East Encounters West

France and the Ottoman Empire in the Eighteenth Century
Author: Fatma Muge Gocek
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780195364330
Category: History
Page: 208
View: 818

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In 1720, an Ottoman ambassador was sent to the court of the Child King Louis XV to observe Western civilization and report on what he saw and how it could be applied in the Ottoman Empire. Based on the accounts of this ambassador, East Encounters West studies the impact of the West on the Ottoman empire and the impact of this Ottoman embassy on the two societies. In France, the presence of the embassy yielded only a brief fashion of Turquerie, whereas in the Ottoman empire, it yielded the first official printing press, signalling an important step toward Western style. G??ek here assesses the reasons behind these differential impacts through three factors: the Western technological advances, consequent commercial expansion, and the different reactions of various social groups in the Ottoman empire to these developments. Her analysis reveals a far-reaching and complex Westernization process that permeated Turkish society as it was approved and imported by dignitaries and eventually passed onto average households. Sketching the process of Westernization from the perspective of Easterners, this unique book throws new light on the cultural differences between these two major civilizations and on the nature of cultural transmission and diffusion.

Turkey and the European Union

Christian and Secular Images of Islam
Author: P. Levin
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 0230119573
Category: Political Science
Page: 278
View: 9290

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This book carefully examines the historical roots of contemporary Western prejudices against both Muslims and Turks, and presents an original theory of collective identity as dramatic re-enactment as a means of understanding the remarkable persistence of medieval stereotypes.

Visitors to Versailles

From Louis XIV to the French Revolution
Author: Daniëlle Kisluk-Grosheide,Bertrand Rondot
Publisher: Metropolitan Museum of Art
ISBN: 1588396223
Category: Art
Page: 392
View: 9415

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What was it like to visit one of the most magnificent courts of Europe? Based on a wealth of contemporary documents and surviving works of art, this lavish book explores the experiences of those who swarmed the palace and grounds of Versailles when it was the seat of the French monarchy. Engaging essays describe methods of transportation, the elaborate codes of dress and etiquette, precious diplomatic gifts, royal audiences, and tours of the palace and gardens. Also presented are the many types of visitors and guests who eagerly made their way to this center of power and culture, including day-trippers and Grand Tourists, European diplomats, overseas ambassadors, incognito travelers, and Americans. Through paintings and portraits, furniture, costumes and uniforms, arms and armor, guidebooks, and other works of art, Visitors to Versailles illuminates what travelers encountered at court and what impressions, gifts, and souvenirs they took home with them. In bringing to life their experiences, this sumptuously illustrated volume reminds us why Versailles has enchanted generations of visitors from the ancien régime to the present day.

The Press in the Arab Middle East

A History
Author: Ami Ayalon
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 0195087801
Category: History
Page: 300
View: 7657

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Newspapers and the practice of journalism began in the Middle East in the nineteenth century and evolved during a period of accelerated sociopolitical and cultural change. Inspired by a foreign model, the Arab press developed in its own way, in terms of its political and social roles, cultural function, and the public image of those who engaged in it. Ami Ayalon draws on a broad array of primary sources--a century of Arabic newspapers, biographies and memoirs of Arab journalists and politicians, and archival material--as well as a large body of published studies, to portray the remarkable vitality of Arab journalism. He explores the press as a Middle Eastern institution during its formative century before World War II and the circumstances that shaped its growth, tracing its impact, in turn, on local historical developments. After treating the major phases in chronological sequence, he looks closely at more specific aspects: the relations between press and state; newspapers and their audience; the press and traditional cultural norms; economic aspects of the trade; and journalism as a new profession in Arab society.

Historical Abstracts

Modern history abstracts, 1450-1914
Author: Eric H. Boehm
Publisher: N.A
Category: History, Modern
Page: N.A
View: 5330

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Conflict, Conquest, and Conversion

Two Thousand Years of Christian Missions in the Middle East
Author: Eleanor H. Tejirian,Reeva Spector Simon
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231511094
Category: History
Page: 320
View: 1397

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Conflict, Conquest, and Conversion surveys two thousand years of the Christian missionary enterprise in the Middle East within the context of the region's political evolution. Its broad, rich narrative follows Christian missions as they interacted with imperial powers and as the momentum of religious change shifted from Christianity to Islam and back, adding new dimensions to the history of the region and the nature of the relationship between the Middle East and the West. Historians and political scientists increasingly recognize the importance of integrating religion into political analysis, and this volume, using long-neglected sources, uniquely advances this effort. It surveys Christian missions from the earliest days of Christianity to the present, paying particular attention to the role of Christian missions, both Protestant and Catholic, in shaping the political and economic imperialism of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Eleanor H. Tejirian and Reeva Spector Simon delineate the ongoing tensions between conversion and the focus on witness and "good works" within the missionary movement, which contributed to the development and spread of nongovernmental organizations. Through its conscientious, systematic study, this volume offers an unparalleled encounter with the social, political, and economic consequences of such trends.

