Reminiscences of the Vienna Circle and the Mathematical Colloquium

Author: Karl Menger
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401111022
Category: History
Page: 244
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Karl Menger was born in Vienna on January 13, 1902, the only child of two gifted parents. His mother Hermione, nee Andermann (1870-1922), in addition to her musical abilities, wrote and published short stories and novelettes, while his father Carl (1840-1921) was the noted Austrian economist, one of the founders of marginal utility theory. A highly cultured man, and a liberal rationalist in the nine teenth century sense, the elder Menger had witnessed the defeat and humiliation of the old Austrian empire by Bismarck's Prussia, and the subsequent establishment under Prussian leadership of a militaristic, mystically nationalistic, state-capitalist German empire - in effect, the first modern "military-industrial complex. " These events helped frame in him a set of attitudes that he later transmitted to his son, and which included an appreciation of cultural attainments and tolerance and respect for cultural differences, com bined with a deep suspicion of rabid nationalism, particularly the German variety. Also a fascination with structure, whether artistic, scientific, philosophical, or theological, but a rejection of any aura of mysticism or mumbo-jumbo accompanying such structure. Thus the son remarked at least once that the archangels' chant that begins the Prolog im Himmel in Goethe's Faust was perhaps the most viii INTRODUCTION beautiful thing in the German language "but of course it doesn't mean anything.

Empiricism and Sociology

Author: M. Neurath,Robert S. Cohen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401025258
Category: Social Science
Page: 475
View: 6374

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On the last day of his life, Otto Neurath had given help to a Chinese philosopher who was writing about Schlick. Only an hour before his death he said to me: "Nobody will do such a thing for me." My answer then was: "Never mind, you have Bilston, isn't that better?" There were con sultations in new housing schemes, an exhibition, and hopes for a fruitful relationship of longer duration. I did not dream at that time that I would one day work on a book like this. The idea came from Horace M. Kallen, of the New School for Social Research, New York, years later; to encourage me he sent me his selection from William James' writings. Later I met Robert S. Cohen. Carnap had sent him to me with the message: "If you want to find out what my political views were in the twenties and thirties, read Otto Neurath's books and articles of that time; his views were also mine." In this way Robert Cohen became ac quainted with Otto Neurath. Even more: he became interested; and when I asked him, would he help me as an editor of an Otto N eurath volume, he agreed at once. In previous years I had already asked a number of Otto Neurath's friends to write down for me what they especially remembered about him.

Empiricism, Logic and Mathematics

Philosophical Papers
Author: Hans Hahn
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400989822
Category: Science
Page: 142
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The role Hans Hahn played in the Vienna Circle has not always been sufficiently appreciated. It was important in several ways. In the ftrst place, Hahn belonged to the trio of the original planners of the Circle. As students at the University of Vienna and throughout the fIrst decade of this century, he and his friends, Philipp Frank and Otto Neurath, met more or less regularly to discuss philosophical questions. When Hahn accepted his fIrSt professorial position, at the University of Czernowitz in the north east of the Austrian empire, and the paths of the three friends parted, they decided to continue such informal discussions at some future time - perhaps in a somewhat larger group and with the cooperation of a philosopher from the university. Various events delayed the execution of the project. Drafted into the Austrian army during the first world war" Hahn was wounded on the Italian front. Toward the end of the war he accepted an offer from the University of Bonn extended in recognition of his remarkable 1 mathematical achievements. He remained in Bonn until the spring of 1921 when he returm:d to Vienna and a chair of mathe matics at his alma mater. There, in 1922, the Mach-Boltzmann professorship for the philosophy of the inductive sciences became vacant by the death of Adolf Stohr; and Hahn saw a chance to realize his and his friends' old plan.

Foundations for a Scientific Analysis of Value

Author: V. Kraft
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400983972
Category: Science
Page: 198
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In English-speaking countries Victor Kraft is known principally for his account of the Vienna Circle. ! That group of thinkers has exercised in recent decades a significant influence not only on the philosophy of the western world, but also, at least indirectly, on that of the East, where there is now taking place a slow but clearly irresistible erosion of dogmatic Marxism by ways of think ing derived from a modem scientific conception of the world. Kraft's work as historian of the Vienna Circle has led to his being classed, without further qua1ification, as a neo-positivist philosopher. It is, however, only partially correct to count him as such. To be sure, he belonged to the group named, he took part in its meetings, and he drew from it suggestions central to his own work; but he did not belong to the hard core of the Circle and was a con scious opponent of certain radical tendencies espoused, at least from time to time, by some of its members. Evidence of this is provided by the theory of value now presented in English translation, since no less a thinker than Rudolf Carnap had, originally at any rate, obeyed a very narrowly conceived criterion of sense and declared value judgements to be senseless.

