Social Dynamics of Crime and Control

New Theories for a World in Transition
Author: Kai-D. Bussmann,Susanne Karstedt
Publisher: Hart Publishing
ISBN: 1841131431
Category: Law
Page: 271
View: 7409

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This book assembles essays by leading scholars in their fields of criminology and socio-legal studies. John Braithwaite, John Hagan, Jack Katz, Nicola Lacey, Michael Levi, Joan McCord, Dario Melossi, Steven Messner and Richard Rosenfeld explore new directions in contemporary theorising about the impact of social and cultural dynamics on crime and social control. These essays have in common that they transcend disciplinary boundaries by combining criminological and socio-legal perspectives; in so doing they bring fresh perspectives to the analysis of crime in market societies and in the global market place. The authors do not share the apocalyptic and dramatic predictions of rising crime rates, but are aware of the "double movement" of social change and the counteracting forces that emerge in its course. These essays promote an integrative perspective that bridges the gap between etiological criminology and a constructionist approach as well as between explanatory and normative theory.

Breaking Rules: The Social and Situational Dynamics of Young People's Urban Crime


Author: Per-Olof H. Wikström
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199592845
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 479
View: 7205

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Breaking new ground in the study of crime in urban environments, Breaking Rules examines the findings, theoretical basis, and new methodology of The Peterborough Adolescent and Young Adult Development Study (PADS+). This major longitudinal study investigates the role of the social environment on crime causation, involving a cohort of 700 young people from the age of 12. A particular aim of PADS+ is to employ a new theory, known as Situational ActionTheory, as well as the innovative methodology of ecometrics combined with space-time budgets to improve the study of young people's offending and its changes.

Crime Prevention in Australia

Issues in Policy and Research
Author: Pat O'Malley,Adam Sutton
Publisher: Federation Press
ISBN: 9781862872301
Category: Crime analysis
Page: 295
View: 4378

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The strengths of this book, in addition to the broad and varied expertise of the contributors, are:the way in which it brings together theory, research and policy its presentation of the issues in the context of local and 'relevant' Australian developments while grounding the discussion in international trends and background.

Unraveling the Crime-Place Connection, Volume 22

New Directions in Theory and Policy
Author: David Weisburd,John E. Eck
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351374346
Category: Social Science
Page: 300
View: 9449

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Unraveling the Crime-Place Connection examines in a new light how places enhance our understanding of crime and its control. While there has been much work in this area focused on policy, few have examined the underlying theories that inform this work. Theory has played a secondary role in the "criminology of place," and this volume brings it to the forefront of scholarly concerns. Each part and its chapters illuminate cutting-edge ideas in the etiology and control of crime at place, beginning with an introductory Part I. Crime is often concentrated in very small geographies, and Part II emphasizes the importance of capturing the dynamic nature of places in order to understand crime clustering. Part III offers integrative theories on the varying contextual arrangements of places and links theories of places to other theories of individuals, neighborhoods, and other social contexts. In Part IV, theorists ask how the actions of place owners facilitate or control crime and what policies governments can institute to regulate place management. This volume will be of interest to criminologists worldwide and useful for graduate-level or advanced undergraduate courses on environmental criminology or crime prevention.

The Death and Life of Great American Cities


Author: Jane Jacobs
Publisher: Vintage
ISBN: 052543285X
Category: Social Science
Page: 480
View: 4601

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Thirty years after its publication, The Death and Life of Great American Cities was described by The New York Times as "perhaps the most influential single work in the history of town planning....[It] can also be seen in a much larger context. It is first of all a work of literature; the descriptions of street life as a kind of ballet and the bitingly satiric account of traditional planning theory can still be read for pleasure even by those who long ago absorbed and appropriated the book's arguments." Jane Jacobs, an editor and writer on architecture in New York City in the early sixties, argued that urban diversity and vitality were being destroyed by powerful architects and city planners. Rigorous, sane, and delightfully epigrammatic, Jacobs's small masterpiece is a blueprint for the humanistic management of cities. It is sensible, knowledgeable, readable, indispensable. The author has written a new foreword for this Modern Library edition.

Breaking Rules: The Social and Situational Dynamics of Young People's Urban Crime


Author: Per-Olof H. Wikström
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199592845
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 479
View: 9228

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Breaking new ground in the study of crime in urban environments, Breaking Rules examines the findings, theoretical basis, and new methodology of The Peterborough Adolescent and Young Adult Development Study (PADS+). This major longitudinal study investigates the role of the social environment on crime causation, involving a cohort of 700 young people from the age of 12. A particular aim of PADS+ is to employ a new theory, known as Situational ActionTheory, as well as the innovative methodology of ecometrics combined with space-time budgets to improve the study of young people's offending and its changes.

