Elements of Quasigroup Theory and Applications

Author: Victor Shcherbacov
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1498721567
Category: Computers
Page: 598
View: 2476

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This book provides an introduction to quasigroup theory along with new structural results on some of the quasigroup classes. Many results are presented with some of them from mathematicians of the former USSR. These included results have not been published before in the western mathematical literature. In addition, many of the achievements obtained with regard to applications of quasigroups in coding theory and cryptology are described.

Some Results on Neutrosophic Triplet Group and Their Applications

Author: Tèmítópé Gbóláhàn Jaíyéolá,Florentin Smarandache
Publisher: Infinite Study
Page: 14
View: 322

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Unified gauge theory has the algebraic structure of a generalized group abstrusely, in its physical background. It has been a challenge for physicists and mathematicians to find a desirable unified theory for twistor theory, isotopies theory, and so on.

partial differential equation methods in control and shape analysis

lecture notes in pure and applied mathematics
Author: Giuseppe Da Prato,Jean-Paul Zolesio
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1482273616
Category: Mathematics
Page: 352
View: 6710

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"Based on the International Federatiojn for Information Processing WG 7.2 Conference, held recently in Pisa, Italy. Provides recent results as well as entirely new material on control theory and shape analysis. Written by leading authorities from various desciplines."

Algebraic Geometry

Part I: Schemes. With Examples and Exercises
Author: Ulrich Görtz,Torsten Wedhorn
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783834897220
Category: Mathematics
Page: 615
View: 6346

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This book introduces the reader to modern algebraic geometry. It presents Grothendieck's technically demanding language of schemes that is the basis of the most important developments in the last fifty years within this area. A systematic treatment and motivation of the theory is emphasized, using concrete examples to illustrate its usefulness. Several examples from the realm of Hilbert modular surfaces and of determinantal varieties are used methodically to discuss the covered techniques. Thus the reader experiences that the further development of the theory yields an ever better understanding of these fascinating objects. The text is complemented by many exercises that serve to check the comprehension of the text, treat further examples, or give an outlook on further results. The volume at hand is an introduction to schemes. To get startet, it requires only basic knowledge in abstract algebra and topology. Essential facts from commutative algebra are assembled in an appendix. It will be complemented by a second volume on the cohomology of schemes.

Handbook of Constraint Programming

Author: Francesca Rossi,Peter van Beek,Toby Walsh
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080463803
Category: Computers
Page: 978
View: 2151

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Constraint programming is a powerful paradigm for solving combinatorial search problems that draws on a wide range of techniques from artificial intelligence, computer science, databases, programming languages, and operations research. Constraint programming is currently applied with success to many domains, such as scheduling, planning, vehicle routing, configuration, networks, and bioinformatics. The aim of this handbook is to capture the full breadth and depth of the constraint programming field and to be encyclopedic in its scope and coverage. While there are several excellent books on constraint programming, such books necessarily focus on the main notions and techniques and cannot cover also extensions, applications, and languages. The handbook gives a reasonably complete coverage of all these lines of work, based on constraint programming, so that a reader can have a rather precise idea of the whole field and its potential. Of course each line of work is dealt with in a survey-like style, where some details may be neglected in favor of coverage. However, the extensive bibliography of each chapter will help the interested readers to find suitable sources for the missing details. Each chapter of the handbook is intended to be a self-contained survey of a topic, and is written by one or more authors who are leading researchers in the area. The intended audience of the handbook is researchers, graduate students, higher-year undergraduates and practitioners who wish to learn about the state-of-the-art in constraint programming. No prior knowledge about the field is necessary to be able to read the chapters and gather useful knowledge. Researchers from other fields should find in this handbook an effective way to learn about constraint programming and to possibly use some of the constraint programming concepts and techniques in their work, thus providing a means for a fruitful cross-fertilization among different research areas. The handbook is organized in two parts. The first part covers the basic foundations of constraint programming, including the history, the notion of constraint propagation, basic search methods, global constraints, tractability and computational complexity, and important issues in modeling a problem as a constraint problem. The second part covers constraint languages and solver, several useful extensions to the basic framework (such as interval constraints, structured domains, and distributed CSPs), and successful application areas for constraint programming. - Covers the whole field of constraint programming - Survey-style chapters - Five chapters on applications

Analytic Hyperbolic Geometry and Albert Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity

Author: Abraham A. Ungar
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9812772294
Category: Science
Page: 628
View: 4743

