Ethical Reasoning in Big Data

An Exploratory Analysis
Author: Jeff Collmann,Sorin Adam Matei
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319284223
Category: Computers
Page: 192
View: 7374

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This book springs from a multidisciplinary, multi-organizational, and multi-sector conversation about the privacy and ethical implications of research in human affairs using big data. The need to cultivate and enlist the public’s trust in the abilities of particular scientists and scientific institutions constitutes one of this book’s major themes. The advent of the Internet, the mass digitization of research information, and social media brought about, among many other things, the ability to harvest – sometimes implicitly – a wealth of human genomic, biological, behavioral, economic, political, and social data for the purposes of scientific research as well as commerce, government affairs, and social interaction. What type of ethical dilemmas did such changes generate? How should scientists collect, manipulate, and disseminate this information? The effects of this revolution and its ethical implications are wide-ranging. This book includes the opinions of myriad investigators, practitioners, and stakeholders in big data on human beings who also routinely reflect on the privacy and ethical issues of this phenomenon. Dedicated to the practice of ethical reasoning and reflection in action, the book offers a range of observations, lessons learned, reasoning tools, and suggestions for institutional practice to promote responsible big data research on human affairs. It caters to a broad audience of educators, researchers, and practitioners. Educators can use the volume in courses related to big data handling and processing. Researchers can use it for designing new methods of collecting, processing, and disseminating big data, whether in raw form or as analysis results. Lastly, practitioners can use it to steer future tools or procedures for handling big data. As this topic represents an area of great interest that still remains largely undeveloped, this book is sure to attract significant interest by filling an obvious gap in currently available literature.

Doing Data Science

Straight Talk from the Frontline
Author: Cathy O'Neil,Rachel Schutt
Publisher: "O'Reilly Media, Inc."
ISBN: 144936389X
Category: Computers
Page: 408
View: 2892

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Now that people are aware that data can make the difference in an election or a business model, data science as an occupation is gaining ground. But how can you get started working in a wide-ranging, interdisciplinary field that’s so clouded in hype? This insightful book, based on Columbia University’s Introduction to Data Science class, tells you what you need to know. In many of these chapter-long lectures, data scientists from companies such as Google, Microsoft, and eBay share new algorithms, methods, and models by presenting case studies and the code they use. If you’re familiar with linear algebra, probability, and statistics, and have programming experience, this book is an ideal introduction to data science. Topics include: Statistical inference, exploratory data analysis, and the data science process Algorithms Spam filters, Naive Bayes, and data wrangling Logistic regression Financial modeling Recommendation engines and causality Data visualization Social networks and data journalism Data engineering, MapReduce, Pregel, and Hadoop Doing Data Science is collaboration between course instructor Rachel Schutt, Senior VP of Data Science at News Corp, and data science consultant Cathy O’Neil, a senior data scientist at Johnson Research Labs, who attended and blogged about the course.

Ethics of Big Data

Balancing Risk and Innovation
Author: Kord Davis
Publisher: "O'Reilly Media, Inc."
ISBN: 1449357490
Category: Computers
Page: 82
View: 8347

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What are your organization’s policies for generating and using huge datasets full of personal information? This book examines ethical questions raised by the big data phenomenon, and explains why enterprises need to reconsider business decisions concerning privacy and identity. Authors Kord Davis and Doug Patterson provide methods and techniques to help your business engage in a transparent and productive ethical inquiry into your current data practices. Both individuals and organizations have legitimate interests in understanding how data is handled. Your use of data can directly affect brand quality and revenue—as Target, Apple, Netflix, and dozens of other companies have discovered. With this book, you’ll learn how to align your actions with explicit company values and preserve the trust of customers, partners, and stakeholders. Review your data-handling practices and examine whether they reflect core organizational values Express coherent and consistent positions on your organization’s use of big data Define tactical plans to close gaps between values and practices—and discover how to maintain alignment as conditions change over time Maintain a balance between the benefits of innovation and the risks of unintended consequences

The Big Data Agenda

Data Ethics and Critical Data Studies
Author: Annika Richterich
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9781911534976
Category: Social Science
Page: 156
View: 4792

