Evolutionary Epistemology, Rationality, and the Sociology of Knowledge


Author: Gerard Radnitzky,Karl Raimund Popper
Publisher: Open Court Publishing
ISBN: 9780812690392
Category: Philosophy
Page: 475
View: 8055

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This collection of essays in support of the theory of evolutionary epistemology includes articles by Karl Popper, Peter Munz and Gerhard Vollmer. This volume attempts to show how an evolutionary and non-justificational approach affects the sociology of knowledge.

Evolutionary Systems

Biological and Epistemological Perspectives on Selection and Self-Organization
Author: G. Vijver,Stanley N. Salthe,M. Delpos
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401715106
Category: Philosophy
Page: 438
View: 6991

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The three well known revolutions of the past centuries - the Copernican, the Darwinian and the Freudian - each in their own way had a deflating and mechanizing effect on the position of humans in nature. They opened up a richness of disillusion: earth acquired a more modest place in the universe, the human body and mind became products of a long material evolutionary history, and human reason, instead of being the central, immaterial, locus of understanding, was admitted into the theater of discourse only as a materialized and frequently out-of-control actor. Is there something objectionable to this picture? Formulated as such, probably not. Why should we resist the idea that we are in certain ways, and to some degree, physically, biologically or psychically determined? Why refuse to acknowledge the fact that we are materially situated in an ever evolving world? Why deny that the ways of inscription (traces of past events and processes) are co-determinative of further "evolutionary pathways"? Why minimize the idea that each intervention, of each natural being, is temporally and materially situated, and has, as such, the inevitable consequence of changing the world? The point is, however, that there are many, more or less radically different, ways to consider the "mechanization" of man and nature. There are, in particular, many ways to get the message of "material and evolutionary determination", as well as many levels at which this determination can be thought of as relevant or irrelevant.

Popper, Objectivity and the Growth of Knowledge


Author: John H. Sceski
Publisher: A&C Black
ISBN: 1441144374
Category: Science
Page: 174
View: 1477

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John H. Sceski argues that Karl Popper's philosophy offers a radical treatment of objectivity that can reconcile freedom and progress in a manner that preserves the best elements of the Enlightenment tradition. His book traces the development of Popper's account of objectivity by examining his original contributions to key issues in the philosophy of science. Popper's early confrontation with logical positivism, his rarely discussed four-fold treatment of the problem of induction, and his theory of propensities and evolutionary epistemology are linked in a novel way to produce a coherent and philosophically relevant picture of objectivity. Sceski also explores and clarifies many central issues in the philosophy of science such as probabilistic support, verisimilitude, and the relationship between special relativity and indeterminism. He concludes that Popper's account of objectivity can best bridge the gap between Enlightenment aims for science and freedom and post-modern misgivings about 'truth', by developing a philosophy that is non-foundationalist yet able to account for the growth of knowledge.

The Myth of the Closed Mind

Understanding Why and How People Are Rational
Author: Ray Scott Percival
Publisher: Open Court
ISBN: 0812697952
Category: Philosophy
Page: 352
View: 2502

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“It’s like talking to a brick wall” and “We’ll have to agree to disagree” are popular sayings referring to the frustrating experience of discussing issues with people who seem to be beyond the reach of argument. It’s often claimed that some people—fundamentalists or fanatics—are indeed sealed off from rational criticism. And every month new pop psychology books appear, describing the dumb ways ordinary people make decisions, as revealed by psychological experiments. The conclusion is that all or most people are fundamentally irrational. Ray Scott Percival sets out to demolish the whole notion of the closed mind and of human irrationality. There is a difference between making mistakes and being irrational. Though humans are prone to mistakes, they remain rational. In fact, making mistakes is a sign of rationality: a totally non-rational entity could not make a mistake. Rationality does not mean absence of error; it means the possibility of correcting error in the light of criticism. In this sense, all human beliefs are rational: they are all vulnerable to being abandoned when shown to be faulty. Percival agrees that people cling stubbornly to their beliefs, but he maintains that not being too ready to abandon one’s beliefs is rational.

Unended Quest

An Intellectual Autobiography
Author: Karl Popper
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134449712
Category: Philosophy
Page: 328
View: 3627

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At the age of eight, Karl Popper was puzzling over the idea of infinity and by fifteen was beginning to take a keen interest in his father's well-stocked library of books. Unended Quest recounts these moments and many others in the life of one of the most influential thinkers of the twentieth century, providing an indispensable account of the ideas that influenced him most. As an introduction to Popper's philosophy, Unended Quest also shines. Popper lucidly explains the central ideas in his work, making this book ideal for anyone coming to Popper's life and work for the first time.