Carnap and the Vienna Circle

Empiricism and Logical Syntax
Author: Ramon Cirera
Publisher: Rodopi
ISBN: 9789051837247
Category: Philosophy
Page: 398
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It is not inacurate to say that from 1928 to 1936 Carnap was a member of the Vienna Circle, even though during this period he was not always present in Vienna. During this years, which spanned roughly the period from the Aufbauto Testability and Meaning, he worked or at least discussed frequently with the members of the group.However, traditionally it has been difficult to form a proper view of the development of Carnap's ideas throughout this period, mainly because of three errors which have persisted in the commonly accepted historical interpretation of Carnap and the Vienna Circle: emphasis on the Circle as a unit rather than a collective of individuals; insistence on verificationism as the defining characteristic of Logical Positivism; and the systematic abstraction of the work of the Circle from its historical context. As against this historically distorted image, this book argues for an alternative reading, evaluating the different influences on Carnap of Schlick, Wittgenstein, Neurath and Popper, and making sense of Carnap's evolution from physicalism to phenomenalism and the syntactic point of view.

Dialectics of the Concrete

A Study on Problems of Man and World
Author: K. Kosík
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401015201
Category: Science
Page: 164
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Kosik writes that the history of a text is in a certain sense the history of its interpretations. In the fifteen years that have passed since the fust (Czech) edition of his Dialectics of the Concrete, this book has been widely read and interpreted throughout Europe, in diverse centers of scholarship as well as in private studies. A faithful English language edition is long overdue. This publication of KosIk's work will surely provoke a range of new interpretations. For its theme is the characterization of science and of rationality in the context of the social roots of science and the social critique which an appropriately rational science should afford. Kosik's question is: How shall Karl Marx's understanding of science itself be understood? And how can it be further developed? In his treatment of the question of scientific rationality, Kosik drives bluntly into the issues of gravest human concern, not the least of which is how to avoid the pseudo-concrete, the pseudo-scientific, the pseudo-rational, the pseudo historical. Starting with Marx's methodological approach, of "ascending from the abstract to the concrete", Kosik develops a critique of positivism, of phenomenalist empiricism, and of "metaphysical" rationalism, counter posing them to "dialectical rationalism". He takes the category of the concrete in the dialectical sense of that which comes to be known by the active transformation of nature and society by human purposive activity.

Logical Empiricism in North America

Author: Gary L. Hardcastle,Alan W. Richardson
Publisher: U of Minnesota Press
ISBN: 9780816642212
Category: Philosophy
Page: 293
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"An essential overview of an important intellectual movement, Logical Empiricism in North America offers the first significant, sustained, and multidisciplinary attempt to understand the intellectual, cultural, and political dimensions of logical empiricism's transmission from Europe, subsequent development in North America, and influence on our understanding of science in the twenty-first century."--BOOK JACKET.Title Summary field provided by Blackwell North America, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Prolegomena to a Critical Grammar

Author: Josef Schächter
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 940102555X
Category: Philosophy
Page: 166
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This book is the first English version of Prolegomena zu einer kritischen Grammatik, published by Julius Springer, Vienna, 1935, as Volume 10 of the Vienna Circle's series Schriften zur wissenschaftlichen Weltauffassung. The prefatory remarks of both editor and author acknowledge the influence ofWittgenstein in a general way. However, in aim and approach, the work differs from Wittgenstein's Philosophische Grammatik (l969). This is indeed based on material going back to 1932, some of which Schachter must have known. On the other hand, the present Prolegomena not only explains the general, philosophical principles to be followed, but in the light of these proceeds to cover the entire range of conventional grammar, showing where that is uncritical. Whether Wittgenstein in his turn knew of Schachter's work has never been explored. Schachter's object is universal grammar. As is natural, the examples in the original are largely drawn from German grammar, with occasional minor excursions into other languages. For English readers, what matters are the general problems of grammar: there is no point in tying these to the linguistic peculiarities of German, let alone a local variety of it. One who can grasp German at that level might as well read the original. The translation is therefore twofold: the text as a whole has been rendered into English, and the entire apparatus of examples has been replaced, as far as this can be done, by illustrations from English grammar, chosen so as to bring out the same kinds of problem as in the original.

The Infinite in Mathematics

Logico-mathematical writings
Author: Felix Kaufmann
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400997957
Category: Science
Page: 237
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The main item in the present volume was published in 1930 under the title Das Unendliche in der Mathematik und seine Ausschaltung. It was at that time the fullest systematic account from the standpoint of Husserl's phenomenology of what is known as 'finitism' (also as 'intuitionism' and 'constructivism') in mathematics. Since then, important changes have been required in philosophies of mathematics, in part because of Kurt Godel's epoch-making paper of 1931 which established the essential in completeness of arithmetic. In the light of that finding, a number of the claims made in the book (and in the accompanying articles) are demon strably mistaken. Nevertheless, as a whole it retains much of its original interest and value. It presents the issues in the foundations of mathematics that were under debate when it was written (and in some cases still are); , and it offers one alternative to the currently dominant set-theoretical definitions of the cardinal numbers and other arithmetical concepts. While still a student at the University of Vienna, Felix Kaufmann was greatly impressed by the early philosophical writings (especially by the Logische Untersuchungen) of Edmund Husser!' He was never an uncritical disciple of Husserl, and he integrated into his mature philosophy ideas from a wide assortment of intellectual sources. But he thought of himself as a phenomenologist, and made frequent use in all his major publications of many of Husserl's logical and epistemological theses.

