Electronically Stored Information

The Complete Guide to Management, Understanding, Acquisition, Storage, Search, and Retrieval, Second Edition
Author: David R. Matthews
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 131535229X
Category: Computers
Page: 302
View: 3031

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Although we live in an era in which we are surrounded by an ever-deepening fog of data, few of us truly understand how the data are created, where data are stored, or how to retrieve or destroy data—if that is indeed possible. This book is for all of you, whatever your need or interest. Electronically Stored Information: The Complete Guide to Management, Understanding, Acquisition, Storage, Search, and Retrieval, Second Edition explains the reasons you need to know about electronic data. It also gets into great detail about the how, what, when, and where of what is known in legal circles as electronically stored information (ESI). With easy-to-understand explanations and guidelines, this book provides the practical understanding you need to effectively manage the complex world of ESI. Whether you are an attorney, judge, paralegal, business manager or owner, or just one of the ever-growing population of computer users, you will benefit from the information presented in this book.

A Practical Introduction to Supply Chain


Author: David Pheasey
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 131535148X
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 236
View: 3735

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In many businesses, supply chain people are trapped in reactive roles where they source, contract, purchase, receive, warehouse, and ship as a service. However, in some businesses suppliers contribute to improvement programs, technology, funding, marketing, logistics, and engineering expertise. Breaking into a proactive supply chain role takes broad thinking, a talent for persuasion, and the courage to go after it. This book supplies proven methods to help you do so. A Practical Introduction to Supply Chain describes how to run an efficient supply chain that exceeds expectations in terms of cost, quality, and supplier delivery. It explains the need to integrate systems, the flow of information, and the way in which people work together between commercial purchasing, materials management, and distribution parts of the supply chain. Sharing powerful insights from the perspective of a supply chain manager, the book details practical techniques drawn from the author’s decades of experience. It presents methods that apply directly to supply chains involving a physical product, manufactured internally or outsourced, as well as physical operations such as oilfield services. This book demonstrates how to make a supply chain organization work in practice—contributing more to business success than traditional purchasing and logistics organizations can. In addition to writing about practical supply chain issues and approaches, the author also describes proven methods he used while working with client teams on assignments. He also details some of the ways his teams used to manage the people part of the change.

SQL für Dummies


Author: Allen G. Taylor
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527810897
Category: Computers
Page: 440
View: 7464

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Daten und Datenbanken sind quasi überall. Mit der Standardabfragesprache SQL können Daten in relationalen Datenbanken einfach, strukturiert und zielsicher abgefragt werden. Erfahren Sie in diesem Buch, welches kein Vorwissen voraussetzt, wie man Datenbanken erstellt, wie man Daten ordnet und abfragt und wie man SQL-Anweisungen in Programme und Websites einbindet. Nutzen Sie dieses Buch auch als Nachschlagewerk. Ganz wichtig: Sie lernen auch, wie Sie Ihre Datenbanken und Daten schützen und wie Sie typische Fehler vermeiden.

Data mining

praktische Werkzeuge und Techniken für das maschinelle Lernen
Author: Ian H. Witten,Eibe Frank
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9783446215337
Category:
Page: 386
View: 2477

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Management Information Systems


Author: Gerald Post,David Lee Anderson
Publisher: McGraw-Hill/Irwin
ISBN: 9780072947793
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 624
View: 6200

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Post opens every chapter with a business problem and uses the chapter to explain the processes and technology that can solve the problem. This greater emphasis on problem-solving enables the instructor to quickly show “why” this material matters.

The Design of Everyday Things

Psychologie und Design der alltäglichen Dinge
Author: Norman Don
Publisher: Vahlen
ISBN: 3800648105
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 320
View: 3518