Rural Crime and Community Safety


Author: Vania A Ceccato
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135005559
Category: Social Science
Page: 394
View: 5809

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Crime is often perceived as an urban issue rather than a problem that occurs in rural areas, but how far is this view tenable? This book explores the relationship between crime and community in rural areas and addresses the notion of safety as part of the community dynamics in such areas. Rural Crime and Community Safety makes a significant contribution to crime science and integrates a range of theories to understand patterns of crime and perceived safety in rural contexts. Based on a wealth of original research, Ceccato combines spatial methods with qualitative analysis to examine, in detail, farm and wildlife crime, youth related crimes and gendered violence in rural settings. Making the most of the expanding field of Criminology and of the growing professional inquiry into crime and crime prevention in rural areas; rural development; and the social sustainability of rural areas, this book builds a bridge by connecting Criminology and Human Geography. This book will be suitable for academics, students and practitioners in the fields of criminology, community safety, rural studies, rural development and gender studies.

Class, Race, Gender, and Crime

The Social Realities of Justice in America
Author: Gregg Barak,Paul Leighton,Allison Cotton
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
ISBN: 1442268891
Category: Social Science
Page: 344
View: 9611

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Class, Race, Gender, and Crime is a powerful introduction to crime and the criminal justice system through the lens of class, race, gender, and their intersections. The book explores how power and privilege shape our understanding of crime and justice. The fifth edition features new material on police violence and Black Lives Matter, disability, and more.

Deterrence and Crime Prevention

Reconsidering the Prospect of Sanction
Author: David M. Kennedy
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135976309
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 208
View: 585

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Deterrence is at the heart of the preventive aspiration of criminal justice. Deterrence, whether through preventive patrol by police officers or stiff prison sentences for violent offenders, is the principal mechanism through which the central feature of criminal justice, the exercise of state authority, works – it is hoped -- to diminish offending and enhance public safety. And however well we think deterrence works, it clearly often does not work nearly as well as we would like – and often at very great cost. Drawing on a wide range of scholarly literatures and real-world experience, Kennedy argues that we should reframe the ways in which we think about and produce deterrence. He argues that many of the ways in which we seek to deter crime in fact facilitate offending; that simple steps such as providing clear information to offenders could transform deterrence; that communities may be far more effective than legal authorities in deterring crime; that apparently minor sanctions can deter more effectively than draconian ones; that groups, rather than individual offenders, should often be the focus of deterrence; that existing legal tools can be used in unusual but greatly more effective ways; that even serious offenders can be reached through deliberate moral engagement; and that authorities, communities, and offenders – no matter how divided – share and can occupy hidden common ground. The result is a sophisticated but ultimately common-sense and profoundly hopeful case that we can and should use new deterrence strategies to address some of our most important crime problems. Drawing on and expanding on the lessons of groundbreaking real-world work like Boston’s Operation Ceasefire – credited with the "Boston Miracle" of the 1990s – "Deterrence and Crime Prevention" is required reading for scholars, law enforcement practitioners, and all with an interest in public safety and the health of communities.

The Routledge Handbook of Irish Criminology


Author: Deirdre Healy,Claire Hamilton,Yvonne Daly,Michelle Butler
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317698169
Category: Social Science
Page: 606
View: 1527

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The Routledge Handbook of Irish Criminology is the first edited collection of its kind to bring together the work of leading Irish criminologists in a single volume. While Irish criminology can be characterised as a nascent but dynamic discipline, it has much to offer the Irish and international reader due to the unique historical, cultural, political, social and economic arrangements that exist on the island of Ireland. The Handbook consists of 30 chapters, which offer original, comprehensive and critical reviews of theory, research, policy and practice in a wide range of subject areas. The chapters are divided into four thematic sections: Understanding crime examines specific offence types, including homicide, gangland crime and white-collar crime, and the theoretical perspectives used to explain them. Responding to crime explores criminal justice responses to crime, including crime prevention, restorative justice, approaches to policing and trial as well as post-conviction issues such as imprisonment, community sanctions and rehabilitation. Contexts of crime investigates the social, political and cultural contexts of the policymaking process, including media representations, politics, the role of the victim and the impact of gender. Emerging ideas focuses on innovative ideas that prompt a reconsideration of received wisdom on particular topics, including sexual violence and ethnicity. Charting the key contours of the criminological enterprise on the island of Ireland and placing the Irish material in the context of the wider European and international literature, this book is essential reading for those involved in the study of Irish criminology and international and comparative criminal justice.