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This book presents a powerful way to study Einstein's special theory of relativity and its underlying hyperbolic geometry in which analogies with classical results form the right tool. It introduces the notion of vectors into analytic hyperbolic geometry, where they are called gyrovectors. Newtonian velocity addition is the common vector addition, which is both commutative and associative. The resulting vector spaces, in turn, form the algebraic setting for the standard model of Euclidean geometry. In full analogy, Einsteinian velocity addition is a gyrovector addition, which is both gyrocommutative and gyroassociative. The resulting gyrovector spaces, in turn, form the algebraic setting for the Beltrami–Klein ball model of the hyperbolic geometry of Bolyai and Lobachevsky. Similarly, Mצbius addition gives rise to gyrovector spaces that form the algebraic setting for the Poincarי ball model of hyperbolic geometry. In full analogy with classical results, the book presents a novel relativistic interpretation of stellar aberration in terms of relativistic gyrotrigonometry and gyrovector addition. Furthermore, the book presents, for the first time, the relativistic center of mass of an isolated system of noninteracting particles that coincided at some initial time t = 0. The novel relativistic resultant mass of the system, concentrated at the relativistic center of mass, dictates the validity of the dark matter and the dark energy that were introduced by cosmologists as ad hoc postulates to explain cosmological observations about missing gravitational force and late-time cosmic accelerated expansion. The discovery of the relativistic center of mass in this book thus demonstrates once again the usefulness of the study of Einstein's special theory of relativity in terms of its underlying analytic hyperbolic geometry.

A First Graduate Course in Abstract Algebra

Author: W.J. Wickless
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 135198974X
Category: Mathematics
Page: 252
View: 9120

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Since abstract algebra is so important to the study of advanced mathematics, it is critical that students have a firm grasp of its principles and underlying theories before moving on to further study. To accomplish this, they require a concise, accessible, user-friendly textbook that is both challenging and stimulating. A First Graduate Course in Abstract Algebra is just such a textbook. Divided into two sections, this book covers both the standard topics (groups, modules, rings, and vector spaces) associated with abstract algebra and more advanced topics such as Galois fields, noncommutative rings, group extensions, and Abelian groups. The author includes review material where needed instead of in a single chapter, giving convenient access with minimal page turning. He also provides ample examples, exercises, and problem sets to reinforce the material. This book illustrates the theory of finitely generated modules over principal ideal domains, discusses tensor products, and demonstrates the development of determinants. It also covers Sylow theory and Jordan canonical form. A First Graduate Course in Abstract Algebra is ideal for a two-semester course, providing enough examples, problems, and exercises for a deep understanding. Each of the final three chapters is logically independent and can be covered in any order, perfect for a customized syllabus.

A Gyrovector Space Approach to Hyperbolic Geometry

Author: Abraham A. Ungar
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
ISBN: 1598298224
Category: Mathematics
Page: 182
View: 1631

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The mere mention of hyperbolic geometry is enough to strike fear in the heart of the undergraduate mathematics and physics student. Some regard themselves as excluded from the profound insights of hyperbolic geometry so that this enormous portion of human achievement is a closed door to them. The mission of this book is to open that door by making the hyperbolic geometry of Bolyai and Lobachevsky, as well as the special relativity theory of Einstein that it regulates, accessible to a wider audience in terms of novel analogies that the modern and unknown share with the classical and familiar. These novel analogies that this book captures stem from Thomas gyration, which is the mathematical abstraction of the relativistic effect known as Thomas precession. Remarkably, the mere introduction of Thomas gyration turns Euclidean geometry into hyperbolic geometry, and reveals mystique analogies that the two geometries share. Accordingly, Thomas gyration gives rise to the prefix "gyro" that is extensively used in the gyrolanguage of this book, giving rise to terms like gyrocommutative and gyroassociative binary operations in gyrogroups, and gyrovectors in gyrovector spaces. Of particular importance is the introduction of gyrovectors into hyperbolic geometry, where they are equivalence classes that add according to the gyroparallelogram law in full analogy with vectors, which are equivalence classes that add according to the parallelogram law. A gyroparallelogram, in turn, is a gyroquadrilateral the two gyrodiagonals of which intersect at their gyromidpoints in full analogy with a parallelogram, which is a quadrilateral the two diagonals of which intersect at their midpoints. Table of Contents: Gyrogroups / Gyrocommutative Gyrogroups / Gyrovector Spaces / Gyrotrigonometry

Fuzzy Semigroups

Author: John N. Mordeson,Davender S. Malik,Nobuaki Kuroki
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3540371257
Category: Mathematics
Page: 319
View: 3234

