Development of Mathematics 1950-2000


Author: Jean-Paul Pier
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783764362805
Category: Mathematics
Page: 1372
View: 9616

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Le projet de ce livre etait une gageure. lIs' agissait de rendre compte du developpement des mathematiques depuis cinquante ans a un public mathematique aussi large que possi ble, sans viser l'exhaustivite, mais sans se bomer a un apen;u superticiel. Pour tenter de realiser cette ambition, Ie comite de lecture a fait appel a des mathematiciens actifs dans divers domaines des mathematiques. II a recru une trentaine de contributions qui forment la matiere de ce livre. En outre, il a auditionne plusieurs mathematiciens qui donnent leur point de vue personnel. Entin il a reuni quelques documents, soit statistiques, soit bibliographiques, pour completer les references donnees par les auteurs et signaler les ar ticles de synthese. Le resultat ne pouvait etre ni complet, ni homo gene, et nous sommes evidemment conscients de ses insuftisances. Nous y reviendrons, mais nous voulons com mencer par in sister sur ce qui fait l'interet et l' importance de ce livre. D'abord, et c'est la raison d'etre de ce vaste projet, ce livre correspond a un be soin. Le livre precedent, Development of Mathematics 1900-1950 (Birkhauser, Bale, 1994), en depit de son caractere incomplet et de son inhomogeneite, a connu un grand succes, et s'avere d'interet durable pour ceux qui veulent explorer les matMmatiques de la premiere moitie du siecle.

Handbook of Mathematical Fluid Dynamics


Author: Susan Friedlander
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780444515568
Category: Science
Page: 680
View: 2175

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The Handbook of Mathematical Fluid Dynamics is a compendium of essays that provides a survey of the major topics in the subject. Each article traces developments, surveys the results of the past decade, discusses the current state of knowledge and presents major future directions and open problems. Extensive bibliographic material is provided. The book is intended to be useful both to experts in the field and to mathematicians and other scientists who wish to learn about or begin research in mathematical fluid dynamics. The Handbook illuminates an exciting subject that involves rigorous mathematical theory applied to an important physical problem, namely the motion of fluids.

Logic, Epistemology, and the Unity of Science


Author: Shahid Rahman,John Symons,Dov M. Gabbay,Jean Paul van Bendegem
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402028083
Category: Philosophy
Page: 626
View: 1913

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The first volume in this new series explores, through extensive co-operation, new ways of achieving the integration of science in all its diversity. The book offers essays from important and influential philosophers in contemporary philosophy, discussing a range of topics from philosophy of science to epistemology, philosophy of logic and game theoretical approaches. It will be of interest to philosophers, computer scientists and all others interested in the scientific rationality.

The Development of Mathematics


Author: E. T. Bell
Publisher: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 0486152286
Category: Mathematics
Page: 656
View: 7827

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Time-honored study by a prominent scholar of mathematics traces decisive epochs from the evolution of mathematical ideas in ancient Egypt and Babylonia to major breakthroughs in the 19th and 20th centuries. 1945 edition.

The Development of Mathematics Throughout the Centuries

A Brief History in a Cultural Context
Author: Brian Evans
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118853970
Category: Mathematics
Page: 252
View: 9120

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Throughout the book, readers take a journey throughout time and observe how people around the world have understood these patterns of quantity, structure, and dimension around them. The Development of Mathematics Throughout the Centuries: A Brief History in a Cultural Contex provides a brief overview of the history of mathematics in a very straightforward and understandable manner and also addresses major findings that influenced the development of mathematics as a coherent discipline. This book: Highlights the contributions made by various world cultures including African, Egyptian, Babylonian, Chinese, Indian, Islamic, and pre-Columbian American mathematics Features an approach that is not too rigorous and is ideal for a one-semester course of the history of mathematics. Includes a Resources and Recommended Reading section for further exploration and has been extensively classroom-tested

What is Mathematics?

