Principles of Electron Optics, Volume 1

Basic Geometrical Optics
Author: Peter W. Hawkes,Erwin Kasper
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0081022573
Category: Science
Page: 728
View: 5501

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Volume one of Principles of Electron Optics: Basic Geometrical Optics, Second Edition, explores the geometrical optics needed to analyze an extremely wide range of instruments: cathode-ray tubes; the family of electron microscopes, including the fixed-beam and scanning transmission instruments, the scanning electron microscope and the emission microscope; electron spectrometers and mass spectrograph; image converters; electron interferometers and diffraction devices; electron welding machines; and electron-beam lithography devices. The book provides a self-contained, detailed, modern account of electron optics for anyone involved with particle beams of modest current density in the energy range up to a few mega-electronvolts. You will find all the basic equations with their derivations, recent ideas concerning aberration studies, extensive discussion of the numerical methods needed to calculate the properties of specific systems and guidance to the literature of all the topics covered. A continuation of these topics can be found in volume two, Principles of Electron Optics: Applied Geometrical Optics. The book is intended for postgraduate students and teachers in physics and electron optics, as well as researchers and scientists in academia and industry working in the field of electron optics, electron and ion microscopy and nanolithography. Offers a fully revised and expanded new edition based on the latest research developments in electron optics Written by the top experts in the field Covers every significant advance in electron optics since the subject originated Contains exceptionally complete and carefully selected references and notes Serves both as a reference and text

Electron Microscopy In Material Science


Author: U Valdre
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0323142567
Category: Science
Page: 784
View: 1121

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Electron Microscopy in Material Science covers the proceedings of the International School of Electron Microscopy held in Erice, Itsaly, in 1970. The said conference is intended to the developments of electron optics and electron microscopy and its applications in material science. The book is divided into four parts. Part I discusses the impact of electron microscopy in the science of materials. Part II covers topics such as electron optics and instrumentation; geometric electron optics and its problems; and special electron microscope specimen stages. Part III explains the theory of electron diffraction image contrast and then elaborates on related areas such as the application of electron diffraction and of electron microscopy to radiation; computing methods; and problems in electron microscopy. Part IV includes topics such as the transfer of image information in the electron microscope; phase contrast microscopy; and the magnetic phase contrast. The text is recommended for electron microscopists who are interested in the application of their field in material science, as well as for experts in the field of material science and would like to know about the importance of electron microscopy.

Principles of Electron Optics

Wave Optics
Author: Peter W. Hawkes,E. Kasper
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0080984169
Category: Science
Page: 752
View: 8153

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The three volumes in the PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRON OPTICS Series constitute the first comprehensive treatment of electron optics in over forty years. While Volumes 1 and 2 are devoted to geometrical optics, Volume 3 is concerned with wave optics and effects due to wave length. Subjects covered include: Derivation of the laws of electron propagation from SchrUdinger's equation Image formation and the notion of resolution The interaction between specimens and electrons Image processing Electron holography and interference Coherence, brightness, and the spectral function Together, these works comprise a unique and informative treatment of the subject. Volume 3, like its predecessors, will provide readers with both a textbook and an invaluable reference source.

The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 3rd Edition, Anne H. Soukhanov

English Language
Author: Anne H. Soukhanov
Publisher: Bukupedia
ISBN: N.A
Category: Young Adult Nonfiction
Page: 8654
View: 5493

