English as a Global Language


Author: David Crystal
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107611806
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 212
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David Crystal's classic English as a Global Language considers the history, present status and future of the English language, focusing on its role as the leading international language. English has been deemed the most 'successful' language ever, with 1500 million speakers internationally, presenting a difficult task to those who wish to investigate it in its entirety. However, Crystal explores the subject in a measured but engaging way, always backing up observations with facts and figures. Written in a detailed and fascinating manner, this is a book written by an expert both for specialists in the subject and for general readers interested in the English language.

The Colonial Expansion of English - English As a Global Language


Author: Christina Boampong,Gergana Penova
Publisher: GRIN Verlag
ISBN: 3640555627
Category:
Page: 28
View: 3951

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Seminar paper from the year 2005 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Linguistics, grade: 1,3, University of Luneburg (Anglistik/Amerikanistik), course: History of English and English historical linguistics, language: English, abstract: English is the language of commerce and tourism, of international politics, of science, the official language of international and multinational companies and industries, the language of air traffic control, of international news agencies, of mass entertainment, of computers and of the Internet. It is assumed that about a quarter of the worlds population is already fluent or competent in English (that means around 1,5 billion people) and that there is a total of 75 territories where English has a special place in society. These regions can be divided according to the status they give English: Either they have English as a native language, as a second or official language or as a foreign language. This classification is visualized by the so-called Three-circle-model: The inner circle compromises those countries where English is the primary language of communication and is learnt as a native language by the majority of the population. It includes the United States, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. The outer or extended circle represents the countries where English plays an important role in a non-native setting. In many cases these are former British colonies where the English language is part of the countries leading institutions and of various other domains. This circle includes India, Malawi, Singapore and 50 other territories. The expanding circle involves those countries in which English is learnt as a lingua franca by many people. These countries neither have a history of colonization nor have they given English any administrative status. Such countries are Germany, Japan, Israel and a growing number of other states. Fennel (2004) divides the global spreading of English that ha"

The Social Psychology of English as a Global Language

Attitudes, Awareness and Identity in the Japanese Context
Author: Robert M. McKenzie
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789048185665
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 212
View: 1592

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This ground-breaking work is a detailed account of an innovative and in-depth study of the attitudes of in excess of 500 Japanese learners towards a number of standard and non-standard as well as native and non-native varieties of English speech. The research conducted refines the investigation of learner attitudes by employing a range of pioneering techniques of attitude measurement. These methods are largely incorporated from the strong traditions that exist in the fields of social psychology and second language acquisition and utilize both direct and indirect techniques of attitude measurement. The author locates the findings in the context of the wealth of literature on native speaker evaluations of languages and language varieties. The study is unique in that the results provide clear evidence of both attitude change and high levels of linguistic awareness among the informants of social and geographical diversity within the English language. These findings are analyzed in detail in relation to the global spread of English as well as in terms of the pedagogical implications for the choice of linguistic model employed in English language classrooms both inside and outside Japan. The issues examined are of particular interest to educators, researchers and students in the fields of applied linguistics, TESOL, second language acquisition, social psychology of language and sociolinguistics. The pedagogical and language policy implications of the findings obtained make essential reading for those with a specific focus on the role of the English language and English language teaching, both in Japan and beyond.

English as a Global Language - Killer or Promoter?


Author: N.A
Publisher: GRIN Verlag
ISBN: 3668170754
Category: Literary Collections
Page: 29
View: 912

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Bachelor Thesis from the year 2015 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Linguistics, grade: 2,0, University of Hamburg, language: English, abstract: Communication expands all over the world and so does language. Although there is no functional definition of a global language, it basically refers to the language learned and spoken throughout the world. A global language is signified by the number of native speakers, second language speakers and geographical distribution, including its role in diplomatic relations and international organizations. It is a common language which enables individuals from diverse ethnicities and backgrounds in communicating on an equitable basis. English is one of the dominant languages spoken by over 1.8 billion people worldwide. It is not only a language of communication, but has emerged as a means of global conversation. The influence of the English language across the world is a combination of three major aspects. These include the number of nations using English as mother tongue or first language, number of nations embracing English as an official language and number of nations teaching English as a foreign language in schools. One of the major reasons as to why English has emerged as a global language is its intrinsic morphological quality, size of vocabulary, quality of literature all through history and relationship with great religions and cultures. Therefore, the paper discusses how English has emerged as a global language and whether the emergence of English as a global language is a language promoter or killer.

