Epidemiological Criminology

A Public Health Approach to Crime and Violence
Author: Timothy A. Akers,Roberto H. Potter,Carl V. Hill
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118231554
Category: Medical
Page: 464
View: 786

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Epidemiological Criminology: A Public Health Approach to Crime and Violence Epidemiological Criminology offers an introduction to the sources and methods of epidemiological criminology and shows how to apply these methods to some of the most vexing problems now confronting researchers and practitioners in public health epidemiology, criminology, and criminal justice. The book describes, explains, and applies the newly formulated practice of epidemiological criminology, an emerging discipline that finds the intersection across theories, methods, and statistical models of public health with their corresponding tools of criminal justice and criminology. The authors show how to apply epidemiological criminology as a practical tool to address population issues of violence and crime nationally and globally. In addition, they look at future directions and the application of this emerging field in corrections, public health and law, gangs and gang violence, victimology, mental health and substance abuse, environmental justice, international human rights, and global terrorism. For students, the book presents an exciting approach to understanding epidemiology as a means with which to tackle some of the worst problems for vulnerable populations. For researchers and policymakers, the book offers a new methodological perspective that recognizes the significance of social disparities and the built environment as factors in the formulation of public health policy, and provides a tool with which to produce more effective interventions, preventive measures, and policy formulations.

Epidemiological Criminology

Theory to Practice
Author: Eve Waltermaurer,Timothy A. Akers
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136184910
Category: Social Science
Page: 280
View: 6703

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Epidemiological criminology is an emerging paradigm which explores the public health outcomes associated with engagement in crime and criminal justice. This book engages with this new theory and practice-based discipline drawing on knowledge from criminology, criminal justice, public health, epidemiology, public policy, and law to illustrate how the merging of epidemiology into the field of criminology allows for the work of both disciplines to be more interdisciplinary, evidence-based, enriched and expansive. This book brings together an innovative group of exemplary researchers and practitioners to discuss applications and provide examples of epidemiological criminology. It is divided into three sections; the first explores the integration of epidemiology and criminology through theory and methods, the second section focuses on special populations in epidemiological criminology research and the role of race, ethnicity, age, gender and space as it plays out in health outcomes among offenders and victims of crime, and the final section explores the role policy and practice plays in worsening and improving the health outcomes among those engaged in the criminal justice system. Epidemiological Criminology is the first text to bring together, in one source, the existing interdisciplinary work of academics and professionals that merge the fields of criminology and criminal justice to public health and epidemiology. It will be of interest to academics and students in the fields of criminology, epidemiology, and public health, as well as clinical psychologists, law and government policy analysts and those working within the criminal justice system.

The Routledge International Handbook of Psychosocial Epidemiology


Author: Mika Kivimäki,David G. Batty,Ichiro Kawachi,Andrew Steptoe
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317375122
Category: Psychology
Page: 408
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The health effects of psychosocial factors are a widely discussed and controversial topic. Do positive and negative emotions affect our risk of developing physical disease? Are depressive individuals more likely to have cancer than those with an optimistic outlook on life? And what is the role of IQ in staying healthy and recovering from disease? Importantly, can we improve our health and life expectancy by avoiding certain psychosocial risk factors and maximizing positive psychological well-being? These and other questions are the focus of psychosocial epidemiology, a discipline linking psychological, social and biological sciences. The Routledge International Handbook of Psychosocial Epidemiology is the first book to map this growing discipline. Including contributions from many of the leading researchers in the field, it is divided into five sections: Part I: Methodological challenges in studying psychosocial factors and health; Part II: Psychosocial factors in the etiology and prognosis of chronic diseases; Part III: Controversies in the psychosocial approach; Part IV: Interventions and policy implications Part V: Future research directions Taking advantage of a huge growth in research in recent years, the book provides the reader with the essentials to evaluate the diverse set of studies on psychosocial factors and health that are published today, and describes study designs in this field of research, progress in judging the validity of epidemiological evidence, as well as challenges in translating evidence into action. This is an important and timely book. Providing methodological rigour, critical analysis and the policy implications of this emerging field of study, The Routledge International Handbook of Psychosocial Epidemiology will be an invaluable resource for students and researchers within both behavioural and medical sciences, as well as policy makers and others working in health and social care.

Encyclopedia of Epidemiology


Author: Sarah Boslaugh
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 1412928168
Category: Medical
Page: 1240
View: 5170

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The Encyclopedia of Epidemiology presents state-of-the-art information from the field of epidemiology in a less technical and accessible style and format. With more than 600 entries, no single reference provides as comprehensive a resource in as focused and appropriate manner. The entries cover every major facet of epidemiology, from risk ratios to case-control studies to mediating and moderating variables, and much more. Relevant topics from related fields such as biostatistics and health economics are also included.