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A lmost a quarter of a century ago a new dictionary bearing the name American Heritage appeared. That book was notable because it did four things and it did them well. It faithfully recorded the language in easily understood definitions. It provided guidance toward accuracy, precision, and grace in the use of English that intelligent people need and seek in a dictionary. It traced, whenever possible, the development of English words to their origins and keyed many to an Appendix of Indo-European Roots. And it presented complex lexical data in a typographically attractive design accented by thousands of photographs and line drawings in spacious margins. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Third Edition , builds upon this distinguished, innovative foundation. The pages of the Third Edition, a lexicon of more than 200,000 boldface forms, hundreds of thousands of meanings, and nearly 4,000 pieces of art, reflect the rich and varied texture of American English as it has been used over time by a broad group of educated speakers. This Dictionary is the product of four years of work by 175 contributors. In preparing the Dictionary, our editors have had access to a database containing hundreds of millions of lines of text that could be searched for any word in context. The A-Z vocabulary, containing more than 16,000 words and meanings new to this Edition, is a comprehensive, detailed record of the language. Use of citations allowed the editors to identify new words and new meanings, identify levels of usage, and select more than 4,000 quoted illustrations from nearly 2,000 sources for use in exemplifying entry words in printed context. The quoted illustrations range from the works of Shakespeare, Pope, and Ruskin to the works of contemporary writers such as Joyce Carol Oates, Joan Didion, John Updike, and Tom Wicker. More than 30,000 nonquoted illustrative examples were also derived from study of the citations. Finally, the citations were used to determine the status of variants. For example, 4,000 electronic citations were accrued for the spelling ambiance and about 2,000 were found for the variant ambience . On the basis of this 2:1 ratio the Dictionary gives ambience as an "unequal," or less frequently occurring, variant of the entry word ambiance . If language is a reflection of the ethos of the generation speaking it, then the new entries and meanings in this Edition have much to say about us and our time. The great majority of the new words relate to social and life patterns; to the life sciences with an emphasis on health, medicine, genetics, and ecology; and to the physical sciences with an emphasis on computer technology and electronics, physics, and astronomy. The goal of the Third Edition is to provide the user with comprehension and appreciation of the language in a readable manner. Keeping the needs of the contemporary user in mind, we have presented the central and often the most frequently sought meaning of a word first. The definitions are worded in concise, lucid prose without the specialized terms and abbreviations that make most dictionaries forbidding and confusing. The Third Edition contains more than 500 notes and comments on matters of grammar, diction, pronunciation, and levels and nuances of usage. Citations were used in identifying new and evolving usage problems, attesting and evaluating the currency of certain usages, studying various levels of usage, and evaluating their sociolinguistic implications. The 173-member Usage Panel, with 75 new members and chaired by Geoffrey Nunberg, a linguist associated with Stanford University, has made an important contribution to the content and direction of the Usage Notes through responses to periodic surveys developed by the Chair and the editors. The Usage Panel of the Third Edition consists chiefly of writers, editors, and scholars, 22 of whom are professors of linguistics or English. Other Panelists occupy distinguished positions in law, diplomacy, government, business, science and technology, medicine, and the arts. Eighteen are recipients of the Pulitzer Prize and one is a Nobel Laureate. These men and women, who reside in 28 states across the land and in Canada and England, are a cross section of today's critical, literary, and scholarly community. A list of usage issues—old and new—was prepared by the Chair and the editors, and from it the usage program for the Third Edition was developed. Some of the usage issues are entirely new. An example is the Note at world-class . Other issues discussed in previous editions were resurveyed. An example is the use of contact as a verb. In some instances the Panel's views are more conservative than in the past: only 27 percent of the current Panel accepts hopefully as a sentence adverb, a usage that in 1969 was acceptable to 44 percent of the Panel. Other Notes, such as the one that discusses the use of above as a noun, present guidance and linguistic analysis without Panel opinions. The Usage Notes are not confined solely to matters of stylistic excellence. Our concern with usage extends to issues of gender, ethnicity, and sexual preference. Considerable attention is devoted in this Edition to the history of words. The etymologies have been thoroughly revised and expanded by a group of 25 specialists whose work reflects original scholarly research in many fields, including African, Persian, Turkish, and Native American languages. Special symbols, abbreviations, and complex technical vocabulary have been avoided in the etymologies. More than 400 word history paragraphs, most of which contain dates of first occurrence of the words in English, appear at entries with especially interesting etymologies. These word histories, such as the one at nerd , provide a social, historical, and cultural context for the evolution of words and explain the various linguistic processes that contribute to the development of language. A great many Modern English words can be traced to the reconstructed ancestral language called Proto-Indo-European. The etymologies in the Third Edition, like those in the First, trace many words to their earliest ascertainable origins, usually in Proto-Indo-European, by means of cross-references to a new and thoroughly revised Appendix of Indo-European Roots. The Appendix, in a major departure from previous style, gives the root followed by a brief gloss and a list of some of the Modern English words derived from it. The individual roots entry then follows. For example, the Modern English words fierce , and treacle , at first glance strange semantic companions, both derive from the root *ghwer- , "wild." The Third Edition contains hundreds of labeled words and meanings whose occurrence is restricted to certain areas of the United States. An important new feature unique to the Third Edition is the inclusion of more than 100 Regional Notes that explore the various linguistic and historical processes contributing to the development of these terms. These processes are apparent in the Regional Notes at entries such as absquatulate . In an effort to assist the reader in using the language with color, vitality, and freshness, the Third Edition devotes more attention than ever before to synonymy by including more than 900 synonym paragraphs. The fully cross-referenced synonym paragraphs are of two kinds. The first, liberally illustrated with quotations, discriminates shades of meaning. The second kind lists exact synonyms, that is, words sharing a common irreducible element of meaning, and provides antonyms when applicable. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Third Edition , like the First, is the product of significant advances in the use of computer technology. The Third Edition is derived from a complex, highly versatile structured database. Every element in the Dictionary was parsed, examined, and coded to reflect its lexical function and position within the base. In combination, these elements form dictionary entries, and on a broader scale they reflect a multitude of relationships across the lexicon. Use of the database in connection with electronically generated citations places the Third Edition a generation ahead of other dictionaries. It is no longer possible for a few general editors working strictly within a publishing house to compile a true and accurate record of the language as it is used today. Semantic, etymological, linguistic, and technical complexities inherent in the language require the counsel of specialists from many disciplines. These specialists' names are listed under Special Contributors and Consultants. We wish to thank all of them for helping us in our pursuit of accuracy and truth. Special thanks go to John Simpson, Co-Editor of the New Oxford English Dictionary , for valuable comments made during the early stages of the project. And to all members of the Editorial Staff who gave unstintingly of their time and expended great effort in the development of the Third Edition, we express our deepest gratitude. Anne H.Soukhanov