English as a Global Language in China

Deconstructing the Ideological Discourses of English in Language Education
Author: Lin Pan
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 331910392X
Category: Education
Page: 189
View: 8572

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This book offers insight into the spread and impact of English language education in China within China’s broader educational, social, economic and political changes. The author's critical perspective informs readers on the connections between language education and political ideologies in the context of globalizing China. The discussion of the implications concerning language education is of interest for current and future language policy makers, language educators and learners. Including both diachronic and synchronic accounts or China’s language education policy, this volume highlights how China as a modern nation-state has been seeking a more central position globally, and the role that English education and the promotion of such education played in that effort in recent decades.

Communicating with Asia

The Future of English as a Global Language
Author: Gerhard Leitner,Azirah Hashim,Hans-Georg Wolf
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1316472965
Category: Foreign Language Study
Page: N.A
View: 3104

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Communicating with Asia brings together an international team of leading researchers to discuss South, South-East, East and Central Asia, and explore Mandarin, Cantonese, Hindi-Urdu, Malay, and Russian as major languages. The volume locates English inside a number of national, regional or lingua franca contexts and illustrates the way it develops in such contact situations. Local dynamics affecting languages in contact and cultural links of languages are dealt with, such as educational-political issues and tensions between conflicting norms. In today's global world, where the continent is an increasing area of focus, it is vital to explore what it means to 'understand' Asian cultures through English and other languages. This important new study will be of interest to students and researchers working in the fields of regional studies, English as a global language, Asian languages and cultural studies.

English, the lingua franca, as a global language and the decline of German as an international language of science


Author: Silvia Eibel
Publisher: GRIN Verlag
ISBN: 3638490432
Category: Literary Collections
Page: 22
View: 3356

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Seminar paper from the year 2005 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Linguistics, grade: Gut, University of Graz, course: The Globalisation of English, Language Attitudes and Language Contact, 18 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: This paper deals with the topic of English as a lingua franca as well as the past and current status of German as a language of science. One issue which is discussed throughout this paper is English as a global language. The questions that arise regarding this topic are: Why did English become so important in the last century? Why do we speak of English as a global language? How could English reach such widespread acceptance? What are dangers of a global language and could anything stop globalisation? In this paper many facets of English will be presented and discussed. The second important topic this paper covers is the decline of German as an international language of science. German used to be an important language of science in the 19thcentury until World War I. But what happened at that point and why did German lose its international character? Which circumstances are responsible for the decline of German? What is the present status of German in science and what are the future perspectives? All these questions and assumptions will be discussed in the following term paper and the closing remarks will summarise the findings.

How English Became the Global Language


Author: D. Northrup
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137303077
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 205
View: 6908

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In this book, the first written about the globalization of the English language by a professional historian, the exploration of English's global ascendancy receives its proper historical due. This brief, accessible volume breaks new ground in its organization, emphasis on causation, and conclusions.

Reconceptualising Authenticity for English as a Global Language


Author: Richard S. Pinner
Publisher: Multilingual Matters
ISBN: 1783095695
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 225
View: 4047

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This book examines the concept of authentic English in today’s world, where cultures are in constant interaction and the English language works as a binding agent for many cross-cultural exchanges. It offers a comprehensive review of decades of debate around authenticity in language teaching and learning and attempts to synthesise the complexities by presenting them as a continuum. This continuum builds on the work of eminent scholars and combines them within a flexible framework that celebrates the process of interaction whilst acknowledging the complexity and individual subjectivity of authenticity. Authenticity is approached as a complex dynamic construct that can only be understood by examining it from social, individual and contextual dimensions, in relation to actual people. Authenticity is a problem not just for language acquisition but one which affects us as individuals belonging to society.