The Politics of Anti-Westernism in Asia

Visions of World Order in Pan-Islamic and Pan-Asian Thought
Author: Cemil Aydin
Publisher: N.A
Category: History
Page: 299
View: 1665

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In this rich intellectual history, Cemil Aydin challenges the notion that anti-Westernism in the Muslim world is a political and religious reaction to the liberal and democratic values of the West. Nor is anti-Westernism a natural response to Western imperialism. Instead, by focusing on the agency and achievements of non-Western intellectuals, Aydin demonstrates that modern anti-Western discourse grew out of the legitimacy crisis of a single, Eurocentric global polity in the age of high imperialism. Aydin compares Ottoman Pan-Islamic and Japanese Pan-Asian visions of world order from the middle of the nineteenth century to the end of World War II. He looks at when the idea of a universal "West" first took root in the minds of Asian intellectuals and reformers and how it became essential in criticizing the West for violating its own "standards of civilization." Aydin also illustrates why these anti-Western visions contributed to the decolonization process and considers their influence on the international relations of both the Ottoman and Japanese Empires during WWI and WWII. The Politics of Anti-Westernism in Asia offers a rare, global perspective on how religious tradition and the experience of European colonialism interacted with Muslim and non-Muslim discontent with globalization, the international order, and modernization. Aydin's approach reveals the epistemological limitations of Orientalist knowledge categories, especially the idea of Eastern and Western civilizations, and the way in which these limitations have shaped not only the contradictions and political complicities of anti-Western discourses but also contemporary interpretations of anti-Western trends. In moving beyond essentialist readings of this history, Aydin provides a fresh understanding of the history of contemporary anti-Americanism as well as the ongoing struggle to establish a legitimate and inclusive international society.

Mediterranean Encounters

Artists Between Europe and the Ottoman Empire, 1774-1839
Author: Elisabeth A. Fraser
Publisher: Penn State University Press
ISBN: 9780271073200
Category: Art
Page: 320
View: 4496

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"Focusing on travel images and cross-cultural exchange, examines interactions between the Ottoman Empire and Europeans from 1774 to 1839, highlighting mutual dependence and reciprocity"--Provided by publisher.

Everyday Life and Consumer Culture in Eighteenth-Century Damascus

Author: James Grehan
Publisher: University of Washington Press
Category: History
Page: 336
View: 6343

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Draws on court records and the city's dazzling literary tradition to explore the material culture of premodern Damascus and provides an unusual and intimate account of the choices, constraints, and compromises that defined consumer behavior.

Living in the Ottoman Realm

Empire and Identity, 13th to 20th Centuries
Author: Christine Isom-Verhaaren,Kent F. Schull
Publisher: Indiana University Press
ISBN: 0253019486
Category: History
Page: 384
View: 2383

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Living in the Ottoman Realm brings the Ottoman Empire to life in all of its ethnic, religious, linguistic, and geographic diversity. The contributors explore the development and transformation of identity over the long span of the empire’s existence. They offer engaging accounts of individuals, groups, and communities by drawing on a rich array of primary sources, some available in English translation for the first time. These materials are examined with new methodological approaches to gain a deeper understanding of what it meant to be Ottoman. Designed for use as a course text, each chapter includes study questions and suggestions for further reading.

King Hussein and the challenge of Arab radicalism

Jordon 1955-1967
Author: Uriel Dann
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 9780195054989
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Page: 206
View: 9950

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When the young Hussein became the King of Jordan in 1953, conventional wisdom held that his days were numbered. As the embodiment of the socially conservative, pro-Western Jordanian state, he seemed little able to stand up to the rising forces of pan-Arab radicalism. Yet Hussein and the Jordanian monarchy have not only endured, they have thrived, and continue to play a vital role in Middle Eastern politics. Historian Uriel Dann here explores the political history of the formative years of the Jordanian state, uncovering the sources of its durability against forces seeking to fundamentally alter the traditional bases of Arab politics.

Estranged bedfellows

Britain and France in the Middle East during the Second World War
Author: Aviel Roshwald
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Category: History
Page: 315
View: 2671

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Index. Bibliography: p.299-304.