Der Wiener Kreis

Ursprung, Entwicklung und Wirkung des Logischen Empirismus im Kontext
Author: Friedrich Stadler
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3319160486
Category: Philosophy
Page: 691
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Die zweite Auflage dieses inzwischen vergriffenen Buches (1. Auflagen Suhrkamp 1997/2001) stellt die einzige Gesamtdarstellung und Dokumentation des Wiener Kreises im historischen Kontext dar. Es liefert eine wissenschaftsgeschichtliche und systematische Untersuchung zum Logischen Empirismus des Wiener Kreises, der bis heute als bahnbrechende Strömung wissenschaftlicher und analytischer Philosophie eine internationale Berühmtheit erlangt hat. Nach der Vorgeschichte des Wiener Kreises in der Monarchie wird das geistige Umfeld der „Spätaufklärung“ in der Ersten Republik als Grundlage für die Entwicklung des Schlick-Zirkels (mit der Publikation der Protokolle), sowie des Vereins Ernst Mach und Karl Mengers Mathematisches Kolloquium dargestellt. Die interne und externe Entwicklung dieser Gruppe wird bis zum „Anschluss“ 1938 beschrieben, die einerseits durch einen blühenden Aufstieg mit wachsender Anerkennung im Ausland, andererseits durch die Vertreibung aus ihrer Heimatstadt charakterisiert ist. Dabei wird auf der Basis von Primärquellen das Verhältnis des Wiener Kreises zu den wichtigsten Bezugspersonen wie Ludwig Wittgenstein, Heinrich Gomperz und Karl Popper (mit einem Interview) neu dargestellt, sowie der Pluralismus des Kreises am Beispiel von Otto Neurath und Moritz Schlick illustriert.Der dokumentarische Teil bietet eine biografische und bibliografische Gesamtschau des Wiener Kreises und seiner Peripherie auf dem aktuellsten Stand der Forschung sowie die erste quellenorientierte Dokumentation zur folgenreichen Ermordung von Moritz Schlick im Jahre 1936.Das Buch stellt ein Standardwerk zur Geschichte des Wiener Kreises dar, der für die damalige europäische Wissenschaftsphilosophie und ihre Wirkung in der heutigen analytischen philosophy of science exemplarisch ist.

Huttens letzte Tage

Author: Conrad Ferdinand Meyer
Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand
ISBN: 3846089737
Category: Fiction
Page: 180
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Nachdruck des Originals von 1901.

Unified Science

The Vienna Circle Monograph Series originally edited by Otto Neurath, now in an English edition
Author: B.F. McGuinness
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400938659
Category: Science
Page: 306
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a priori, and what is more, to a rejection based ultimately on a posteriori findings; in other words, the "pure" science of nature in Kant's sense of the term had proved to be, not only not pure, but even false. As for logic and mathematics, the decisive works of Frege, Russell, and White head suggested two conclusions: first, that it was possible to construct mathematics on the basis of logic (logicism), and secondly, that logical propositions had an irrevocably analytic status. But within the frame work of logicism, the status of logical propositions is passed on to mathematical ones, and mathematical propositions are therefore also conceived of as analytic. All this creates a situation where the existential presupposition contained in the Kantian question about the possibility of judgements that are both synthetic and a priori must, it seems, be rejected as false. But to drop this presupposition is, at the same time, to strike at the very core of Kant's programme of putting the natural sciences on a philosophical foundation. The failure of the modern attempt to do so suggests at the same time a reversal of the relationship between philosophy and the individual sciences: it is not the task of philosophy to meddle with the foundations of the individual sciences; being the less successful discipline, its task is rather to seek guidance from the principles of rationality operative in the individual sciences.

Economic engagements with art

Author: Neil De Marchi,Craufurd D. W. Goodwin
Publisher: Duke University Press Books
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 506
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see attached


Author: Martin Tschiggerl,Thomas Walach,Stefan Zahlmann
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3658228822
Category: History
Page: 147
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Die Rehabilitation des in Verruf geratenen Subjekts als einzig bestimmender historischer Akteur ist der zentrale Anspruch dieses Buches. Wesentliche geschichtswissenschaftliche Kategorien wie historische Wirklichkeit, Geschichte als Wissenschaft, Quellen und Medien werden darin nicht als positive Phänomene verkannt, sondern als Produkte einer dialektischen Auseinandersetzung zwischen dem Subjekt und seiner wahrgenommenen Umwelt erfasst. Damit werden in diesem Buch die Ecksteine einer neuen Geschichtstheorie erläutert.

Language and Empiricism - After the Vienna Circle

Author: Siobhan Chapman
Publisher: Palgrave MacMillan
ISBN: 9780230524767
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 191
View: 2627

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Here, the author offers an assessment of the influence of the Vienna circle on language study, and considers its relevance to the debate in present-day linguistics about the relative merits of 'intuitive' and 'real-life' sources of data. The book also introduces and discusses the philosophy of language of Arne Naess.