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This book highlights that the capacity for gathering, analysing, and utilising vast amounts of digital (user) data raises significant ethical issues. Annika Richterich provides a systematic contemporary overview of the field of critical data studies that reflects on practices of digital data collection and analysis. The book assesses in detail one big data research area: biomedical studies, focused on epidemiological surveillance. Specific case studies explore how big data have been used in academic work. The Big Data Agenda concludes that the use of big data in research urgently needs to be considered from the vantage point of ethics and social justice. Drawing upon discourse ethics and critical data studies, Richterich argues that entanglements between big data research and technology/internet corporations have emerged. In consequence, more opportunities for discussing and negotiating emerging research practices and their implications for societal values are needed.

Children in Charted Designs


Author: Lindberg Press
Publisher: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 9780486259413
Category: Crafts & Hobbies
Page: 48
View: 5910

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Forty-six delightful charted needlework designs depicting children playing with pets and toys, flying kites, making snowmen, picking flowers, and more. 46 black-and-white color-coded charts. 16 how-to diagrams.

Research Methods for Business and Social Science Students


Author: John Adams,Hafiz T. A. Khan,Robert Raeside
Publisher: SAGE Publications India
ISBN: 8132119819
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 304
View: 9309

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Research Methods for Business and Social Science Students aims to present a clear discussion of the research methods employed in various disciplines related to our daily life problems. The theoretical basis of research methods is explained clearly and succinctly. Collecting data is a key part of the book and this includes both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection, along with the advantages and disadvantages of each method. The book also describes in clear terms how students can analyse data, interpret results and link these to the literature review and hence their own contribution. It sets out a range of fundamental ideas in research methods, such as deductivism and inductivism, and explains why methodology is not the same as method. In this second edition every chapter has been re-written to be more readable and also to include more examples. The authors have also added a real student research proposal and a multiple-choice test with answers for the readers to test their own understanding of the ideas in the book. The book has been designed to illustrate research tools in a clear and accessible manner through chapters on such topics as formulating research, research design, data analysis and writing up the research results.

Big Data and Social Science

A Practical Guide to Methods and Tools
Author: Ian Foster,Rayid Ghani,Ron S. Jarmin,Frauke Kreuter,Julia Lane
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1498751431
Category: Mathematics
Page: 376
View: 4161

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Both Traditional Students and Working Professionals Acquire the Skills to Analyze Social Problems. Big Data and Social Science: A Practical Guide to Methods and Tools shows how to apply data science to real-world problems in both research and the practice. The book provides practical guidance on combining methods and tools from computer science, statistics, and social science. This concrete approach is illustrated throughout using an important national problem, the quantitative study of innovation. The text draws on the expertise of prominent leaders in statistics, the social sciences, data science, and computer science to teach students how to use modern social science research principles as well as the best analytical and computational tools. It uses a real-world challenge to introduce how these tools are used to identify and capture appropriate data, apply data science models and tools to that data, and recognize and respond to data errors and limitations. For more information, including sample chapters and news, please visit the author's website.

Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology, Third Edition


Author: Khosrow-Pour, Mehdi
Publisher: IGI Global
ISBN: 1466658894
Category: Computers
Page: 10384
View: 9264

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"This 10-volume compilation of authoritative, research-based articles contributed by thousands of researchers and experts from all over the world emphasized modern issues and the presentation of potential opportunities, prospective solutions, and future directions in the field of information science and technology"--Provided by publisher.

Modern Data Science with R


Author: Benjamin S. Baumer,Daniel T. Kaplan,Nicholas J. Horton
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1498724493
Category: Law
Page: 556
View: 9295

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Modern Data Science with R is a comprehensive data science textbook for undergraduates that incorporates statistical and computational thinking to solve real-world problems with data. Rather than focus exclusively on case studies or programming syntax, this book illustrates how statistical programming in the state-of-the-art R/RStudio computing environment can be leveraged to extract meaningful information from a variety of data in the service of addressing compelling statistical questions. Contemporary data science requires a tight integration of knowledge from statistics, computer science, mathematics, and a domain of application. This book will help readers with some background in statistics and modest prior experience with coding develop and practice the appropriate skills to tackle complex data science projects. The book features a number of exercises and has a flexible organization conducive to teaching a variety of semester courses.