Transformation of Turkey

Redefining State and Society from the Ottoman Empire to the Modern Era
Author: Fatma Muge Gocek
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 0857719688
Category: History
Page: 320
View: 1794

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In 1923, under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the Modern Turkish Republic rose from the ashes of the Ottoman Empire, proclaiming a new era in the Middle East. However, many of the contemporary issues affecting Turkish state and society today have their roots not only in the in the history of the republic, but in the memory of the state’s imperial history and decline. Here Fatma Müge Göçek draws on Turkey’s Ottoman history to explore current concerns of gender and ethnicity alongside its international position._x000D_ _x000D_ At the end of World War I, the Great Powers at the time (mainly Great Britain, France and Italy), divided the Ottoman Empire up into their respective spheres of influence in the Treaty of Sèvres. For the defeated Ottoman state, this treaty represented the final attempt of the West to divide and destroy the empire. In ‘The Transformation of Turkey’, Göçek explores how the historical memory of the Sèvres Treaty has survived, impacting both state and society and penetrating national strategic culture, institutionalising itself in Turkey’s foreign and defence policies. _x000D_ _x000D_ The transformation of this history of defeat into modern political myth, the efforts to create a cohesive nation state and the rapid efforts to Westernise have all shaped ideas and concepts of nationalism and ‘Turkishness’. It is within this context of Western intervention in the fate of the Ottoman Empire that Göçek analyses attitudes to religion, Turkish relations with Armenian, Greek and Kurdish communities in and around Turkey, and attitudes to the EU and the West. _x000D_ _x000D_ This new perspective on history’s influence on contemporary tensions will contribute to the ongoing debate surrounding Turkey’s accession to the EU, and offers insight into the social transformations in the transition from Ottoman Empire to Turkish Nation-State. This analysis will be vital to those involved in the study of the Middle East Imperial History and Turkey’s relations with the West.

Shattered Dreams of Revolution

From Liberty to Violence in the Late Ottoman Empire
Author: Bedross Der Matossian
Publisher: Stanford University Press
ISBN: 0804792704
Category: History
Page: 264
View: 9412

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The Ottoman revolution of 1908 is a study in contradictions—a positive manifestation of modernity intended to reinstate constitutional rule, yet ultimately a negative event that shook the fundamental structures of the empire, opening up ethnic, religious, and political conflicts. Shattered Dreams of Revolution considers this revolutionary event to tell the stories of three important groups: Arabs, Armenians, and Jews. The revolution raised these groups' expectations for new opportunities of inclusion and citizenship. But as post-revolutionary festivities ended, these euphoric feelings soon turned to pessimism and a dramatic rise in ethnic tensions. The undoing of the revolutionary dreams could be found in the very foundations of the revolution itself. Inherent ambiguities and contradictions in the revolution's goals and the reluctance of both the authors of the revolution and the empire's ethnic groups to come to a compromise regarding the new political framework of the empire ultimately proved untenable. The revolutionaries had never been wholeheartedly committed to constitutionalism, thus constitutionalism failed to create a new understanding of Ottoman citizenship, grant equal rights to all citizens, and bring them under one roof in a legislative assembly. Today as the Middle East experiences another set of revolutions, these early lessons of the Ottoman Empire, of unfulfilled expectations and ensuing discontent, still provide important insights into the contradictions of hope and disillusion seemingly inherent in revolution.

Violence and the City in the Modern Middle East

Author: Nelida Fuccaro
Publisher: Stanford University Press
ISBN: 0804797765
Category: History
Page: 312
View: 8649

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This book explores violence in the public lives of modern Middle Eastern cities, approaching violence as an individual and collective experience, a historical event, and an urban process. Violence and the city coexist in a complicated dialogue, and critical consideration of the city offers an important way to understand the transformative powers of violence—its ability to redraw the boundaries of urban life, to create and divide communities, and to affect the ruling strategies of local elites, governments, and transnational political players. The essays included in this volume reflect the diversity of Middle Eastern urbanism from the eighteenth to the late twentieth centuries, from the capitals of Cairo, Tunis, and Baghdad to the provincial towns of Jeddah, Nablus, and Basra and the oil settlements of Dhahran and Abadan. In reconstructing the violent pasts of cities, new vistas on modern Middle Eastern history are opened, offering alternative and complementary perspectives to the making and unmaking of empires, nations, and states. Given the crucial importance of urban centers in shaping the Middle East in the modern era, and the ongoing potential of public histories to foster dialogue and reconciliation, this volume is both critical and timely.