledge in the social sciences.

Rereading Israel

The Spirit of the Matter
Author: Bonna Haberman
Publisher: Urim Publications
ISBN: 9655242021
Category: History
Page: 191
View: 6042

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Setting aside vitriolic debates and worn postures, Rereading Israel refreshes current conversations about Israel, opening Jewish sources to interpret Israel in critical, innovative, and inspiring ways. The book presents readers with an opportunity to engage ethically, intellectually, and emotionally, challenging them to apply the resources at their disposal to grapple honestly and creatively with land and people, history, text, and spirit. This consideration invites those who read into a deep exploration of their roles and their relationships to the destiny of a profoundly human and unfinished sacred project.

Competitive Archaeology in Jordan

Narrating Identity from the Ottomans to the Hashemites
Author: Elena Corbett
Publisher: University of Texas Press
ISBN: 0292760809
Category: Social Science
Page: 312
View: 9521

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An examination of archaeology in Jordan and Palestine, Competitive Archaeology in Jordan explores how antiquities have been used to build narratives and national identities. Tracing Jordanian history, and the importance of Jerusalem within that history, Corbett analyzes how both foreign and indigenous powers have engaged in a competition over ownership of antiquities and the power to craft history and geography based on archaeological artifacts. She begins with the Ottoman and British Empires—under whose rule the institutions and borders of modern Jordan began to take shape—asking how they used antiquities in varying ways to advance their imperial projects. Corbett continues through the Mandate era and the era of independence of an expanded Hashemite Kingdom, examining how the Hashemites and other factions, both within and beyond Jordan, have tried to define national identity by drawing upon antiquities. Competitive Archaeology in Jordan traces a complex history through the lens of archaeology's power as a modern science to create and give value to spaces, artifacts, peoples, narratives, and academic disciplines. It thus considers the role of archaeology in realizing Jordan's modernity—drawing its map; delineating sacred and secular spaces; validating taxonomies of citizens; justifying legal frameworks and institutions of state; determining logos of the nation for display on stamps, currency, and in museums; and writing history. Framing Jordan's history in this way, Corbett illustrates the manipulation of archaeology by governments, institutions, and individuals to craft narratives, draw borders, and create national identities.

Mecca and Eden

Ritual, Relics, and Territory in Islam
Author: Brannon Wheeler
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226888045
Category: History
Page: 333
View: 3444

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Nineteenth-century philologist and Biblical critic William Robertson Smith famously concluded that the sacred status of holy places derives not from their intrinsic nature but from their social character. Building upon this insight, Mecca and Eden uses Islamic exegetical and legal texts to analyze the rituals and objects associated with the sanctuary at Mecca. Integrating Islamic examples into the comparative study of religion, Brannon Wheeler shows how the treatment of rituals, relics, and territory is related to the more general mythological depiction of the origins of Islamic civilization. Along the way, Wheeler considers the contrast between Mecca and Eden in Muslim rituals, the dispersal and collection of relics of the prophet Muhammad, their relationship to the sanctuary at Mecca, and long tombs associated with the gigantic size of certain prophets mentioned in the Quran. Mecca and Eden succeeds, as few books have done, in making Islamic sources available to the broader study of religion.

Contested Cultural Heritage

Religion, Nationalism, Erasure, and Exclusion in a Global World
Author: Helaine Silverman
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441973054
Category: Social Science
Page: 286
View: 9342

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Cultural heritage is material – tangible and intangible – that signifies a culture’s history or legacy. It has become a venue for contestation, ranging in scale from protesting to violently claimed and destroyed. But who defines what is to be preserved and what is to be erased? As cultural heritage becomes increasingly significant across the world, the number of issues for critical analysis and, hopefully, mediation, arise. The issue stems from various groups: religious, ethnic, national, political, and others come together to claim, appropriate, use, exclude, or erase markers and manifestations of their own and others’ cultural heritage as a means for asserting, defending, or denying critical claims to power, land, and legitimacy. Can cultural heritage be well managed and promoted while at the same time kept within parameters so as to diminish contestation? The cases herein rage from Greece, Spain, Egypt, the UK, Syria, Zimbabwe, Italy, the Balkans, Bénin, and Central America.