Environmental Modelling

Finding Simplicity in Complexity
Author: John Wainwright,Mark Mulligan
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118351487
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 496
View: 4022

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Simulation models are an established method used to investigate processes and solve practical problems in a wide variety of disciplines. Central to the concept of this second edition is the idea that environmental systems are complex, open systems. The authors present the diversity of approaches to dealing with environmental complexity and then encourage readers to make comparisons between these approaches and between different disciplines. Environmental Modelling: Finding Simplicity in Complexity 2nd edition is divided into four main sections: An overview of methods and approaches to modelling. State of the art for modelling environmental processes Tools used and models for management Current and future developments. The second edition evolves from the first by providing additional emphasis and material for those students wishing to specialize in environmental modelling. This edition: Focuses on simplifying complex environmental systems. Reviews current software, tools and techniques for modelling. Gives practical examples from a wide variety of disciplines, e.g. climatology, ecology, hydrology, geomorphology and engineering. Has an associated website containing colour images, links to WWW resources and chapter support pages, including data sets relating to case studies, exercises and model animations. This book is suitable for final year undergraduates and postgraduates in environmental modelling, environmental science, civil engineering and biology who will already be familiar with the subject and are moving on to specialize in the field. It is also designed to appeal to professionals interested in the environmental sciences, including environmental consultants, government employees, civil engineers, geographers, ecologists, meteorologists, and geochemists.

Environmental Modelling

Finding Simplicity in Complexity
Author: John Wainwright,Mark Mulligan
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0470091541
Category: Science
Page: 430
View: 1044

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Environmental Modelling

Finding Simplicity in Complexity
Author: John Wainwright,Mark Mulligan
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780471496182
Category: Science
Page: 408
View: 2263

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Simulation models are increasingly used to investigate processes and solve practical problems in a wide variety of disciplines. Central to the concept of this book is the idea that environmental systems are complex, open systems. The approach that the authors take is to present the diversity of approaches to dealing with environmental complexity and to encourage readers to make comparisons between these approaches and between different disciplines. Environmental Modelling: Finding Simplicity in Complexity is divided into four main sections. The first section provides an overview of methods and approaches to modelling. The following sections look at the state of the art in modelling different processes, the tools used and the applications addressed. It concludes with a look into the future of simulation modelling and some of the major developments in the field that are currently ongoing, including the use of GIS. This book: Focuses on simplifying complex environmental systems. Reviews current software, tools and techniques for modelling. Has an associated website containing colour images, links to WWW resources and chapter support pages, including data sets relating to case studies, exercises and model animations. Gives practical examples from a wide variety of disciplines, e.g., climatology, ecology, hydrology, geomorphology and engineering. This book is suitable for 2nd/3rd year undergraduates taking courses in Environmental Modelling in Departments of Geography, Environmental Science, Civil Engineering and Biology. It is also designed to appeal to professionals interested in the environmental sciences, including environmental consultants, government employees, civil engineers, geographers, ecologists, meteorologists, geochemists, soil scientist, environmental managers, social scientists, archaeologists, agronomists, engineers and applied mathematicians, as well as those with interests in spatial modelling and GIS.

Environmental Modelling

An Introduction
Author: Jo Smith,Pete Smith
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199272068
Category: Science
Page: 180
View: 1070

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The global environment is a complex mix of interlinked processes, about which observation can tell us a great deal. This book shows how modelling can be used to explain experimental observations, and how these observations - and data gathered - can be extrapolated to explain novel situations. It also illustrates how models are actively applied.

Mediterranean Desertification

A Mosaic of Processes and Responses
Author: N. A. Geeson,C. J. Brandt,J. B. Thornes
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0470856866
Category: Science
Page: 456
View: 9041

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Desertification includes land degradation due to both climatic and anthropogenic causes, where land includes water, soil, and the biosphere. This book presents the most recent findings from the European Community's MEDALUS project, which was formed to understand and manage semi-arid environments that are undergoing great change. * Covers climate and land use processes and responses in the Mediterranean * First book to provide guidelines for the management of land degradation in Mediterranean environments * Based on first-hand experience of the problems by those responsible for solving them

Hierarchy Theory

A Vision, Vocabulary, and Epistemology
Author: Valerie Ahl,T. F. H. Allen
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 9780231084802
Category: Science
Page: 206
View: 7900