Bit by Bit

Social Research in the Digital Age
Author: Matthew J. Salganik
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400888182
Category: Social Science
Page: 448
View: 679

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An innovative and accessible guide to doing social research in the digital age In just the past several years, we have witnessed the birth and rapid spread of social media, mobile phones, and numerous other digital marvels. In addition to changing how we live, these tools enable us to collect and process data about human behavior on a scale never before imaginable, offering entirely new approaches to core questions about social behavior. Bit by Bit is the key to unlocking these powerful methods—a landmark book that will fundamentally change how the next generation of social scientists and data scientists explores the world around us. Bit by Bit is the essential guide to mastering the key principles of doing social research in this fast-evolving digital age. In this comprehensive yet accessible book, Matthew Salganik explains how the digital revolution is transforming how social scientists observe behavior, ask questions, run experiments, and engage in mass collaborations. He provides a wealth of real-world examples throughout and also lays out a principles-based approach to handling ethical challenges. Bit by Bit is an invaluable resource for social scientists who want to harness the research potential of big data and a must-read for data scientists interested in applying the lessons of social science to tomorrow’s technologies. Illustrates important ideas with examples of outstanding research Combines ideas from social science and data science in an accessible style and without jargon Goes beyond the analysis of “found” data to discuss the collection of “designed” data such as surveys, experiments, and mass collaboration Features an entire chapter on ethics Includes extensive suggestions for further reading and activities for the classroom or self-study

Social Science Research

Principles, Methods, and Practices
Author: Anol Bhattacherjee
Publisher: CreateSpace
ISBN: 9781475146127
Category: Science
Page: 156
View: 7401

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This book is designed to introduce doctoral and graduate students to the process of conducting scientific research in the social sciences, business, education, public health, and related disciplines. It is a one-stop, comprehensive, and compact source for foundational concepts in behavioral research, and can serve as a stand-alone text or as a supplement to research readings in any doctoral seminar or research methods class. This book is currently used as a research text at universities on six continents and will shortly be available in nine different languages.

Content Analysis

An Introduction to Its Methodology
Author: Klaus Krippendorff
Publisher: SAGE Publications
ISBN: 1506395643
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 472
View: 6511

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What matters in people’s social lives? What motivates and inspires our society? How do we enact what we know? Since the first edition published in 1980, Content Analysis has helped shape and define the field. In the highly anticipated Fourth Edition, award-winning scholar and author Klaus Krippendorff introduces you to the most current method of analyzing the textual fabric of contemporary society. Students and scholars will learn to treat data not as physical events but as communications that are created and disseminated to be seen, read, interpreted, enacted, and reflected upon according to the meanings they have for their recipients. Interpreting communications as texts in the contexts of their social uses distinguishes content analysis from other empirical methods of inquiry. Organized into three parts, Content Analysis first examines the conceptual aspects of content analysis, then discusses components such as unitizing and sampling, and concludes by showing readers how to trace the analytical paths and apply evaluative techniques. The Fourth Edition has been completely revised to offer you the most current techniques and research on content analysis, including new information on reliability and social media. You will also gain practical advice and experience for teaching academic and commercial researchers how to conduct content analysis.

Data Science for Transport

A Self-Study Guide with Computer Exercises
Author: Charles Fox
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319729535
Category: Political Science
Page: 185
View: 9274