The Crime of All Crimes

Toward a Criminology of Genocide
Author: Nicole Rafter
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 1479805963
Category: Social Science
Page: 320
View: 1389

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Cambodia. Rwanda. Armenia. Nazi Germany. History remembers these places as the sites of unspeakable crimes against humanity, and indisputably, of genocide. Yet, throughout the twentieth century, the world has seen many instances of violence committed by states against certain groups within their borders—from the colonial ethnic cleansing the Germans committed against the Herero tribe in Africa, to the Katyn Forest Massacre, in which the Soviets shot over 20,000 Poles, to anti-communist mass murders in 1960s Indonesia. Are mass crimes against humanity like these still genocide? And how can an understanding of crime and criminals shed new light on how genocide—the “crime of all crimes”—transpires? In The Crime of All Crimes, criminologist Nicole Rafter takes an innovative approach to the study of genocide by comparing eight diverse genocides--large-scale and small; well-known and obscure—through the lens of criminal behavior. Rafter explores different models of genocidal activity, reflecting on the popular use of the Holocaust as a model for genocide and ways in which other genocides conform to different patterns. For instance, Rafter questions the assumption that only ethnic groups are targeted for genocidal “cleansing," and she also urges that actions such as genocidal rape be considered alongside traditional instances of genocidal violence. Further, by examining the causes of genocide on different levels, Rafter is able to construct profiles of typical victims and perpetrators and discuss means of preventing genocide, in addition to delving into the social psychology of genocidal behavior and the ways in which genocides are brought to an end. A sweeping and innovative investigation into the most tragic of events in the modern world, The Crime of All Crimes will fundamentally change how we think about genocide in the present day.

Male Crime and Deviance

Exploring Its Causes, Dynamics, and Nature
Author: Ronald B. Flowers
Publisher: Charles C Thomas Publisher
ISBN: 0398074011
Category: Social Science
Page: 353
View: 9174

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This textbook analyzes the causes, dynamics, and nature of male crime and aggression. Written for both undergraduate and graduate level students, this textbook takes a multidisciplinary approach to male criminality. The study of crime and criminals has typically either focused specifically on female deviance or has offered a general analysis of crime that presumes, by and large, a male offender. This textbook explicitly analyzes male criminality, rather than implicitly studying it through a general analysis of crime. The relationship between male aggression and masculinity is explored, as is the role of testosterone and other biological factors that may play a role in male crime and violence. The textbook is divided into seven parts. Part 1 examines the biological, psychological, sociological, and cultural and masculinity theories that attempt to explain male aggression, crime, and violence. Part 2 concentrates on the dynamics of male crime and violence. Gender differences in criminal behavior are examined, as well as racial and ethnic differences in male crime. The arrest patterns and the characteristics of male inmates in adult and juvenile correctional facilities are also explored. Part 3 focuses on male crime of violence; chapters are devoted to examinations of homicide, forcible rape, domestic violence, stalking, hate crimes, workplace violence, and terrorism. Part 4 explores property offenses, such as robbery, motor vehicle theft, and carjacking. Part 5 examines male sex offenses and includes analyses of incest, child sexual abuse, prostitution-related crimes, and explores the relationship between pornography and male violence. Part 6 looks at juvenile male crime and delinquency, with a focus on youth gangs and school crime and violence. Part 7 outlines Federal legislation designed to combat criminal and violent behavior, including the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994, the Violence Against Women Act of 2000, and the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, amended in 1978. The textbook is appropriate for coursework in criminal justice, criminology, sociology, psychology, law enforcement, and other related areas of study.

Community and the Problem of Crime


Author: Karen Evans
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317750853
Category: Social Science
Page: 210
View: 7379

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The relationship between crime and community has a long history in criminological thought, from the early notion of the criminogenic community developed by the Chicago sociologists through to various crime prevention models in research and policy. This book offers a useful theoretical overview of key approaches to the subject of crime and community and considers the ways in which these have been applied in more practical settings. Written by an expert in the field and drawing on a range of international case studies from Europe, North America, Australia and Asia, this book explores both why and how crime and community have been linked and the implications of their relationship within criminology and crime prevention policy. Topics covered in the book include: the different crime prevention paradigms which have been utilised in the 'fight against crime', the turn to community in crime prevention policy, which took place during the 1980s in the UK and US and its subsequent development, the particular theoretical and ideological underpinnings to crime prevention work in and with different communities, the significance and impact of fear of crime on crime prevention policy, different institutional responses to working with community in crime prevention and community safety, the ways in which the experience of the UK and US have been translated into the European context, a comparison between traditional Western responses to the growing interest in restorative and community-based approaches in other regions. This book offers essential reading for students taking courses on crime and community, crime prevention and community safety, and community corrections.