The Role of English as a World Language


Author: Kristina Eichhorst
Publisher: GRIN Verlag
ISBN: 3656122881
Category:
Page: 28
View: 5490

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Seminar paper from the year 2010 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Linguistics, grade: 1,0, Ernst Moritz Arndt University of Greifswald, language: English, abstract: For me, learning English has always been quite easy. Though I grew up as a monolingual person and my first contact with English was not until the fifth grade, I have been surrounded by this language constantly. When I first started to translate my favorite pop songs into German I became more and more familiar with English. As the following paragraphs show this is exactly one of the reasons that people are so familiar with it nowadays, and that made me think about this language a little bit more intensive: English is everywhere, even in an official monolingual country like Germany. Though it helps us to get a better understanding for many terms in the world, there is also a negative side. I think that a conversation held in German should not contain more English words than necessary or even "poison" it. Though the influence of the English language on German is undeniable it should never dominate the other language. This term paper deals with the status of English as a global language. It shows how far English is spread nowadays and also tries to find answers to the question why English of all the many languages in the world is so influential? Therefore, historical, grammatical and other reasons are investigated. Afterwards, the paper presents the two sides of the English status, namely advantages that come with it but also the negative effects that occur. Finally, there is a look at the future of the English language in order to find out if the influence will increase even more or be replaced by a different language. Many linguists have studied this field and see English especially in relation to language death. This paper shows that the topic is very complex and that it cannot be committed to either positive or negative.

How and why did English come to be a global language?


Author: Cornelia Richter
Publisher: GRIN Verlag
ISBN: 3640151771
Category: Foreign Language Study
Page: 22
View: 1894

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Seminar paper from the year 2007 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Culture and Applied Geography, grade: 2,0, Martin Luther University (Institut für Anglistik und Amerikanistik), course: English Rules the World? The Globalisation of English, 14 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: The role of the English language among all other languages is constantly examined, researched and written about. It appears that no other language has ever had such an amazing and massive impact on other cultures, languages and world history. Statements like “English is today a truly global language” (Rubdy 2006: 5) and “World English exists as a political and cultural reality” (Crystal 2003b: xii) underpin the notion of the possibility of a language that connects all people, a notion and perhaps also a wish that is almost as old as mankind. This paper will investigate the question of what defines a language as a global one and what factors are convincing or definite. David Crystal’s explanation makes it quite obvious: “A language achieves a genuinely global status when it develops a special role that is recognized in every country” (Crystal 2003b: 3). However, he himself admits that this is not precise enough; a ‘special role’ can mean many things. The concept usually refers to political aspects, like, for example, the status of the language of the state defined by law, or the language being the only one in some states for historical reasons (cf. Crystal 2003b: 66). But in all cases, it can be argued, the population is living in an environment in which the English language is routinely in evidence, publicly accessible in varying degrees, and part of the nation’s recent or present identity (Crystal 2003b: 66). It also has to be clarified what processes can lead to a global status of a language, and if so-called “naïve” theories hold true. For the purpose of examining this question further, the concept of the lingua franca and the role of English as such will also be looked at. Talking about English and its world influence, it is inevitable to consider the roles and history of Britain and the United States. In order to make the attempt of getting more precise, numbers of speakers will be shown and it will be explained how these numbers came about and what they mean. ... As obvious as it may seem, English is dominant is so many spheres that it appears impossible to account for all of them thoroughly. However, the most significant domains will be explained as such in order to draw a connection between history, present and future.