Disease and Crime

A History of Social Pathologies and the New Politics of Health
Author: Robert Peckham
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113504595X
Category: History
Page: 198
View: 1527

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Disease and crime are increasingly conflated in the contemporary world. News reports proclaim "epidemics" of crime, while politicians denounce terrorism as a lethal pathological threat. Recent years have even witnessed the development of a new subfield, "epidemiological criminology," which merges public health with criminal justice to provide analytical tools for criminal justice practitioners and health care professionals. Little attention, however, has been paid to the historical contexts of these disease and crime equations, or to the historical continuities and discontinuities between contemporary invocations of crime as disease and the emergence of criminology, epidemiology, and public health in the second half of the nineteenth century. When, how and why did this pathologization of crime and criminalization of disease come about? This volume addresses these critical questions, exploring the discursive construction of crime and disease across a range of geographical and historical settings.

Punishment in Contemporary China

Its Evolution, Development and Change
Author: Enshen Li
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351039369
Category: Social Science
Page: 172
View: 2511

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Punishment in contemporary China has experienced dramatic shifts over the last seven decades or so. This book focuses on the evolution, development and change of punishment in the Maoist (1949-1977), reform (1978-2001) and post-reform eras (2002-) of China to understand the shaping and transformation of punishment within the context of a range of socio-cultural changes across different historical periods. It aims to fill the gap of existing research by developing a distinctive theoretical framework for the China’s penality, exploring it as a separate and complex legal-social system to observe the impact social foundations, political-economic genesis, cultural significance and meanings have exerted on penal form, discourse and force in contemporary China. It sheds light on the sociology of punishment in this socialist Party-state by investigating law reform, penal policy, social control, crime prevention and sentencing as interconnected elements in the criminal justice and penal system. This book will be of great interest to those who study Chinese criminal law, penal and policing system, as well as to law academics, criminologists and sociologists whose research interests lie in the fields of comparative criminology and criminal justice.

Epidemiological Methods in Life Course Research


Author: Michael Wadsworth
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198528485
Category: Medical
Page: 258
View: 976

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"This book will be of interest to researchers, clinicians, and epidemiologists, to clarify their thinking about life course pathways and the nature of life course evidence.

Oxford Textbook of Violence Prevention

Epidemiology, Evidence, and Policy
Author: Peter D. Donnelly,Catherine L. Ward
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0199678723
Category: Medical
Page: 400
View: 4954

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Provides an extensive global account of the global mortality and morbidity burden caused by violence through examining the causes of violence, and what can be done to prevent and reduce violence. Violence has always been, and is to this day, a primary cause of tension and suffering the world over. More than half a million people are murdered each year around the world, making homicide the leading cause of death among people aged 15-44. The Oxford Textbook of Violence Prevention brings together an international team of experts to provide an extensive global account of the mortality and morbidity burden caused by violence. It does this by examining the causes of violence, and what can be done to prevent and reduce violence. Divided into six sections, the textbook analyses how a public health approach can help to prevent violence. This multidisciplinary book tackles interpersonal violence in all its forms. Early chapters describe epidemiology and consequences, followed by chapters that present the current state of the evidence in interventions. Policies for violence reduction are discussed, and finally recommendations are made for researchers, practitioners, and policy-makers. The Oxford Textbook of Violence Prevention is an essential resource for anyone involved in seeking to reduce the role of violence in modern society.

Epidemiology and the People's Health

Theory and Context
Author: Nancy Krieger
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199750351
Category: Medical
Page: 400
View: 7649

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This concise, conceptually rich, and accessible book is a rallying cry for a return to the study and discussion of epidemiologic theory: what it is, why it matters, how it has changed over time, and its implications for improving population health and promoting health equity. By tracing its history and contours from ancient societies on through the development of--and debates within--contemporary epidemiology worldwide, Dr. Krieger shows how epidemiologic theory has long shaped epidemiologic practice, knowledge, and the politics of public health.