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Apple, Audi, Braun oder Samsung machen es vor: Gutes Design ist heute eine kritische Voraussetzung für erfolgreiche Produkte. Dieser Klassiker beschreibt die fundamentalen Prinzipien, um Dinge des täglichen Gebrauchs umzuwandeln in unterhaltsame und zufriedenstellende Produkte. Don Norman fordert ein Zusammenspiel von Mensch und Technologie mit dem Ziel, dass Designer und Produktentwickler die Bedürfnisse, Fähigkeiten und Handlungsweisen der Nutzer in den Vordergrund stellen und Designs an diesen angepasst werden. The Design of Everyday Things ist eine informative und spannende Einführung für Designer, Marketer, Produktentwickler und für alle an gutem Design interessierten Menschen. Zum Autor Don Norman ist emeritierter Professor für Kognitionswissenschaften. Er lehrte an der University of California in San Diego und der Northwest University in Illinois. Mitte der Neunzigerjahre leitete Don Norman die Advanced Technology Group bei Apple. Dort prägte er den Begriff der User Experience, um über die reine Benutzbarkeit hinaus eine ganzheitliche Erfahrung der Anwender im Umgang mit Technik in den Vordergrund zu stellen. Norman ist Mitbegründer der Beratungsfirma Nielsen Norman Group und hat unter anderem Autohersteller von BMW bis Toyota beraten. „Keiner kommt an Don Norman vorbei, wenn es um Fragen zu einem Design geht, das sich am Menschen orientiert.“ Brand Eins 7/2013 „Design ist einer der wichtigsten Wettbewerbsvorteile. Dieses Buch macht Spaß zu lesen und ist von größter Bedeutung.” Tom Peters, Co-Autor von „Auf der Suche nach Spitzenleistungen“

Verteidigung

Roman
Author: John Grisham
Publisher: Heyne Verlag
ISBN: 3641110300
Category: Fiction
Page: 480
View: 7773

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"Überzeugend und mit bissigem Witz. Das ist Unterhaltung auf höchstem Niveau." The Sunday Times Als Harvard-Absolvent David Zinc Partner bei einer der angesehensten Großkanzleien Chicagos wird, scheint seiner Karriere nichts mehr im Weg zu stehen. Doch der Job erweist sich als die Hölle. Fünf Jahre später zieht David die Reißleine und kündigt. Stattdessen heuert er bei Finley & Figg an, einer auf Verkehrsunfälle spezialisierten Vorstadt-Kanzlei, deren chaotische Partner zunächst nicht wissen, was sie mit ihm anfangen sollen. Bis die Kanzlei ihren ersten großen Fall an Land zieht. Der Prozess könnte Millionen einspielen – die Feuertaufe für David. Als Anwalt bei Rogan Rothberg, einer der renommiertesten Kanzleien im Großraum Chicagos, hat man ausgesorgt. Jeder Jurist würde seine rechte Hand für diesen Job geben. David Zinc ist seit fünf Jahren dabei. Fünf harte Jahre, in denen er sechs Tage die Woche von morgens sieben bis abends zehn arbeitet. Dann schmeißt er hin und bewirbt sich bei Finley & Figg, einem windigen Zweimannbetrieb, der seine Fixkosten mit Verkehrsunfällen und ähnlichen Kleinstdelikten deckt. Doch was Davids neuen Arbeitgebern an Prestige fehlt, machen sie an Einfallsreichtum wett. Kaum ein Winkelzug, den sie nicht geschickt für sich verwenden, kaum ein Paragraph, den sie nicht auszuschlachten wüssten. David kommt aus dem Staunen nicht heraus, bis Wally Figg einen Fall aufspürt, der die große Wende für die kleine Kanzlei bedeuten könnte: die Klage gegen einen Pharmakonzern, der ein Medikament trotz möglicherweise tödlicher Nebenwirkungen nicht vom Markt nehmen will. Die Partner versprechen ihren Klienten das große Geld, und auch David lässt sich von der Begeisterung anstecken, bis er erkennt, dass Finley & Figg jede Kompetenz für einen Prozess dieser Größenordnung fehlt.

Leading Change

Wie Sie Ihr Unternehmen in acht Schritten erfolgreich verändern
Author: John P. Kotter
Publisher: Vahlen
ISBN: 3800646153
Category: Fiction
Page: 158
View: 8826