An Elementary Approach to Ideas and Methods
Author: Richard Courant,Herbert Robbins,Ian Stewart
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 9780195105193
Category: Mathematics
Page: 566
View: 6961

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A discussion of fundamental mathematical principles from algebra to elementary calculus designed to promote constructive mathematical reasoning.

Federalism and the European Union

The Building of Europe, 1950-2000
Author: Michael Burgess
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134736789
Category: Political Science
Page: 304
View: 9898

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A revisionist interpretation of the post-war evolution of European integration and the European Union (EU), this book reappraises and reassesses conventional explanations of European integration. It adopts a federalist approach which supplements state-based arguments with federal political ideas, influences and strategies. By exploring the philosophical and historical origins of federal ideas and tracing their influence throughout the whole of the EU's evolution, the book makes a significant contribution to the scholarly debate about the nature and development of the EU. The book looks at federal ideas stretching back to the sixteenth century and demonstrates their fundamental continuity to contemporary European integration. It situates these ideas in the broad context of post-war western Europe and underlines their practical relevance in the activities of Jean Monnet and Altiero Spinelli. Post-war empirical developments are explored from a federalist perspective, revealing an enduring persistence of federal ideas which have been either ignored or overlooked in conventional interpretations. The book challenges traditional conceptions of the post-war and contemporary evolution of the EU, to reassert and reinstate federalism in theory and practice at the very core of European integration.

The Great Boom 1950-2000

How a Generation of Americans Created the World's Most Prosperous Society
Author: Robert Sobel
Publisher: St. Martin's Griffin
ISBN: 1250112915
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 464
View: 9771

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In The Great Boom, historian Robert Sobel tells the fascinating story of the last 50 years when American entrepreneurs, visionaries, and ordinary citizens transformed our depression and war-exhausted society into today's economic powerhouse. As America's G.I.s returned home from World War II, many of the nation's best minds predicted a new depression—yet exactly the opposite occurred. Jobs were plentiful in retooled factories swamped with orders from pent-up demand. Tens of thousands of families moved out of cities into affordable suburban homes built by William Levitt and his imitators. They bought cars, televisions, and air conditioners by the millions. And they took to the nation's roads and new interstate highways—the largest public works project in world history—where Kemmons Wilson of Holiday Inns, Ray Kroc of McDonalds, and other start-up entrepreneurs soon catered to a mobile populace with food and lodgings for leisure time vacationers. Americans and their families began to channel savings into new opportunities. Credit cards democratized purchasing power, while early mutual funds found growing numbers of investors to fuel the first postwar bull market in the go-go '60s. At the same time the continuing boom enriched the fabric of social and cultural life. A college education became a must on the highway to upward mobility; high-tech industries arose with astonishing new ways of conducting business electronically; and an unprecedented 49 million families had become investors when the 1981-2000 stock market boom reached 10,000 on the Dow. The Great Boom is the first major book to portray the great wave of homegrown entrepreneurs as post-war heroes in the complete remaking and revitalizing of America. All that, plus the creation of unprecedented wealth—or themselves, for the nation, for tens of millions of citizens—all in five short drama-filled decades.

50 Years of Ocean Discovery:

National Science Foundation 1950-2000
Author: Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources,Ocean Studies Board,National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309063981
Category: Science
Page: 276
View: 8503

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This book describes the development of ocean sciences over the past 50 years, highlighting the contributions of the National Science Foundation (NSF) to the field's progress. Many of the individuals who participated in the exciting discoveries in biological oceanography, chemical oceanography, physical oceanography, and marine geology and geophysics describe in the book how the discoveries were made possible by combinations of insightful individuals, new technology, and in some cases, serendipity. In addition to describing the advance of ocean science, the book examines the institutional structures and technology that made the advances possible and presents visions of the field's future. This book is the first-ever documentation of the history of NSF's Division of Ocean Sciences, how the structure of the division evolved to its present form, and the individuals who have been responsible for ocean sciences at NSF as "rotators" and career staff over the past 50 years.