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Sugar, pork, beer, corn, cider, scrapple, and hoppin' John all became staples in the diet of colonial America. The ways Americans cultivated and prepared food and the values they attributed to it played an important role in shaping the identity of the newborn nation. In A Revolution in Eating, James E. McWilliams presents a colorful and spirited tour of culinary attitudes, tastes, and techniques throughout colonial America. Confronted by strange new animals, plants, and landscapes, settlers in the colonies and West Indies found new ways to produce food. Integrating their British and European tastes with the demands and bounty of the rugged American environment, early Americans developed a range of regional cuisines. From the kitchen tables of typical Puritan families to Iroquois longhouses in the backcountry and slave kitchens on southern plantations, McWilliams portrays the grand variety and inventiveness that characterized colonial cuisine. As colonial America grew, so did its palate, as interactions among European settlers, Native Americans, and African slaves created new dishes and attitudes about food. McWilliams considers how Indian corn, once thought by the colonists as "fit for swine," became a fixture in the colonial diet. He also examines the ways in which African slaves influenced West Indian and American southern cuisine. While a mania for all things British was a unifying feature of eighteenth-century cuisine, the colonies discovered a national beverage in domestically brewed beer, which came to symbolize solidarity and loyalty to the patriotic cause in the Revolutionary era. The beer and alcohol industry also instigated unprecedented trade among the colonies and further integrated colonial habits and tastes. Victory in the American Revolution initiated a "culinary declaration of independence," prompting the antimonarchical habits of simplicity, frugality, and frontier ruggedness to define American cuisine. McWilliams demonstrates that this was a shift not so much in new ingredients or cooking methods, as in the way Americans imbued food and cuisine with values that continue to shape American attitudes to this day.

Multimedia Environmental Models

The Fugacity Approach, Second Edition
Author: Donald Mackay
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420032542
Category: Science
Page: 272
View: 8586

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Completely revised and updated, Multimedia Environmental Models: The Fugacity Approach, Second Edition continues to provide simple techniques for calculating how chemicals behave in the environment, where they accumulate, how long they persist, and how this leads to human exposure. The book develops, describes, and illustrates the framework and procedures for calculating the behavior of chemicals in our multimedia environment of air, water, soil, and sediments, as well as the diversity of biota that reside in these media. While other books focus on specific compartments, such as the atmosphere, or specific substances, such as PCBs, this book presents the big picture of how organic chemicals behave in the total environment. It does this by providing examples of calculation methods based on the fugacity approach and explaining how to access up-to-date property databases and estimation methods as well as computer programs, which are available from the Internet. In addition, the models are Web based, instead of on a floppy disk as in the previous edition. Building on the work developed in the First Edition, the Second Edition includes: A how-to modeling section, more worked examples and problems- most with solutions and answers Expanded treatment of structure-activity relationships and modern estimation methods More material illustrating applications to bioaccumulation is specific organisms and food webs Emphasis on current efforts to identify PBT chemicals and exposure analysis as a component of risk assessment Examples that provide each step of modeling calculations Web-based models, and references to property databases, estimation methods, and computer programs from the Internet When you need to make assessments of chemical behavior you need current, comprehensive. Multimedia Environmental Models: The Fugacity Approach provides you with not only an understanding of how the multitude of organic chemicals behave in the total environment, but also with practical examples of how this behavior can be predicted using the fugacity approach.

Complexity and Postmodernism

Understanding Complex Systems
Author: Paul Cilliers
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134743297
Category: Philosophy
Page: 176
View: 7704

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In Complexity and Postmodernism, Paul Cilliers explores the idea of complexity in the light of contemporary perspectives from philosophy and science. Cilliers offers us a unique approach to understanding complexity and computational theory by integrating postmodern theory (like that of Derrida and Lyotard) into his discussion. Complexity and Postmodernism is an exciting and an original book that should be read by anyone interested in gaining a fresh understanding of complexity, postmodernism and connectionism.

Managing Complexity of Information Systems

The Value of Simplicity
Author: Pirmin P. Lemberger,Mederic Morel
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 111856605X
Category: Computers
Page: 225
View: 1793

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This book is about complexity in Information Systems (IS). The subject is addressed from both conceptual and applied perspectives. Concepts are drawn from information theory, industrial design and software engineering. Its content capitalizes on experiences gathered by the authors during various contracting jobs involving software architecture, modeling and IS architecture that were conducted for large organizations in the banking and industry sectors, as well as in the public sector. The authors develop the point of view according to which mastering complexity involves two essential steps: first, one should develop a clear understanding of the real nature of complexity within the IS; second, one should identify the primary causes which contribute to its uncontrolled growth and organize these into a logical framework, in order to define efficient countermeasures. Both technical and psychological causes of complexity are to be considered. Two themes make up the main thread of the book: complexity and value. Both themes are quite common when considered separately, but their interplay remains a largely unexplored topic. The analysis of this interplay is one of the sources of originality of this book.