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John P. Kotters wegweisendes Werk Leading Change erschien 1996 und zählt heute zu den wichtigsten Managementbüchern überhaupt. Es wurde in zahlreiche Sprachen übersetzt und millionenfach verkauft. Der Druck auf Unternehmen, sich den permanent wandelnden internen und externen Einflüssen zu stellen, wird weiter zunehmen. Dabei gehört ein offener, aber professionell geführter Umgang mit Change-Prozessen zu den Wesensmerkmalen erfolgreicher Unternehmen im 21. Jahrhundert und zu den größten Herausforderungen in der Arbeit von Führungskräften. Einer der weltweit renommiertesten Experten auf diesem Gebiet hat basierend auf seinen Erfahrungen aus Forschung und Praxis einen visionären Text geschrieben, der zugleich inspirierend und gefüllt ist mit bedeutenden Implikationen für das Change-Management. Leading Change zeigt Ihnen, wie Sie Wandlungsprozesse in Unternehmen konsequent führen. Beginnend mit den Gründen, warum viele Unternehmen an Change-Prozessen scheitern, wird im Anschluss ein Acht-Stufen-Plan entwickelt, der Ihnen hilft, pragmatisch einen erfolgreichen Wandel zu gestalten. Wenn Sie wissen möchten, warum Ihre letzte Change-Initiative scheiterte, dann lesen Sie dieses Buch am besten gleich, sodass Ihr nächstes Projekt von Erfolg gekrönt wird. Ralf Dobelli, getabstract.com Leading Change is simply the best single work I have seen on strategy implementation. William C. Finnie, Editor-in-Chief Strategy & Leadership Leading Change ist ein weltweiter, zeitloser Bestseller. Werner Seidenschwarz, Seidenschwarz & Comp.

Advances in Knowledge-Based and Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems


Author: Manuel Graña,Carlos Toro
Publisher: IOS Press
ISBN: 1614991049
Category: Computers
Page: 2273
View: 5764

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In this 2012 edition of Advances in Knowledge-Based and Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems the latest innovations and advances in Intelligent Systems and related areas are presented by leading experts from all over the world. The 228 papers that are included cover a wide range of topics. One emphasis is on Information Processing, which has become a pervasive phenomenon in our civilization. While the majority of Information Processing is becoming intelligent in a very broad sense, major research in Semantics, Artificial Intelligence and Knowledge Engineering supports the domain specific applications that are becoming more and more present in our everyday living. Ontologies play a major role in the development of Knowledge Engineering in various domains, from Semantic Web down to the design of specific Decision Support Systems. Research on Ontologies and their applications is a highly active front of current Computational Intelligence science that is addressed here. Other subjects in this volume are modern Machine Learning, Lattice Computing and Mathematical Morphology.The wide scope and high quality of these contributions clearly show that knowledge engineering is a continuous living and evolving set of technologies aimed at improving the design and understanding of systems and their relations with humans.

Die Kunst Des It-projektmanagements (2nd Edition)


Author: Scott Berkun
Publisher: O'Reilly Germany
ISBN: 3897219220
Category: Computers
Page: 480
View: 7364

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Weshalb verschieben sich Release-Termine ständig? Warum funktioniert die Team-Kommunikation zwischen Designern, Entwicklern und Marketing nicht? Wie kommt man auf wirklich kreative Ideen? Und was tun, wenn etwas schief geht? Wenn Sie sich Fragen wie diese schon oft gestellt haben – Scott Berkun hat die Antworten für Sie. Mit Humor und scharfem Blick beleuchtet der erfahrene Autor und Projektmanager die klassischen Aufgaben, Herausforderungen und Mechanismen des IT-Projektmanagements. Von der fachkundigen Planung über die zielgerichtete Team-Kommunikation bis hin zum erfolgreichen Projektabschluss – hier erhalten Sie kompetente Einblicke in die Realität der Projektleitung. Projekte realistisch planen Entdecken Sie, welche ersten Schritte das Projekt erfolgreich starten, wie man solide Zeitpläne entwickelt und gute Visionsdokumente und Spezifikationen schreibt, wie neue Ideen entstehen und was man aus ihnen machen kann. Teams effektiv führen Erhalten Sie Einblicke in die erfolgreiche Teamleitung: Lernen Sie, wie man die Team-Moral kultiviert, konfliktfrei kommuniziert, Meetings optimal gestaltet und den Spaß am Projekt steigert. Neu in der überarbeiteten Auflage Die zweite, komplett überarbeitete Auflage wurde um Übungsteile am Ende jeden Kapitels erweitert. Dadurch kann der Leser durch über 120 Übungen die Kapitelinhalte praxisnah erschließen und vertiefen.