New Directions in Economic Methodology


Author: Roger E. Backhouse
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134864396
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 416
View: 3145

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In recent years there has been a flowering of work on economic methodology. However there is no longer any consensus about which direction this should take or, indeed, even what the role and content of economic methodology should be. This book reflects this diversity. Its contributors are responsible for the major developments in this field and together they give an account of all the major positions which currently prevail in economic methodology. These include attempts to rehabilitate the 'falsification' of Kuhn, Lakatos and Popper, sociology of knowledge approaches, different forms of realism, contributions from the 'rhetoric' project and other perspectives which view the economy as a text.

Bausteine der Erkenntnistheorie

Mit einer Internationalen Bibliographie zur Kritik der reinen Vernunft
Author: Paul Natterer
Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand
ISBN: 3844876170
Category: Philosophy
Page: 356
View: 7646

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Die vorliegende Darstellung der Erkenntnistheorie ist der erste Band einer auf zehn Bände angelegten Handbuchreihe 'Edition novum studium generale', d.h.: neues Allgemeinstudium. Ein Studium generale zielt erstrangig auf eine kognitive Architektur und ein ethisches Koordinatensystem für vernetztes ganzheitliches Wissen. Neben den formalen Schlüsselqualifikationen ist dies das zweite Standbein der Persönlichkeitskompetenz. Der erste Band stellt auf der Grundlage des aktuellen Forschungsstandes die erkenntnistheoretischen Konzeptionen von Platon - Aristoteles/Aquinas - Berkeley - Kant - Fichte - Carnap vor und bietet einen Abriss zur Erkenntnistheorie der Gegenwart. In Kapitel 2 zu Platon finden Interessierte auf 100 Seiten eine systematische Darstellung und Bewertung der platonischen Theorie in Auseinandersetzung mit dem neuesten Forschungsstand. Kapitel 3 zu Aristoteles und Aquinas beinhaltet einen vollständigen Abriss der Erkenntnis- und Handlungstheorie des Aristoteles, wie ihn Leser wahrscheinlich sonst nicht in dieser Kompaktheit finden. Dasselbe gilt für die Kognitionstheorie von Thomas Aquinas. Kapitel 4 beginnt mit einer komprimierten Skizze zu John Lockes 'Essay concerning Human Understanding' und diskutiert dann ausführlich und konsequent interdisziplinär George Berkeleys 'New Theory of Vision' und dessen 'Three Dialogues'. Ein Alleinstellungsmerkmal des Buches ist eine umfassende (70 S.) Internationale Bibliographie zur Kritik der reinen Vernunft in Kapitel 5, welche die einzige, Vollständigkeit anstrebende Spezial- und Arbeitsbibliographie zum erkenntnistheoretischen Hauptwerk Kants und der modernen Philosophie überhaupt ist. Kapitel 6 orientiert über das erkenntnistheoretische Grundbuch des Deutschen Idealismus, Fichtes 'Wissenschaftslehre'; Kapitel 7 evaluiert die erkenntnistheoretische Programmschrift der Analytischen Philosophie, Carnaps 'Der Logische Aufbau der Welt'; Kapitel 8 gibt einen kompakten, aber vollständigen Einblick in die aktuelle Diskussion zur Erkenntnistheorie.

Principles of Knowledge Management: Theory, Practice, and Cases

Theory, Practice, and Cases
Author: Eliezer Geisler,Nilmini Wickramasinghe
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317415159
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 400
View: 4905

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This text provides a comprehensive introduction to the new field of knowledge management. It approaches the subject from a management rather than a highly technical point of view, and provides students with a state-of-the-art survey of KM and its implementation in diverse organizations. The text covers the nature of knowledge (tacit and explicit), the origins and units of organizational knowledge, and the evolution of knowledge management in contemporary society. It explores the implementation and utilization of knowledge management systems, and how to measure their impact, outputs, and benefits. The book includes a variety of original case studies that illustrate specific situations in which the absence or existence of knowledge management systems has been crucial to the organization's actions. Charts and figures throughout help clarify more complex phenomena and classifications, and each chapter includes review questions and a comprehensive index.