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Lotfi Zadeh introduced the notion of a fuzzy subset of a set in 1965. Ris seminal paper has opened up new insights and applications in a wide range of scientific fields. Azriel Rosenfeld used the notion of a fuzzy subset to put forth cornerstone papers in several areas of mathematics, among other discplines. Rosenfeld is the father of fuzzy abstract algebra. Kuroki is re sponsible for much of fuzzy ideal theory of semigroups. Others who worked on fuzzy semigroup theory, such as Xie, are mentioned in the bibliogra phy. The purpose of this book is to present an up to date account of fuzzy subsemigroups and fuzzy ideals of a semigroup. We concentrate mainly on theoretical aspects, but we do include applications. The applications are in the areas of fuzzy coding theory, fuzzy finite state machines, and fuzzy languages. An extensive account of fuzzy automata and fuzzy languages is given in [100]. Consequently, we only consider results in these areas that have not appeared in [100] and that pertain to semigroups. In Chapter 1, we review some basic results on fuzzy subsets, semigroups, codes, finite state machines, and languages. The purpose of this chapter is to present basic results that are needed in the remainder of the book. In Chapter 2, we introduce certain fuzzy ideals of a semigroup, namely, fuzzy two-sided ideals, fuzzy bi-ideals, fuzzy interior ideals, fuzzy quasi ideals, and fuzzy generalized bi-ideals.

Unifying Themes in Complex Systems

Vol VI: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Complex Systems
Author: Ali A. Minai,Dan Braha,Yaneer Bar-Yam
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540850816
Category: Science
Page: 627
View: 9814

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In recent years, scientists have applied the principles of complex systems science to increasingly diverse fields. The results have been nothing short of remarkable: their novel approaches have provided answers to long-standing questions in biology, ecology, physics, engineering, computer science, economics, psychology and sociology. "Unifying Themes in Complex Systems" is a well established series of carefully edited conference proceedings that serve the purpose of documenting and archiving the progress of cross-fertilization in this field. About NECSI: For over 10 years, The New England Complex Systems Institute (NECSI) has been instrumental in the development of complex systems science and its applications. NECSI conducts research, education, knowledge dissemination, and community development around the world for the promotion of the study of complex systems and its application for the betterment of society. NECSI hosts the International Conference on Complex Systems and publishes the NECSI Book Series in conjunction with Springer Publishers.

Discrete Mathematics Using Latin Squares

Author: Charles F. Laywine,Gary L. Mullen
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780471240648
Category: Mathematics
Page: 305
View: 8581

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An intuitive and accessible approach to discrete mathematics using Latin squares In the past two decades, researchers have discovered a range of uses for Latin squares that go beyond standard mathematics. People working in the fields of science, engineering, statistics, and even computer science all stand to benefit from a working knowledge of Latin squares. Discrete Mathematics Using Latin Squares is the only upper-level college textbook/professional reference that fully engages the subject and its many important applications. Mixing theoretical basics, such as the construction of orthogonal Latin squares, with numerous practical examples, proofs, and exercises, this text/reference offers an extensive and well-rounded treatment of the topic. Its flexible design encourages readers to group chapters according to their interests, whether they be purely mathematical or mostly applied. Other features include: An entirely new approach to discrete mathematics, from basic properties and generalizations to unusual applications 16 self-contained chapters that can be grouped for custom use Coverage of various uses of Latin squares, from computer systems to tennis and golf tournament design An extensive range of exercises, from routine problems to proofs of theorems Extended coverage of basic algebra in an appendix filled with corresponding material for further investigation. Written by two leading authorities who have published extensively in the field, Discrete Mathematics Using Latin Squares is an easy-to-use academic and professional reference.

Finite Fields and Applications

7th International Conference, Fq7, Toulouse, France, May 5-9, 2003, Revised Papers
Author: Gary L. Mullen,Alain Poli,Henning Stichtenoth
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3540246339
Category: Mathematics
Page: 263
View: 6924

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Combinatorial Theory

Author: Martin Aigner
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642591019
Category: Mathematics
Page: 483
View: 3809

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This book offers a well-organized, easy-to-follow introduction to combinatorial theory, with examples, notes and exercises. ". . . a very good introduction to combinatorics. This book can warmly be recommended first of all to students interested in combinatorics." Publicationes Mathematicae Debrecen

Ring Constructions and Applications

Author: Andrei V. Kelarev
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9810247451
Category: Mathematics
Page: 205
View: 4099

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This book contains the definitions of several ring constructions used in various applications. The concept of a groupoid-graded ring includes many of these constructions as special cases and makes it possible to unify the exposition. Recent research results on groupoid-graded rings and more specialized constructions are presented. In addition, there is a chapter containing open problems currently considered in the literature. Ring Constructions and Applications can serve as an excellent introduction for graduate students to many ring constructions as well as to essential basic concepts of group, semigroup and ring theories used in proofs.