Die Unsterblichkeit der Henrietta Lacks

Die Geschichte der HeLa-Zellen
Author: Rebecca Skloot
Publisher: Irisiana
ISBN: 3641051754
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Page: 512
View: 6813

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Dieses Buch betrifft uns alle Sie waren notwendig, um Fortschritte gegen Krebs und AIDS zu erzielen. Klonen und Genforschung wäre ohne sie nicht möglich gewesen. Kurz: Die größten Erfolge der Medizin der letzten Jahrzehnte basieren auf der Entdeckung der HeLa-Zellen. Hinter dem Kürzel verbirgt sich eine Frau namens Henrietta Lacks. Die Afroamerikanerin aus ärmlichen Verhältnissen starb 1951 jung an Gebärmutterhalskrebs. Zuvor wurden ihr ohne ihr Wissen Zellproben entnommen, die sich überraschenderweise vermehrten. Damit war der entscheidende Durchbruch in der Zellkulturforschung geschafft. Die prämierte Wissenschaftsjournalistin Rebecca Skloot stellt in ihrem brillant verfassten Buch wichtige Jahrzehnte der Medizingeschichte vor und wirft dabei immer wieder ethische Fragen auf. Sie erzählt die tragische Familiengeschichte der Lacks’, die von Rassismus und mangelnden Bildungschancen geprägt ist. Ihr Buch ist eine gekonnte Mischung aus Biografie, Medizingeschichte, Debattenbuch und beachtlichem Enthüllungsjournalismus.

Essentials of Nursing Research, 7th Edition, Polit & Beek, 2010

Essentials of Nursing Research
Author: Wolters-Kluwer, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Publisher: Bukupedia
ISBN: N.A
Category: Medical
Page: 626
View: 352