Nanofabrication Handbook


Author: Stefano Cabrini,Satoshi Kawata
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420090534
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 546
View: 7471

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While many books are dedicated to individual aspects of nanofabrication, there is no single source that defines and explains the total vision of the field. Filling this gap, Nanofabrication Handbook presents a unique collection of new and the most important established approaches to nanofabrication. Contributors from leading research facilities and academic institutions around the world define subfields, offer practical instructions and examples, and pave the way for future research. Helping readers to select the proper fabricating technique for their experiments, the book provides a broad vision of the most critical problems and explains how to solve them. It includes basic definitions and introduces the main underlying concepts of nanofabrication. The book also discusses the major advantages and disadvantages of each approach and offers a wide variety of examples of cutting-edge applications. Each chapter focuses on a particular method or aspect of study. For every method, the contributors describe the underlying theoretical basis, resolution, patterns and substrates used, and applications. They show how applications at the nanoscale require a different process and understanding than those at the microscale. For each experiment, they elucidate key solutions to problems relating to materials, methods, and surface considerations. A complete resource for this rapidly emerging interdisciplinary field, this handbook provides practical information for planning the experiments of any project that employs nanofabrication techniques. It gives readers a foundation to enter the complex world of nanofabrication and inspires the scientific community at large to push the limits of nanometer resolution.