Criminal Behavior

Theories, Typologies and Criminal Justice
Author: Jacqueline B. Helfgott
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 1412904870
Category: Social Science
Page: 605
View: 2604

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Rich in historical and contemporary theory and research, Criminal Behavior: Theories, Typologies, and Criminal Justice is a comprehensive core text that provides an interdisciplinary overview of criminal behavior by examining relevant crime theories, explanations of how and why crime typologies are developed, literature reviews for major crime categories, and discussions of how crime theories and crime typologies are used throughout the criminal justice process. Focusing on relevant themes and current issues, this text also looks closely at categorizations of criminal behavior, the relationship between crime and pop culture, mass media, and computer technology, and gender issues and crime. This engaging book applies theory and research to real-world criminal justice practice. Key Features and Benefits: Applies theory and research to concrete examples of criminal justice practice in law enforcement, public safety, courts/law, and corrections Explores real-world examples and contemporary issues–using chapter-opening vignettes, illustrative photos and graphs, boxed real-life case studies, and an interdisciplinary framework—making the text lively and engaging Views crime as a dynamic, changing phenomenon and examines how mass media and computer technology shape criminal behavior in a unique chapter on crime, media, and technology that addresses cybercrime and copy cat crimes—topics that fascinate students Examines feminist issues and cultural criminology, reviewing the role of gender and culture in shaping criminal behavior Boasts full chapters on political crime and economic crime—subjects often ignored in other texts Includes comparative information throughout, giving students an international perspective, as well as topical coverage relating to race, ethnicity, and gender issues Ancillaries A Student study site at www.sagepub.com/helfgottstudy includes self-quizzes, e-flashcards, NPR and Frontline audio and video clips, SAGE Journal articles, and more. Instructor Resources on CD include test questions, PowerPoint slides, and in-class exercises. Contact Customer Care at 1.800.818.7243 to request a copy. Intended Audience This core text offers contemporary insight on criminal behavior for undergraduate and graduate students in criminology and criminal justice, psychology, and related fields.

Crime Prevention in Australia

Issues in Policy and Research
Author: Pat O'Malley,Adam Sutton
Publisher: Federation Press
ISBN: 9781862872301
Category: Crime analysis
Page: 295
View: 419

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The strengths of this book, in addition to the broad and varied expertise of the contributors, are:the way in which it brings together theory, research and policy its presentation of the issues in the context of local and 'relevant' Australian developments while grounding the discussion in international trends and background.

Fixing Broken Windows

Restoring Order And Reducing Crime In Our Communities
Author: George L. Kelling,Catherine M. Coles
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
ISBN: 0684837382
Category: Political Science
Page: 319
View: 7742

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Cites successful examples of community-based policing

The Criminology of Place

Street Segments and Our Understanding of the Crime Problem
Author: David Weisburd,Elizabeth R. Groff,Sue-Ming Yang
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199709106
Category: Social Science
Page: 288
View: 1162

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The study of crime has focused primarily on why particular people commit crime or why specific communities have higher crime levels than others. In The Criminology of Place, David Weisburd, Elizabeth Groff, and Sue-Ming Yang present a new and different way of looking at the crime problem by examining why specific streets in a city have specific crime trends over time. Based on a 16-year longitudinal study of crime in Seattle, Washington, the book focuses our attention on small units of geographic analysis-micro communities, defined as street segments. Half of all Seattle crime each year occurs on just 5-6 percent of the city's street segments, yet these crime hot spots are not concentrated in a single neighborhood and street by street variability is significant. Weisburd, Groff, and Yang set out to explain why. The Criminology of Place shows how much essential information about crime is inevitably lost when we focus on larger units like neighborhoods or communities. Reorienting the study of crime by focusing on small units of geography, the authors identify a large group of possible crime risk and protective factors for street segments and an array of interventions that could be implemented to address them. The Criminology of Place is a groundbreaking book that radically alters traditional thinking about the crime problem and what we should do about it.