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This book marks the seventh time we have worked on this textbook, which is designed to teach students how to read research reports and critique the methods used in nursing studies. It is perhaps difficult to imagine that writing a seventh edition of a textbook on research methods could be fun—but that is exactly the right word to describe our experience in working on this new edition. We have made many changes to the content and organization of this textbook, and the revisions kept our enthusiasm and energy for this project at a very high level. We are confident that we have introduced numerous improvements—but at the same time, we have retained many features that have made this book a classic throughout the world. We think that this edition will make it easier and more satisfying for nurses to pursue a professional pathway that incorporates thoughtful appraisals of evidence. NEW TO THIS EDITION Up-front, Consistent Emphasis on Evidence-Based Practice To an even greater extent than in the past, we emphasize in this edition that research is a crucial enterprise for building an evidence base for nursing practice. We have given the topic of evidence-based practice (EBP) greater prominence by making the chapter on EBP the second chapter of the book (previously the last chapter), and by expanding its content. We emphasize throughout that high-quality evidence is a product of researchers’ decisions in designing and executing a study. Every chapter offers guidance on how to appraise research evidence for its utility in informing nurses’ clinical decisions. We have also added a new chapter on how to read, interpret, and critique systematic reviews, which are considered by many to be a cornerstone of EBP. The Study Guide that supplements this textbook includes a full report of an EBP project. The increased focus on EBP prompted us to modify the book’s title to emphasize the important link between research and evidence. New Material Relating to Medical Research Methodology Nurse researchers have tended to use methods and jargon that originated in the social sciences, but the push for EBP in medicine has led to methodologic innovations that are relevant to all healthcare research. Moreover, nurses can profit from familiarity with medical research terms and approaches so they can comfortably read articles in a broad range of health care journals. This edition offers a more balanced presentation of medical and social science methods and nomenclature. Improved Content on Qualitative Methods In every new edition we have expanded content on qualitative research methods, and this edition is no exception. We are especially pleased to include a new chapter P R E F A C E vii on the issue of quality and trustworthiness in qualitative inquiry, Chapter 18. We believe that the content and breadth of this important chapter is unparalleled in other general textbooks on research methods for nurses. Greater Assistance With Interpretation Many books on research methods describe the techniques used to generate evidence, but they typically offer little or no guidance on interpreting research results. We have made efforts to address this deficiency by offering an interpretive framework for both quantitative (Chapter 16) and qualitative (Chapter 18) research. Additional Support for Research Appraisals—The Toolkit Each chapter of the book includes questions to aid students in reading and appraising research journal articles. In this edition, these critiquing guidelines are also available on the accompanying Student CD-ROM and . With electronic files of these resources, students can download the guidelines, adapt them as needed, and then enter their answers to the questions directly, without having to photocopy pages from the book. Many faculty have told us that the general critiquing guidelines (which we have put in an earlier chapter than in previous editions) are useful as handouts, and now they are more readily accessible. ORGANIZATION OF THE TEXT The content of this edition is organized into five main parts. * Part I—Overview of Nursing Research and Its Role in Evidence-Based Practice introduces fundamental concepts in nursing research. Chapter 1 summarizes the history and future of nursing research, discusses the philosophical underpinnings of qualitative research versus quantitative research, and describes major purposes of nursing research. Chapter 2 offers guidance on using research to build an EBP. Chapter 3 introduces readers to key research terms, and presents an overview of steps in the research process for both qualitative and quantitative studies. Chapter 4 focuses on research reports, explaining what they are and how to read them. Chapter 5 discusses ethics in nursing studies. * Part II—Preliminary Steps in the Appraisal of Evidence further sets the stage for learning about the research process by considering aspects of a study’s conceptualization. Chapter 6 focuses on the development of research questions and the formulation of research hypotheses. Chapter 7 discusses how to prepare and critique literature reviews. Chapter 8 presents information about theoretical and conceptual frameworks. * Part III—Designs for Nursing Research presents material on the design of qualitative and quantitative nursing studies. Chapter 9 describes some fundamental design principles and discusses many specific aspects of quantitative research design. Chapter 10 viii PREFACE addresses the various research traditions that have contributed to the growth of naturalistic inquiry and qualitative research. Chapter 11 provides an introduction to some specific types of research (e.g., evaluations, surveys, secondary analyses), and also describes mixed method studies that integrate qualitative and quantitative components. Chapter 12 introduces designs for sampling study participants. * Part IV—Data Collection concerns the gathering of data to address research questions. Chapter 13 discusses a range of data collection options for nurse researchers, including both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Chapter 14 describes the concept of measurement and criteria for assessing data quality in quantitative studies. * Part V—Data Analysis and Interpretation discusses analytic methods for qualitative and quantitative research. Chapter 15 reviews methods of quantitative analysis. The chapter assumes no prior instruction in statistics and focuses primarily on helping readers to understand why statistics are needed, what tests might be appropriate in a given situation, and what statistical information in a research report means. Chapter 16 discusses ways of appraising rigor in quantitative studies, and approaches to interpreting statistical results. Chapter 17 presents a discussion of qualitative analysis, with an emphasis on ethnographies, phenomenologic studies, and grounded theory studies. Chapter 18 elaborates on criteria for appraising integrity and quality in qualitative studies. Finally, Chapter 19 describes systematic reviews, including how to understand and appraise both meta-analyses and metasyntheses. KEY FEATURES This edition, like its predecessors, is focused on the art—and science—of research critiques. It offers guidance to students who are learning to appraise research reports and use research findings in practice. Among the basic principles