Environmental Modeling

Using MATLAB
Author: Ekkehard Holzbecher
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642220428
Category: Science
Page: 410
View: 7634

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The book has two aims: to introduce basic concepts of environmental modelling and to facilitate the application of the concepts using modern numerical tools such as MATLAB. It is targeted at all natural scientists dealing with the environment: process and chemical engineers, physicists, chemists, biologists, biochemists, hydrogeologists, geochemists and ecologists. MATLAB was chosen as the major computer tool for modeling, firstly because it is unique in it's capabilities, and secondly because it is available in most academic institutions, in all universities and in the research departments of many companies. In the 2nd edition many chapters will include updated and extended material. In addition the MATLAB command index will be updated and a new chapter on numerical methods will be added. For the second edition of 'Environmental Modeling' the first edition was completely revised. Text and figures were adapted to the recent MATLAB® version. Several chapters were extended. Correspondingly the index of MATLAB commands was extended considerably, which makes the book even more suitable to be used as a reference work by novices. Finally an introduction into numerical methods was added as a new chapter. “/p>

System Identification, Environmental Modelling, and Control System Design


Author: Liuping Wang,Hugues Garnier
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780857299741
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 648
View: 4427

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This book is dedicated to Prof. Peter Young on his 70th birthday. Professor Young has been a pioneer in systems and control, and over the past 45 years he has influenced many developments in this field. This volume comprises a collection of contributions by leading experts in system identification, time-series analysis, environmetric modelling and control system design – modern research in topics that reflect important areas of interest in Professor Young’s research career. Recent theoretical developments in and relevant applications of these areas are explored treating the various subjects broadly and in depth. The authoritative and up-to-date research presented here will be of interest to academic researcher in control and disciplines related to environmental research, particularly those to with water systems. The tutorial style in which many of the contributions are composed also makes the book suitable as a source of study material for graduate students in those areas.

A First Course in Calculus


Author: Serge Lang
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387962016
Category: Mathematics
Page: 731
View: 2980

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This fifth edition of Lang's book covers all the topics traditionally taught in the first-year calculus sequence. Divided into five parts, each section of A FIRST COURSE IN CALCULUS contains examples and applications relating to the topic covered. In addition, the rear of the book contains detailed solutions to a large number of the exercises, allowing them to be used as worked-out examples -- one of the main improvements over previous editions.

Introduction to Information Retrieval


Author: Christopher D. Manning,Prabhakar Raghavan,Hinrich Schütze
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139472100
Category: Computers
Page: N.A
View: 9053

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Class-tested and coherent, this textbook teaches classical and web information retrieval, including web search and the related areas of text classification and text clustering from basic concepts. It gives an up-to-date treatment of all aspects of the design and implementation of systems for gathering, indexing, and searching documents; methods for evaluating systems; and an introduction to the use of machine learning methods on text collections. All the important ideas are explained using examples and figures, making it perfect for introductory courses in information retrieval for advanced undergraduates and graduate students in computer science. Based on feedback from extensive classroom experience, the book has been carefully structured in order to make teaching more natural and effective. Slides and additional exercises (with solutions for lecturers) are also available through the book's supporting website to help course instructors prepare their lectures.

From Complexity to Simplicity

Unleash Your Organisation's Potential
Author: Simon Collinson,Melvin Jay
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
ISBN: 1137006218
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 304
View: 9343

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Start a simplicity revolution! Complexity is one of the biggest challenges facing modern business. It is slowing companies down, costing them on average 10% of their profits and harming employee morale. From Complexity to Simplicity will equip you and your business with the tools you need to identify and eradicate complexity from your business model. Based on cutting-edge research with the top-200 firms in the world, it takes you through real business case studies and offers a practical how to guide to ridding your business of these profit-killing problems. Within the pages of the book you will discover: • What is complexity? What is simplicity?• The true costs of complexity• How to identify external and internal complexities• The impact of complexity on managers, employees and different parts of the business• How to guide to removing complexity• How to communicate with simplicity• The simplicity tool kit – every thing you need to make you a simplicity expertFrom Complexity to Simplicity will show you how to start your own simplicity revolution and how to add value to your business. So keep it simple and do better business every day.