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The quantity, diversity and availability of transport data is increasing rapidly, requiring new skills in the management and interrogation of data and databases. Recent years have seen a new wave of "big data", "Data Science", and "smart cities" changing the world, with the Harvard Business Review describing Data Science as the "sexiest job of the 21st century". Transportation professionals and researchers need to be able to use data and databases in order to establish quantitative, empirical facts, and to validate and challenge their mathematical models, whose axioms have traditionally often been assumed rather than rigorously tested against data. This book takes a highly practical approach to learning about Data Science tools and their application to investigating transport issues. The focus is principally on practical, professional work with real data and tools, including business and ethical issues. "Transport modeling practice was developed in a data poor world, and many of our current techniques and skills are building on that sparsity. In a new data rich world, the required tools are different and the ethical questions around data and privacy are definitely different. I am not sure whether current professionals have these skills; and I am certainly not convinced that our current transport modeling tools will survive in a data rich environment. This is an exciting time to be a data scientist in the transport field. We are trying to get to grips with the opportunities that big data sources offer; but at the same time such data skills need to be fused with an understanding of transport, and of transport modeling. Those with these combined skills can be instrumental at providing better, faster, cheaper data for transport decision- making; and ultimately contribute to innovative, efficient, data driven modeling techniques of the future. It is not surprising that this course, this book, has been authored by the Institute for Transport Studies. To do this well, you need a blend of academic rigor and practical pragmatism. There are few educational or research establishments better equipped to do that than ITS Leeds". - Tom van Vuren, Divisional Director, Mott MacDonald "WSP is proud to be a thought leader in the world of transport modelling, planning and economics, and has a wide range of opportunities for people with skills in these areas. The evidence base and forecasts we deliver to effectively implement strategies and schemes are ever more data and technology focused a trend we have helped shape since the 1970's, but with particular disruption and opportunity in recent years. As a result of these trends, and to suitably skill the next generation of transport modellers, we asked the world-leading Institute for Transport Studies, to boost skills in these areas, and they have responded with a new MSc programme which you too can now study via this book." - Leighton Cardwell, Technical Director, WSP. "From processing and analysing large datasets, to automation of modelling tasks sometimes requiring different software packages to "talk" to each other, to data visualization, SYSTRA employs a range of techniques and tools to provide our clients with deeper insights and effective solutions. This book does an excellent job in giving you the skills to manage, interrogate and analyse databases, and develop powerful presentations. Another important publication from ITS Leeds." - Fitsum Teklu, Associate Director (Modelling & Appraisal) SYSTRA Ltd "Urban planning has relied for decades on statistical and computational practices that have little to do with mainstream data science. Information is still often used as evidence on the impact of new infrastructure even when it hardly contains any valid evidence. This book is an extremely welcome effort to provide young professionals with the skills needed to analyse how cities and transport networks actually work. The book is also highly relevant toanyone who will later want to build digital solutions to optimise urban travelbased on emerging data sources". - Yaron Hollander, author of "Transport Modelling for a Complete Beginner"

Roles, Trust, and Reputation in Social Media Knowledge Markets

Theory and Methods
Author: Elisa Bertino,Sorin Adam Matei
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319054678
Category: Science
Page: 198
View: 2288

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Knowledge and expertise, especially of the kind that can shape public opinion, have been traditionally the domain of individuals holding degrees awarded by higher learning institutions or occupying formal positions in notable organizations. Expertise is validated by reputations established in an institutionalized marketplace of ideas with a limited number of “available seats” and a stringent process of selection and retention of names, ideas, topics and facts of interest. However, the social media revolution, which has enabled over two billion Internet users not only to consume, but also to produce information and knowledge, has created a secondary and very active informal marketplace of ideas and knowledge. Anchored by platforms like Wikipedia, YouTube, Facebook and Twitter, this informal marketplace has low barriers to entry and has become a gigantic and potentially questionable, knowledge resource for the public at large. Roles, Trust and Reputation in Social Media Knowledge Markets will discuss some of the emerging trends in defining, measuring and operationalizing reputation as a new and essential component of the knowledge that is generated and consumed online. The book will propose a future research agenda related to these issues. The ultimate goal of research agenda being to shape the next generation of theoretical and analytic strategies needed for understanding how knowledge markets are influenced by social interactions and reputations built around functional roles. The authors, including leading scholars and young innovators, will share with the readers some of the main lessons they have learned from their own work in these areas and will discuss the issues, topics and sub-areas that they find under-studied or that promise the greatest intellectual payoff in the future. The discussion will be placed in the context of social network analysis and “big data” research. Roles, Trust and Reputation in Social Media Knowledge Markets exposes issues that have not been satisfactorily dealt with in the current literature, as the research agenda in reputation and authorship is still emerging. In a broader sense, the volume aims to change the way in which knowledge generation in social media spaces is understood and utilized. The tools, theories and methodologies proposed by the contributors offer concrete avenues for developing the next generation of research strategies and applications that will help: tomorrow’s information consumers make smarter choices, developers to create new tools and researchers to launch new research programs.