Darwin's Dice

The Idea of Chance in the Thought of Charles Darwin
Author: Curtis Johnson
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199361436
Category: Science
Page: 240
View: 1502

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For evolutionary biologists, the concept of chance has always played a significant role in the formation of evolutionary theory. As far back as Greek antiquity, chance and "luck" were key factors in understanding the natural world. Chance is not just an important concept; it is an entire way of thinking about nature. And as Curtis Johnson shows, it is also one of the key ideas that separates Charles Darwin from other systematic biologists of his time. Studying the concept of chance in Darwin's writing reveals core ideas in his theory of evolution, as well as his reflections on design, purpose, and randomness in nature's progression over the course of history. In Darwin's Dice: The Idea of Chance in the Thought of Charles Darwin, Curtis Johnson examines Darwin's early notebooks, his collected correspondence (now in 19 volumes), and most of his published writing to trace the evolution of his ideas about chance in evolution. This proved to be one of Darwin's most controversial ideas among his reading public, so much so that it drew hostile reactions even from Darwin's scientific friends, not to mention the more general reader. The firestorm of criticism forced Darwin to forge a retreat, not in terms of removing chance from his theory--his commitment to it was unshakable--but in terms of how he chose to present his theory. Briefly, by changing his wording and by introducing metaphors and images (the stone-house metaphor, the evolution of giraffes, and others), Darwin succeeded in making his ideas seem less threatening than before without actually changing his views. Randomness remained a focal point for Darwin throughout his life. Through the lens of randomness, Johnson reveals implications of Darwin's views for religion, free will, and moral theory. Darwin's Dice presents a new way to look at Darwinist thought and the writings of Charles Darwin.

Advances in Relational Frame Theory

Research and Application
Author: Simon Dymond,Bryan Roche
Publisher: New Harbinger Publications
ISBN: 1608824497
Category: Psychology
Page: 304
View: 7488

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As acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) increases in popularity among clinicians, it becomes more and more vital to understand its theoretical basis, relational frame theory (RFT). RFT is a psychological theory of human language and cognition, developed by Steven C. Hayes. It focuses on how humans learn language and how language connects them to their environment. In essence, our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are dependent on our experiences and the context that these experiences provide. Edited by leading relational frame theory (RFT) scholars, Simon Dymond, PhD, and Bryan Roche, PhD, Advances in Relational Frame Theory presents advances in all aspects of RFT research over the last decade, and provides a greater understanding of the core principals of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). The book also contains chapters written by Steven C. Hayes and Kelly Wilson, both research-active experts from the RFT community around the world. Because ACT is focused largely on accepting one’s thoughts, it is important to understand where these thoughts come from. And while many books on RFT are abstract and require extensive knowledge of behavior analysis, this is the first book to comprehensively but accessibly introduce RFT to ACT mental health professionals. Gaining a deeper knowledge of the relational concepts of RFT can help you understand why a person's behavior does not always match up with their self-professed values. Whether you are a mental health professional, or simply someone who is interested in the connection between language and experience, this book is an invaluable resource.

A Critical Realist Perspective of Education


Author: Brad Shipway
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134010532
Category: Social Science
Page: 256
View: 5251

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This book clearly and comprehensively explores the capability of critical realism to throw new light on educational theory. It firstly investigates the convergence and divergence between two forms of critical realism, which have not previously been cross-examined. This task allows the book to outline the key characteristics that are necessary for a theological position to claim the term "critical realist". The remainder of the text deals with the implications of critical realism for the enterprise of education. This "enterprise" is taken to include the thoughts and actions of students, classroom teachers, principals, educational administrators, policy makers, teacher educators, and philosophers of education. This final part of the book widens the scope of evaluating education from a critical realist perspective. It utilises the convergent ideas of Collier, Walker, and Corson on "power" as a platform to propose a critical realist perspective on education. With attention paid to the fundamentals of critical realism, and education theory, A Critical Realist Perspective of Education is an ideal text for undergraduates as well as postgraduates and professionals with an interest in broadening their understanding of education theory.

Popper, Hayek and the Open Society


Author: Calvin Hayes
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135979529
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 304
View: 6181

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This is the first book to compare Karl Popper and Friedrich Hayek systematically, and critically assess their contribution to the political philosophy of the Open Society. Hayes compares and contrasts their views on three key areas relevant to their political philosophy; first their views on scientific method, their views on philosophy of social science and then their moral philosophy including their meta-ethical views. The author focuses on their contributions to social science methodology, their ethical views about negative utilitarianism and negative rights, and their contrasting views on Utopianism. He finishes by arguing that their versions of liberal political philosophy are both immune to Alastair MacIntyre's critique of liberal individualism and also meet his challenge to the Enlightenment project. Hayes' position is generally controversial in that he defends Popper and Hayek in areas where they are almost universally criticized, namely Hayek's notion of the meaninglessness of social justice and Popper's claim that there is no need for induction in either scientific reasoning or common sense reasoning. One main finding in this book concerns the two major problems that bedevil modern philosophy: induction and the is-ought problem. The author proposes an original solution to the is-ought problem as well to the infinite regress problem.