Design Concepts in Nutritional Epidemiology


Author: Barrie M. Margetts,Michael Nelson
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191015636
Category: Medical
Page: 468
View: 1983

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In examining the relationship between nutritional exposure and disease aetiology, the importance of a carefully considered experimental design cannot be overstated. A sound experimental design involves the formulation of a clear research hypothesis and the identification of appropriate measures of exposure and outcome. It is essential that these variables can be measured with a minimum of error, whilst taking into account the effects of chance and bias, and being aware of the risk of confounding variables. The first edition of Design Concepts in Nutritional Epidemiology presented a throrough guide to research methods in nutritional epidemiology. Since publication of the 1st edition, we now have a much better understanding of the characteristics of nutritional exposure that need to be measured in order to answer questions about diet-disease relationships. The 2nd edition has been extensively revised to include the most up-to-date methods of researching this relationship. Included are new chapters on qualitative and sociological measures, anthropometric measures, gene-nutrient interactions, and cross-sectional studies. Design Concepts in Nutritional Epidemiology will be an essential text for nutritionists and epidemiologists, helping them in their quest to improve the quality of information upon which important public health decisions are made.

Child Psychiatric Epidemiology


Author: Frank C. Verhulst,Hans M. Koot
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 0803939973
Category: Medical
Page: 157
View: 8702

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A wide variety of questions pertaining to the etiology, course and therapy of child psychiatric conditions are answered in this concise volume. Central issues related to diagnosis, assessment, sampling and cross-cultural studies are presented in a highly readable fashion. Research on prevalence and patterns of childhood dysfunction and how these are influenced by such factors as age, sex and social class are presented in detail. The authors also provide a detailed description of community surveys and offer a referral pathway to psychiatric care for children.

Epidemiologic Principles and Food Safety


Author: Tamar Lasky
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199748136
Category: Medical
Page: 272
View: 5721

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Epidemiology has long played a critical role in investigating outbreaks of foodborne illness and in identifying the microbial pathogens associated with such illness. Epidemiologists were the detectives who would track down the guilty culprit- the food vehicle carrying the pathogen, as well as the fateful errors that resulted in contamination or multiplication of pathogens. The first book of its kind, this volume describes the various ways epidemiologic principles are applied to meet the challenges of maintaining a safe food supply. It addresses both the prevention and control of food borne illness. Starting with a history and background of food borne illness, the book continues by describing the means of following up on an outbreak and measuring exposures. The book concludes by describing the regulatory context that shapes food safety activities at the local, national and international levels. Chapters are written by leaders in the field of public health and food safety, including experts in epidemiology, microbiology, risk assessment, economics, and environmental health and policy. This is the definitive book for students, researchers and professionals interested in how epidemiology plays a role in keeping our food safe.

Clinical Epidemiology & Evidence-Based Medicine

Fundamental Principles of Clinical Reasoning & Research
Author: David L. Katz
Publisher: SAGE Publications
ISBN: 1506319653
Category: Psychology
Page: 320
View: 7870

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"The presentation is consistently excellent. One, the writing is lucid and organized in a way that should be very natural for the clinical reader. Two, the text requires no background in mathematics and uses a minimum of symbols. And, three, the methodological concepts and clinical issues are well integrated through a number of carefully prepared and comprehensive examples." Greg Samsa, Associate Director, Duke Center for Clinical Health Policy Research If a patient is older or younger than, sicker or healthier than, taller or shorter than or simply different from the subjects of a study, do the results pertain? Clinical Epidemiology & Evidence-based Medicine is a resource for all health-care workers involved in applying evidence to the care of their patients. Using clinical examples and citing liberally from the peer-reviewed literature, the book shows how statistical principles can improve medical decisions. Plus, as Katz shows how probability, risk and alternatives are fundamental considerations in all clinical decisions, he demonstrates the intuitive basis for using clinical epidemiolgy as a science underlying medical decisions. After reading this text, the practitioner should be better able to access, interpret, and apply evidence to patient care as well as better understand and control the process of medical decision making.

Epidemiologic Methods in Physical Activity Studies


Author: I-Min Lee
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0195183002
Category: Medical
Page: 328
View: 2514

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This text describes the associations between physical activity and major diseases. It emphasises the methods underpinning studies that can be conducted to elucidate these associations.

Chronic Pain Epidemiology

From Aetiology to Public Health
Author: Fiona M. Blyth,Danielle van der Windt
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199235767
Category: Medical
Page: 365
View: 2856

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This book provides an invaluable framework and basis for thinking about chronic pain and the potential for its prevention in public health terms.

Green Criminology


Author: Nigel South
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351564978
Category: Law
Page: 614
View: 9586

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In little more than a decade, Green Criminology has become an established new perspective in the field. It embraces an exciting and wide range of topics, from controversies about genetic modification through corporate offending against the environment and human communities, to animal abuse. Green Criminology provides a focal point for longstanding and new areas of research as well as making important interdisciplinary connections.