Everything Is Obvious

*Once You Know the Answer
Author: Duncan J. Watts
Publisher: Crown Business
ISBN: 0385531699
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 352
View: 2190

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Drawing on the latest scientific research, along with a wealth of historical and contemporary examples, Watts shows how common sense reasoning and history conspire to mislead us into believing that we understand more about the world of human behavior than we do; and in turn, why attempts to predict, manage, or manipulate social and economic systems so often go awry. It seems obvious, for example, that people respond to incentives; yet policy makers and managers alike frequently fail to anticipate how people will respond to the incentives they create. Social trends often seem to be driven by certain influential people; yet marketers have been unable to identify these “influencers” in advance. And although successful products or companies always seem in retrospect to have succeeded because of their unique qualities, predicting the qualities of the next hit product or hot company is notoriously difficult even for experienced professionals. Only by understanding how and when common sense fails, Watts argues, can we improve how we plan for the future, as well as understand the present—an argument that has important implications in politics, business, and marketing, as well as in science and everyday life.

The Oxford Handbook of Analytical Sociology


Author: Peter Hedström,Peter Bearman
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191615234
Category: Social Science
Page: 800
View: 9254

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Analytical sociology is a strategy for understanding the social world. It is concerned with explaining important social facts such as network structures, patterns of residential segregation, typical beliefs, cultural tastes, and common ways of acting. It explains such facts by detailing in clear and precise ways the mechanisms through which the social facts were brought about. Making sense of the relationship between micro and macro thus is one of the central concerns of analytical sociology. The approach is a contemporary incarnation of Robert K. Merton's notion of middle-range theory and presents a vision of sociological theory as a tool-box of semi-general theories each of which is adequate for explaining certain types of phenomena. The Handbook brings together some of the most prominent sociologists in the world. Some of the chapters focus on action and interaction as the cogs and wheels of social processes, while others consider the dynamic social processes that these actions and interactions bring about.

Frontiers in Massive Data Analysis


Author: National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Mathematical Sciences and Their Applications,Committee on Applied and Theoretical Statistics,Committee on the Analysis of Massive Data
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309287812
Category: Mathematics
Page: 190
View: 2725

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Data mining of massive data sets is transforming the way we think about crisis response, marketing, entertainment, cybersecurity and national intelligence. Collections of documents, images, videos, and networks are being thought of not merely as bit strings to be stored, indexed, and retrieved, but as potential sources of discovery and knowledge, requiring sophisticated analysis techniques that go far beyond classical indexing and keyword counting, aiming to find relational and semantic interpretations of the phenomena underlying the data. Frontiers in Massive Data Analysis examines the frontier of analyzing massive amounts of data, whether in a static database or streaming through a system. Data at that scale--terabytes and petabytes--is increasingly common in science (e.g., particle physics, remote sensing, genomics), Internet commerce, business analytics, national security, communications, and elsewhere. The tools that work to infer knowledge from data at smaller scales do not necessarily work, or work well, at such massive scale. New tools, skills, and approaches are necessary, and this report identifies many of them, plus promising research directions to explore. Frontiers in Massive Data Analysis discusses pitfalls in trying to infer knowledge from massive data, and it characterizes seven major classes of computation that are common in the analysis of massive data. Overall, this report illustrates the cross-disciplinary knowledge--from computer science, statistics, machine learning, and application disciplines--that must be brought to bear to make useful inferences from massive data.

Computational Social Network Analysis

Trends, Tools and Research Advances
Author: Ajith Abraham,Aboul-Ella Hassanien,Vaclav Snášel
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9781447125327
Category: Computers
Page: 485
View: 1840