Walford's Guide to Reference Material: Science and technology


Author: Albert John Walford,Library Association
Publisher: London : Library Association Pub.
ISBN: N.A
Category: Reference
Page: 687
View: 7740

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A revised and updated guide to reference material. It contains selective and evaluative entries to guide the enquirer to the best source of reference in each subject area, be it journal article, CD-ROM, on-line database, bibliography, encyclopaedia, monograph or directory. It features full critical annotations and reviewers' comments and comprehensive author-title and subject indexes. The contents include: mathematics; astronomy and surveying; physics; chemistry; earth sciences; palaeontology; anthropology; biology; natural history; botany; zoology; patents and interventions; medicine; engineering; transport vehicles; agriculture and livestock; household management; communication; chemical industry; manufactures; industries, trades and crafts; and the building industry.

American Book Publishing Record Cumulative, 1970-1974


Author: Bowker Editorial Staff
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9780835209113
Category:
Page: 6500
View: 4133

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Here's quick access to more than 490,000 titles published from 1970 to 1984 arranged in Dewey sequence with sections for Adult and Juvenile Fiction. Author and Title indexes are included, and a Subject Guide correlates primary subjects with Dewey and LC classification numbers. These cumulative records are available in three separate sets.

Progress in Optics


Author: Emil Wolf
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780444509086
Category: Science
Page: 423
View: 5387

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This volume presents six review articles devoted to various topics of current interest both in classical and in quantum optics. The first article, by S. Ya. Kilin, entitled "Quanta and Information," is concerned with a multidisciplinary subject which involves optics, information theory, programming and discrete mathematics. The second article, "Optical Solitons in Periodic Media with Resonant and Off-Resonant Nonlinearities," by G. Kurizki, A.E. Kozhekin, T. Optatrny and B. Malomed, reviews the properties of optical solitons in periodic nonlinear media. The article which follows deals with an effect and its inverse which is a manifestation of hindrance and enhancement, respectively, of the evolution of a quantum system by an external agent, such as a detection apparatus. The fourth article discusses the current status of a relatively new branch of physical optics, sometimes called singular optics. The next two articles respectively present a review of advances in two-photon interferometry and their relation to investigations of the foundations of quantum theory and an examination of transverse mode shaping and selection in laser resonators.

Optical Coating Technology


Author: Philip Baumeister
Publisher: SPIE Press
ISBN: 9780819453136
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 840
View: 674

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Organized around the key subjects associated with functions of optical thin film performance, this book provides a valuable resource in the field of thin film technology. The information is widely backed up with citations to patents and published literature. Many questions are answered, such as: what are the conventions for a given analysis formalism? and, what other design approaches have been tried for this application? This book represents the experience of Philip Baumeister's 25 years of teaching classes on Optical Thin Film Technology at the UCLA Extension Program, and at companies worldwide.

The National union catalog, pre-1956 imprints

a cumulative author list representing Library of Congress printed cards and titles reported by other American libraries
Author: Library of Congress,American Library Association. Committee on Resources of American Libraries. National Union Catalog Subcommittee
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Catalogs, Union
Page: N.A
View: 9587

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Detection of Optical and Infrared Radiation


Author: R. H. Kingston
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3540359486
Category: Science
Page: 142
View: 681

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This text treats the fundamentals of optical and infrared detection in terms of the behavior of the radiation field, the physical properties of the detector, and the statistical behavior of the detector output. Both incoherent and coherent detection are treated in a unified manner, after which selected applications are analyzed, following an analysis of atmospheric effects and signal statistics. The material was developed during a one-semester course at M.I.T. in 1975, revised and presented again in 1976 at Lincoln Laboratory, and rewritten for publication in 1977. Chapter 1 reviews the derivation of Planck's thermal radiation law and also presents several fundamental concepts used throughout the text. These include the three thermal distribution laws (Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac, Bose Einstein), spontaneous and stimulated emission, and the definition and counting of electromagnetic modes of space. Chapter 2 defines and analyzes the perfect photon detector and calculates the ultimate sensitivity in the presence of thermal radiation. In Chapter 3, we turn from incoherent or power detection to coherent or heterodyne detection and use the concept of orthogonal spatial modes to explain the antenna theorem and the mixing theorem. Chapters 4 through 6 then present a detailed analysis of the sensitivity of vacuum and semiconductor detectors, including the effects of amplifier noise.