Concepts of Epidemiology

Integrating the Ideas, Theories, Principles, and Methods of Epidemiology
Author: Raj S. Bhopal
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198739680
Category:
Page: 480
View: 3250

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Epidemiology is a population science that underpins health improvement and health care, by exploring and establishing the pattern, frequency, trends, and causes of a disease. Concepts of Epidemiology comprehensively describes the application of core epidemiological concepts and principles toreaders interested in population health research, policy making, health service planning, health promotion, and clinical care. The book provides an overview of study designs and practical framework for the geographical analysis of diseases, including accounting for error and bias within studies. It discusses the ways in which epidemiological data are presented, explains the distinction between association and causation, aswell as relative and absolute risks, and considers the theoretical and ethical basis of epidemiology both in the past and the future. This new edition places even greater emphasis on interactive learning. Each chapter includes learning objectives, theoretical and numerical exercises, questions and answers, a summary of the key points, and exemplar panels to illustrate the concepts and methods under consideration.Written in an accessible and engaging style, with a specialized glossary to explain and de\'1fne technical terminology, Concepts of Epidemiology is ideal for postgraduate students in epidemiology, public health, and health policy. It is also perfect for clinicians, undergraduate students andresearchers in medicine, nursing and other health disciplines who wish to improve their understanding of fundamental epidemiological concepts.

Methods in Social Epidemiology


Author: J. Michael Oakes,Jay S. Kaufman
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118603737
Category: Medical
Page: 600
View: 1463

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A thorough, practical reference on the social patterns behind health outcomes Methods in Social Epidemiology provides students and professionals with a comprehensive reference for studying the social distribution and social determinants of health. Covering the theory, models, and methods used to measure and analyze these phenomena, this book serves as both an introduction to the field and a practical manual for data collection and analysis. This new second edition has been updated to reflect the field's tremendous growth in recent years, including advancements in statistical modeling and study designs. New chapters delve into genetic methods, structural cofounding, selection bias, network methods, and more, including new discussion on qualitative data collection with disadvantaged populations. Social epidemiology studies the way society's innumerable social interactions, both past and present, yields different exposures and health outcomes between individuals within populations. This book provides a thorough, detailed overview of the field, with expert guidance toward the real-world methods that fuel the latest advances. Identify, measure, and track health patterns in the population Discover how poverty, race, and socioeconomic factors become risk factors for disease Learn qualitative data collection techniques and methods of statistical analysis Examine up-to-date models, theory, and frameworks in the social epidemiology sphere As the field continues to evolve, researchers continue to identify new disease-specific risk factors and learn more about how the social system promotes and maintains well-known exposure disparities. New technology in data science and genomics allows for more rigorous investigation and analysis, while the general thinking in the field has become more targeted and attentive to causal inference and core assumptions behind effect identification. It's an exciting time to be a part of the field, and Methods in Social Epidemiology provides a solid reference for any student, researcher, or faculty in public health.

Epidemiology: A Very Short Introduction


Author: Rodolfo Saracci
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191609242
Category: Medical
Page: 160
View: 6729

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What is epidemiology? What are the causes of a new disease? How can pandemics be prevented? Epidemiology is the study of the changing patterns of disease and its main aim is to improve the health of populations. It's a vital field, central to the health of society, to the identification of causes of disease, and to their management and prevention. Epidemiology has had an impact on many areas of medicine; from discovering the relationship between tobacco smoking and lung cancer, to the origin and spread of new epidemics. However, it is often poorly understood, largely due to misrepresentations in the media. In this Very Short Introduction Rodolfo Saracci dispels some of the myths surrounding the study of epidemiology. He provides a general explanation of the principles behind clinical trials, and explains the nature of basic statistics concerning disease. He also looks at the ethical and political issues related to obtaining and using information concerning patients, and trials involving placebos. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Sample Size Tables for Clinical Studies


Author: David Machin,Michael J. Campbell,Say-Beng Tan,Sze-Huey Tan
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1444357964
Category: Medical
Page: 264
View: 4436

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This book provides statisticians and researchers with the statistical tools - equations, formulae and numerical tables - to design and plan clinical studies and carry out accurate, reliable and reproducible analysis of the data so obtained. There is no way around this as incorrect procedure in clinical studies means that the researcher's paper will not be accepted by a peer-reviewed journal. Planning and analysing clinical studies is a very complicated business and this book provides indispensible factual information. Please go to http://booksupport.wiley.com and enter 9781405146500 to easily download the supporting materials.