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Social networks provide a powerful abstraction of the structure and dynamics of diverse kinds of people or people-to-technology interaction. Web 2.0 has enabled a new generation of web-based communities, social networks, and folksonomies to facilitate collaboration among different communities. This unique text/reference compares and contrasts the ethological approach to social behavior in animals with web-based evidence of social interaction, perceptual learning, information granulation, the behavior of humans and affinities between web-based social networks. An international team of leading experts present the latest advances of various topics in intelligent-social-networks and illustrates how organizations can gain competitive advantages by applying the different emergent techniques in real-world scenarios. The work incorporates experience reports, survey articles, and intelligence techniques and theories with specific network technology problems. Topics and Features: Provides an overview social network tools, and explores methods for discovering key players in social networks, designing self-organizing search systems, and clustering blog sites, surveys techniques for exploratory analysis and text mining of social networks, approaches to tracking online community interaction, and examines how the topological features of a system affects the flow of information, reviews the models of network evolution, covering scientific co-citation networks, nature-inspired frameworks, latent social networks in e-Learning systems, and compound communities, examines the relationship between the intent of web pages, their architecture and the communities who take part in their usage and creation, discusses team selection based on members’ social context, presents social network applications, including music recommendation and face recognition in photographs, explores the use of social networks in web services that focus on the discovery stage in the life cycle of these web services. This useful and comprehensive volume will be indispensible to senior undergraduate and postgraduate students taking courses in Social Intelligence, as well as to researchers, developers, and postgraduates interested in intelligent-social-networks research and related areas.

Data Visualization

The State of the Art
Author: Frits H. Post,Gregory Nielson,Georges-Pierre Bonneau
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402072598
Category: Computers
Page: 453
View: 4533

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Data visualization is currently a very active and vital area of research, teaching and development. The term unites the established field of scientific visualization and the more recent field of information visualization. The success of data visualization is due to the soundness of the basic idea behind it: the use of computer-generated images to gain insight and knowledge from data and its inherent patterns and relationships. A second premise is the utilization of the broad bandwidth of the human sensory system in steering and interpreting complex processes, and simulations involving data sets from diverse scientific disciplines and large collections of abstract data from many sources. These concepts are extremely important and have a profound and widespread impact on the methodology of computational science and engineering, as well as on management and administration. The interplay between various application areas and their specific problem solving visualization techniques is emphasized in this book. Reflecting the heterogeneous structure of Data Visualization, emphasis was placed on these topics: -Visualization Algorithms and Techniques; -Volume Visualization; -Information Visualization; -Multiresolution Techniques; -Interactive Data Exploration. Data Visualization: The State of the Art presents the state of the art in scientific and information visualization techniques by experts in this field. It can serve as an overview for the inquiring scientist, and as a basic foundation for developers. This edited volume contains chapters dedicated to surveys of specific topics, and a great deal of original work not previously published illustrated by examples from a wealth of applications. The book will also provide basic material for teaching the state of the art techniques in data visualization. Data Visualization: The State of the Art is designed to meet the needs of practitioners and researchers in scientific and information visualization. This book is also suitable as a secondary text for graduate level students in computer science and engineering.

Big Data 2.0 Processing Systems

A Survey
Author: Sherif Sakr
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319387766
Category: Computers
Page: 102
View: 5440

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This book provides readers the “big picture” and a comprehensive survey of the domain of big data processing systems. For the past decade, the Hadoop framework has dominated the world of big data processing, yet recently academia and industry have started to recognize its limitations in several application domains and big data processing scenarios such as the large-scale processing of structured data, graph data and streaming data. Thus, it is now gradually being replaced by a collection of engines that are dedicated to specific verticals (e.g. structured data, graph data, and streaming data). The book explores this new wave of systems, which it refers to as Big Data 2.0 processing systems. After Chapter 1 presents the general background of the big data phenomena, Chapter 2 provides an overview of various general-purpose big data processing systems that allow their users to develop various big data processing jobs for different application domains. In turn, Chapter 3 examines various systems that have been introduced to support the SQL flavor on top of the Hadoop infrastructure and provide competing and scalable performance in the processing of large-scale structured data. Chapter 4 discusses several systems that have been designed to tackle the problem of large-scale graph processing, while the main focus of Chapter 5 is on several systems that have been designed to provide scalable solutions for processing big data streams, and on other sets of systems that have been introduced to support the development of data pipelines between various types of big data processing jobs and systems. Lastly, Chapter 6 shares conclusions and an outlook on future research challenges. Overall, the book offers a valuable reference guide for students, researchers and professionals in the domain of big data processing systems. Further, its comprehensive content will hopefully encourage readers to pursue further research on the subject.