The Local Construction of a Global Language

Ideologies of English in South Korea
Author: Joseph Sung-Yul Park
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN: 3110214075
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 285
View: 1074

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In South Korea, English is a language of utmost importance, sought with an unprecedented zeal as an indispensable commodity in education, business, popular culture, and national policy. This book investigates how the status of English as a hegemonic language in South Korea is constructed through the mediation of language ideologies in local discourse. Adopting the framework of language ideology and its current developments, it is argued that English in Korean society is a subject of deep-rooted ambiguities, with multiple and sometimes conflicting ideologies coexisting within a tension-ridden discursive space. The complex ways in which these ideologies are reproduced, contested, and negotiated through specific metalinguistic practices across diverse sites ultimately contribute to a local realization of the global hegemony of English as an international language. Through its insightful analysis of metalinguistic discourse in language policy debates, cross-linguistic humor, television shows, and face-to-face interaction, The Local Construction of a Global Language makes an original contribution to the study of language and globalization, proposing an innovative analytic approach that bridges the gap between the investigation of large-scale global forces and the study of micro-level discourse practices.

The Idea of English in Japan

Ideology and the Evolution of a Global Language
Author: Philip Seargeant
Publisher: Multilingual Matters
ISBN: 1847696910
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 192
View: 3406

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This book examines the ways in which English is conceptualised as a global language in Japan, and considers how the resultant language ideologies – drawn in part from universal discourses; in part from context-specific trends in social history – inform the relationships that people in Japan have towards the language. The book analyses the specific nature of the language’s symbolic meaning in Japan, and how this meaning is expressed and negotiated in society. It also discusses how the ideologies of English that exist in Japan might have implications for the more general concept of ‘English as a global language’. To this end it considers the question of what constitutes a ‘global’ language, and how, if at all, a balance can be struck between the universal and the historically-contingent when it comes to formulating a theory of English within the world.

The Local Politics of Global English

Case Studies in Linguistic Globalization
Author: Selma K. Sonntag
Publisher: Lexington Books
ISBN: 9780739105986
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 153
View: 8260

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The Local Politics of Global English analyzes linguistic globalization in five countries that differ greatly in both their degree of global integration and their use of English. Concepts of hegemony and resistance, elites and subalterns, and liberalization and democratization are incorporated in case studies that provide insight into the politics of linguistic globalization from above and below.

Does Science Need a Global Language?

English and the Future of Research
Author: Scott L. Montgomery
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 022601004X
Category: Science
Page: 216
View: 3336

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In early 2012, the global scientific community erupted with news that the elusive Higgs boson had likely been found, providing potent validation for the Standard Model of how the universe works. Scientists from more than one hundred countries contributed to this discovery—proving, beyond any doubt, that a new era in science had arrived, an era of multinationalism and cooperative reach. Globalization, the Internet, and digital technology all play a role in making this new era possible, but something more fundamental is also at work. In all scientific endeavors lies the ancient drive for sharing ideas and knowledge, and now this can be accomplished in a single tongue— English. But is this a good thing? In Does Science Need a Global Language?, Scott L. Montgomery seeks to answer this question by investigating the phenomenon of global English in science, how and why it came about, the forms in which it appears, what advantages and disadvantages it brings, and what its future might be. He also examines the consequences of a global tongue, considering especially emerging and developing nations, where research is still at a relatively early stage and English is not yet firmly established. Throughout the book, he includes important insights from a broad range of perspectives in linguistics, history, education, geopolitics, and more. Each chapter includes striking and revealing anecdotes from the front-line experiences of today’s scientists, some of whom have struggled with the reality of global scientific English. He explores topics such as student mobility, publication trends, world Englishes, language endangerment, and second language learning, among many others. What he uncovers will challenge readers to rethink their assumptions about the direction of contemporary science, as well as its future.

Introducing Global Englishes


Author: Nicola Galloway,Heath Rose
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317560698
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 292
View: 7183

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Introducing Global Englishes provides comprehensive coverage of relevant research in the fields of World Englishes, English as a Lingua Franca, and English as an International Language. The book introduces students to the current sociolinguistic uses of the English language, using a range of engaging and accessible examples from newspapers (Observer, Independent, Wall Street Journal), advertisements, and television shows. The book: Explains key concepts connected to the historical and contemporary spread of English. Explores the social, economic, educational, and political implications of English’s rise as a world language. Includes comprehensive classroom-based activities, case studies, research tasks, assessment prompts, and extensive online resources. Introducing Global Englishes is essential reading for students coming to this subject for the first time.