Evolutionary Naturalism

Selected Essays
Author: Michael Ruse
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134877625
Category: Philosophy
Page: 336
View: 7322

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First published in 1995. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Our Knowledge of the Growth of Knowledge (Routledge Revivals)

Popper or Wittgenstein?
Author: Peter Munz
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 131767622X
Category: Philosophy
Page: 354
View: 2378

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Peter Munz, a former student of both Popper and Wittgenstein, begins his comparison of the two great twentieth-century philosophers, by explaining that since the demise of positivism there have emerged, broadly speaking, two philosophical options: Wittgenstein, with the absolute relativism of his theory that meaning is a function of language games and that social configurations are determinants of knowledge; and Popper’s evolutionary epistemology – conscious knowledge is a special case of the relationship which exists between all living beings and their environments. Professor Munz examines and rejects the Wittgensteinian position. Instead, Our Knowledge of the Growth of Knowledge, first published in 1985, elaborates the potentially fruitful link between Popper’s critical rationalism and Neo-Darwinism. Read in the light of the latter, Popper’s philosophy leads to the transformation of Kant’s Transcendental Idealism into ‘Hypothetical Realism’, whilst the emphasis on the biological orientation of Popper’s thought helps to illumine some difficulties in Popper’s ‘falsificationism’.

Issues in Evolutionary Epistemology


Author: Kai Hahlweg,C. A. Hooker
Publisher: SUNY Press
ISBN: 1438405391
Category: Philosophy
Page: 605
View: 1383

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This book provides the fullest philosophical examination of theories of evolutionary epistemology now available. Here for the first time are found major statements of new theories, new applications, and many new critical explorations. The book is divided into four parts: Part I introduces several new approaches to evolutionary epistemology; Part II attempts to widen the scope of evolutionary epistemology, either by tackling more traditional epistemological issues, or by applying evolutionary models to new areas of inquiry such as the evolution of culture or of intentionality; Part III critically discusses specific problems in evolutionary epistemology; and Part IV deals with the relationship of evolutionary epistemology to the philosophy of mind. Because of its intellectual depth and its breadth of coverage, Issues in Evolutionary Epistemology will be an important text in the field for many years to come.

Mapping Reality

An Evolutionary Realist Methodology for the Natural and Social Sciences
Author: Jane Azevedo
Publisher: SUNY Press
ISBN: 9780791432082
Category: Philosophy
Page: 322
View: 2162

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Using the insights of evolutionary epistemology, the author develops a new naturalist realist methodology of science, and applies it to the conceptual, practical, and ethical problems of the social sciences.

The Senses And The Intellect


Author: Alexander Bain
Publisher: Kessinger Publishing
ISBN: 9781417910533
Category: Psychology
Page: 728
View: 8261

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1868. Alexander Bain, Scottish philosopher and educationalist, was an early proponent of scientific psychology. Along with his friend, John Stuart Mill, Bain was a major proponent of the British school of empiricism: a theory which based all knowledge on basic sensory experiences and not on introspection. Bain's philosophical and scientific writings were completed during his twenty years as a professor at Aberdeen. The object of this treatise is to give a full and systematic account of two principal divisions of the science of the mind, -the Senses and the Intellect. The remaining two divisions, comprising the Emotions and the Will, will be the subject of a future treatise. See other titles by this author available from Kessinger Publishing.

Reflexive Epistemology

The Philosophical Legacy of Otto Neurath
Author: D. Zolo
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400924151
Category: Science
Page: 206
View: 8929

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Professor Danilo Zolo has written an account of Otto Neurath's epistemology which deserves careful reading by all who have studied the development of 20th century philosophy of science. Here we see the philosophical Neurath in his mature states of mind, the vigorous critic, the scientific Utopian, the pragmatic realist, the sociologist of physics and of language, the unifier and encyclopedist, always the empiricist and always the conscience of the Vienna Circle. Zolo has caught the message of Neurath's ship-at-sea in the reflexivity of language, and he has sensibly explicated the persisting threat posed by consistent conventionalism. And then Zolo beautifully articulates of the 'epistemological priority of sociology'. the provocative theme Was Neurath correct? Did he have his finger on the pulse of empiricism in the time of a genuine unity of the sciences? His friends and colleagues were unable to follow all the way with him, but Danilo Zolo has done so in this stimulating investigation of what he tellingly calls Otto Neurath's 'philosophical legacy' . R.S.COHEN ix ABBREVIATIONS 'Pseudo' = [Otto Neurath], 'Pseudorationalismus der Falsifikation', Erkenntnis,5 (1935), pp. 353--65. Foundations = [Otto Neurath], Foundations of the Social Sciences, in International Encyclopedia of Unified Science, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1-51, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1944. ES = Otto Neurath, Empiricism and Sociology, ed. by M. Neurath and R.S. Cohen, Dordrecht and Boston: D. Reidel, 1973.