that helped to shape this and earlier editions of this book are (1) an assumption that competence in doing and appraising research are critical to the nursing profession; (2) a conviction that research inquiry is intellectually and professionally rewarding to nurses; and (3) an unswerving belief that learning about research methods need be neither intimidating nor dull. Consistent with these principles, we have tried to present research fundamentals in a way that both facilitates understanding and arouses curiosity and interest. General Features We have retained many of the key features that were successfully used in previous editions to assist consumers of nursing research: * Clear, “User-Friendly” Style. Our writing style is designed to be easily digestible and nonintimidating. Concepts are introduced carefully and systematically, difficult ideas are presented clearly, and readers are assumed to have no prior knowledge of technical terms. PREFACE ix * Critiquing Guidelines. Each chapter includes guidelines for conducting a critique of various aspects of a research report. The guidelines sections provide a list of questions that walk students through a study, drawing attention to aspects of the study that are amenable to appraisal by research consumers. Electronic versions of the guidelines are available on the accompanying student CD-ROM and thePoint. * Research Examples. Each chapter concludes with one or two actual research examples designed to highlight critical points made in the chapter and to sharpen the reader’s critical thinking skills. In addition, many research examples are used to illustrate key points in the text and to stimulate students’ thinking about areas of research inquiry. We have chosen many international examples to communicate to students that nursing research is growing in importance worldwide. * Tips for Consumers. The textbook is filled with practical guidance and “tips” on how to translate the abstract notions of research methods into more concrete applications. In these tips, we have paid special attention to helping students read research reports, which are often daunting to those without specialized research training. * Graphics. Colorful graphics, in the form of supportive tables, figures, and examples, reinforce the text and offer visual stimulation. Features for Student Learning We have used many features to enhance and reinforce learning—and, especially, to facilitate the development of critiquing skills. These include the following: * Student Objectives. Learning objectives are identified in the chapter opener to focus students’ attention on critical content. * Key Terms. New terms are defined in context (and bolded) when used for the first time in the text. Each chapter concludes with a list of new terms, and we have made the list less daunting by including only key new terms. A glossary at the end of the book provides additional support for those needing to look up the meaning of a methodologic term. * Bulleted Summary Points. A succinct list of summary points that focus on salient chapter content is included at the end of each chapter. * Full-Length Research Articles. In this edition, the textbook includes four recent fulllength studies—two quantitative and two qualitative—that students can read, analyze, and critique. Two appear in the appendices of the textbook, and two are on the CD-ROM packaged with the book and thePoint. * Critiquing Supports. Each chapter of the textbook concludes with “Critical Thinking Activities”—exercises that provide opportunities to practice critiquing. Some exercises are based on the studies that are included in their entirety in the appendices of the book, while others are based on studies that are summarized at the end of the chapters. Importantly, students can then consult the accompanying CD-ROM and thePoint to find our “answers” (our expert thoughts about each question), so that students can get immediate feedback about their grasp of material in the chapter. (In some cases, there are also thoughtful comments by the actual researchers who conducted the studies). This edition x PREFACE also includes full critiques of the two studies on the CD-ROM and thePoint, which students can use as models for a comprehensive research critique. Many more critiquing opportunities are available in the Study Guide, which includes seven studies in their entirety in the appendices and exercises in each chapter that guide students in reading, understanding, and critiquing these studies. TEACHING-LEARNING PACKAGE Essentials of Nursing Research: Appraising Evidence for Nursing Practice, seventh edition, has an ancillary package designed with both students and instructors in mind. * The Study Guide augments the text and provides students with application exercises for each text chapter. Critiquing skills are emphasized, but there are also activities to support the learning of fundamental research terms and principles. Seven recent studies— including one report of an EBP project—are included in the appendices, and many chapter exercises are based on these studies. The studies represent a range of research types, including a clinical trial, a survey, an evaluation of an EBP project, a grounded theory study, a feminist study, a meta-analysis, and a metasynthesis. * Free CD-ROM. The textbook includes a CD-ROM that has many important resources. First, as noted, we provide our answers to the Critical Thinking Activities from the textbook. Critiquing guidelines for each chapter, as well as some other resources, are included as a toolkit in electronic files for downloading, adapting, and printing. Next, the CD-ROM provides hundreds of review questions to assist students in self-testing. This review program provides a rationale for both correct and incorrect answers, helping students to identify areas of strength and areas needing further study. Finally, the CD-ROM has lists of relevant and useful websites for each chapter, which can be “clicked” on directly without having to retype the URL and risk a typographical error. All of these resources are also available on thePoint. * The Instructor’s Resource CD-ROM (IRCD) includes a chapter corresponding to every chapter in the textbook. Each IRCD chapter contains the following: Statement of Intent, Special Class Projects, Answers to Selected Study Guide Exercises, and Test Questions and Answers. In the special class projects, we offer opportunities for students to develop a quantitative and (or) a qualitative data set. With regard to test questions to evaluate student learning, we offer multiple choice and true/false questions and, importantly, we have added questions specifically designed to test students’ ability to comprehend research reports. In addition, PowerPoint slides summarizing key points in each chapter are available in a format that permits easy adaptation. All of this content is also available on thePoint. It is our hope and expectation that the content, style, and organization of this seventh edition of Essentials of Nursing Research will be helpful to those students desiring to become skillful and thoughtful readers of nursing studies and to those wishing to enhance their clinical performance based on research findings. We also hope that this textbook will help to develop an enthusiasm for the kinds of discoveries and knowledge that research can produce. PREFACE xi