A Guide to the Literature on Semirings and their Applications in Mathematics and Information Sciences

With Complete Bibliography
Author: K. Glazek
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401599645
Category: Mathematics
Page: 392
View: 3850

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This volume presents a short guide to the extensive literature concerning semir ings along with a complete bibliography. The literature has been created over many years, in variety of languages, by authors representing different schools of mathematics and working in various related fields. In many instances the terminology used is not universal, which further compounds the difficulty of locating pertinent sources even in this age of the Internet and electronic dis semination of research results. So far there has been no single reference that could guide the interested scholar or student to the relevant publications. This book is an attempt to fill this gap. My interest in the theory of semirings began in the early sixties, when to gether with Bogdan W ~glorz I tried to investigate some algebraic aspects of compactifications of topological spaces, semirings of semicontinuous functions, and the general ideal theory for special semirings. (Unfortunately, local alge braists in Poland told me at that time that there was nothing interesting in investigating semiring theory because ring theory was still being developed). However, some time later we became aware of some similar investigations hav ing already been done. The theory of semirings has remained "my first love" ever since, and I have been interested in the results in this field that have been appearing in literature (even though I have not been active in this area myself).

Building in Big Brother

The Cryptographic Policy Debate
Author: Lance J. Hoffman
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461225248
Category: Computers
Page: 560
View: 9875

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The announcement of the Clipper chip by the U.S. Government in April 1993 set off a frenzy of discussions about cryptography policy in the technological community. The shock waves from it ultimately included front page treatment in The New York Times, repeated questions to the Vice President, creation of several new newsgroups on the Internet, and some very productive public discussions about striking the balance between national security, law enforcement, and civil liberties. We still don't have good answers for some of the questions that have been raised. As the Global Information Infrastructure is being built, we are writing portions of the Constitution for Cyberspace. I've been fortunate to have a front row seat and to share much of this with my students. The original reading and selection of materials was made by the first cohort of students* in The George Washington University Accel erated Master of Science Program in Telecommunications and Com puters at the Ashburn, Virginia campus. They worked many long hours-reading, debating, and selecting materials for this book. In addition, Bob Patton spent a great deal of time scanning and editing the material. Nestor Torres prepared the index. And Harish Nalinak shan provided an enormous amount of technical and administrative assistance and kept the project on track as new developments took place in the debate and new papers and legislation reflected these. As with most readings books, some of the selections cover similar material. We have tried to hold this duplication to an acceptable level.

Idempotent Mathematics and Mathematical Physics

International Workshop, February 3-10, 2003, Erwin Schrödinger International Institute for Mathematical Physics, Vienna, Austria
Author: Grigoriĭ Lazarevich Litvinov,Viktor Pavlovich Maslov
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 0821835386
Category: Mathematics
Page: 370
View: 2082

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Idempotent mathematics is a rapidly developing new branch of the mathematical sciences that is closely related to mathematical physics. The existing literature on the subject is vast and includes numerous books and journal papers. A workshop was organized at the Erwin Schrodinger Institute for Mathematical Physics (Vienna) to give a snapshot of modern idempotent mathematics. This volume contains articles stemming from that event. Also included is an introductory paper by G. Litvinov and additional invited contributions. The resulting volume presents a comprehensive overview of the state of the art. It is suitable for graduate students and researchers interested in idempotent mathematics and tropical mathematics.

Non-Associative Algebra and Its Applications

Author: Lev Sabinin,Larissa Sbitneva,Ivan Shestakov
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420003451
Category: Mathematics
Page: 552
View: 7236

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With contributions derived from presentations at an international conference, Non-Associative Algebra and Its Applications explores a wide range of topics focusing on Lie algebras, nonassociative rings and algebras, quasigroups, loops, and related systems as well as applications of nonassociative algebra to geometry, physics, and natural sciences. This book covers material such as Jordan superalgebras, nonassociative deformations, nonassociative generalization of Hopf algebras, the structure of free algebras, derivations of Lie algebras, and the identities of Albert algebra. It also includes applications of smooth quasigroups and loops to differential geometry and relativity.