Eco-Hydrology


Author: Andrew J. Baird,Robert L. Wilby
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134715439
Category: Science
Page: 420
View: 4197

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^iEco-Hydrology is the first book to offer an overview of the complex relationships between plants and water across a wide range of terrestrial and aquatic environments. Leading ecologists and hydrologists present reviews of the eco-hydrology of drylands, wetlands, temperate and tropical rain forests, streams, and rivers and lakes. Contents include: * background information on the water relations of plants, from individual cells to strands of plants * the role of mathematical models in eco-hydrology * explanations of how plants affect patterns and rates of water movement and storage in a range of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.

Complexity

The Emerging Science at the Edge of Order and Chaos
Author: Mitchell M. Waldrop
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
ISBN: 0671872346
Category: Mathematics
Page: 380
View: 1007

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A look at the rebellious thinkers who are challenging old ideas with their insights into the ways countless elements of complex systems interact to produce spontaneous order out of confusion

Complex Systems Design & Management

Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Complex Systems Design & Management, CSD&M Paris 2016
Author: Gauthier Fanmuy,Eric Goubault,Daniel Krob,François Stephan
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319491032
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 256
View: 8463

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This book contains all refereed papers that were accepted to the seventh edition of the international conference « Complex Systems Design & Management Paris» (CSD&M Paris 2016) which took place in Paris (France) on the December 13-14, 2016 These proceedings cover the most recent trends in the emerging field of complex systems sciences & practices from an industrial and academic perspective, including the main industrial domains (aeronautic & aerospace, defense & security, electronics & robotics, energy & environment, healthcare & welfare services, software & e-services, transportation), scientific & technical topics (systems fundamentals, systems architecture & engineering, systems metrics & quality, system is modeling tools) and system types (artificial ecosystems, embedded systems, software & information systems, systems of systems, transportation systems). The CSD&M Paris 2016 conference is organized under the guidance of the CESAMES non-profit organization, address: CESAMES, 8 rue de Hanovre, 75002 Paris, France.

Modeling Coastal Hypoxia

Numerical Simulations of Patterns, Controls and Effects of Dissolved Oxygen Dynamics
Author: Dubravko Justic,Kenneth A. Rose,Robert D. Hetland,Katja Fennel
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 331954571X
Category: Science
Page: 433
View: 4799

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This book provides a snapshot of representative modeling analyses of coastal hypoxia and its effects. Hypoxia refers to conditions in the water column where dissolved oxygen falls below levels that can support most metazoan marine life (i.e., 2 mg O2 l-1). The number of hypoxic zones has been increasing at an exponential rate since the 1960s; there are currently more than 600 documented hypoxic zones in the estuarine and coastal waters worldwide. Hypoxia develops as a synergistic product of many physical and biological factors that affect the balance of dissolved oxygen in seawater, including temperature, solar radiation, wind, freshwater discharge, nutrient supply, and the production and decay of organic matter. A number of modeling approaches have been increasingly used in hypoxia research, along with the more traditional observational and experimental studies. Modeling is necessary because of rapidly changing coastal circulation and stratification patterns that affect hypoxia, the large spatial extent over which hypoxia develops, and limitations on our capabilities to directly measure hypoxia over large spatial and temporal scales. This book consists of 15 chapters that are broadly organized around three main topics: (1) Modeling of the physical controls on hypoxia, (2) Modeling of biogeochemical controls and feedbacks, and, (3) Modeling of the ecological effects of hypoxia. The final chapter is a synthesis chapter that draws generalities from the earlier chapters, highlights strengths and weaknesses of the current state-of-the-art modeling, and offers recommendations on future directions.

Simple Architectures for Complex Enterprises


Author: Roger Sessions
Publisher: Microsoft Press
ISBN: 0735646058
Category: Computers
Page: 208
View: 5182

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Dismantle the overwhelming complexity in your IT projects with strategies and real-world examples from a leading expert on enterprise architecture. This guide describes best practices for creating an efficient IT organization that consistently delivers on time, on budget, and in line with business needs. IT systems have become too complex—and too expensive. Complexity can create delays, cost overruns, and outcomes that do not meet business requirements. The resulting losses can impact your entire company. This guide demonstrates that, contrary to popular belief, complex problems demand simple solutions. The author believes that 50 percent of the complexity of a typical IT project can and should be eliminated—and he shows you how to do it. You’ll learn a model for understanding complexity, the three tenets of complexity control, and how to apply specific techniques such as checking architectures for validity. Find out how the author’s methodology could have saved a real-world IT project that went off track, and ways to implement his solutions in a variety of situations.