Gear Up, Mishaps down

The Evolution of Naval Aviation Safety, 1950-2000
Author: Robert Dunn
Publisher: Naval Institute Press
ISBN: 1682470229
Category: History
Page: 224
View: 9654

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Less than five years after Naval Aviation had been in the forefront of the forces that defeated Imperial Japan, it found itself in serious trouble. The force had been slashed in people and numbers and growing national sentiment supported by no less than the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs argued that the new Air Force could do anything Naval Aviation might be required to do. Not helping matters was that the Naval Aviation accident rate was soaring. The very survival of Naval Aviation was at stake. One of the first steps to re-order priorities and save Naval Aviation was to solve the problem of increasing numbers of accidents. Over the next fifty years that problem was indeed solved to the extent that today, despite hot wars, cold wars, contingencies and peacetime operations in support of friends and allies the Navy/Marine accident rate is at least as good as that of the Air Force and approached that of commercial aviation. This book tells the story of how that was done. Despite the advent of new and more complicated aircraft including jets, the increasing demands of night and all-weather flying, an unsettled world and continual high operational tempo Naval Aviation is second to no other flying organization in readiness to answer the Nation’s call, safely. The keys to how this was achieved lies with dedicated and professional leadership, a focus on lessons learned from mishaps and near-mishaps, a willingness to learn and adopt new leadership, training, management, maintenance and supply styles and procedures. All this and more is described in this book. Checkouts in new airplanes became more than, “Show me how to start it and I’ll fly it.” Leaders were assigned based on past performance, not on who somebody knew. Maintenance and supply got more scientific and responsive. Flight surgeons were made part of the team and made major contributions to aviation safety. The place of Human Factors was recognized and contributed significantly to the remarkable downtrend in the numbers of Naval Aviation mishaps. Simulator training became increasingly important as did the more recent disciplines of Operational Risk management and Crew Resource Management. From the 1950s to 2000 the number of Navy/Marine major mishaps fell from a high of 2,213 in 1954 to 29 in 2000. Even more impressive, the number went As low as eleven in 2010 and continues to fall. This book tells how all that came about and more. It’s a recipe which might be followed by any high risk enterprise seeking to reduce accidents and improve readiness. That’s exactly what Naval Aviation has done since 1950.

Abortion Wars

A Half Century of Struggle, 1950-2000
Author: Rickie Solinger
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 9780520209527
Category: Social Science
Page: 413
View: 5357

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A "pro-rights" collection of essays by abortion providers, journalists, legal strategists, and philosophers includes a timeline of events from 1940 to the present

THE ISLAMIC MOVEMENT IN SOMALIA


Author: Abdurahman M. Abdullahi (Baadiyow)
Publisher: Adonis & Abbey Publishers Ltd
ISBN: 1912234033
Category: Reference
Page: 430
View: 8803

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There is very little scholarship on the history of political Islam in Somalia that takes seriously both historical forces as well as the very ideas and internal organization of the Islamic movements. This book reconstructs the history of modern and moderate Islamic movement in Somalia. It covers 50 years of turbulent Somali history, in which civilian governments, military dictatorships, armed opposition factions, and Islamic movements were interacting and shaping the Somali history. It divides Islamic development in Somalia into four historical periods: the Islamic revival (1800-1950), the Islamic consciousness ( 1950-1967), the Islamic awakening (1967-1978) and the Islamic movements (1978-2000).The book provides a detailed and empirically rich narrative of the Islah Movement as a case study which has influenced and made an impact on other Islamist organizations in recent decades. The author provides an insider's view of the Islamic Movement being one of the leaders of Islah.

Fifty Years of Anthropology and Education 1950-2000

A Spindler Anthology
Author: George Spindler
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1135661456
Category: Education
Page: 456
View: 9727

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George and Louise Spindler are widely regarded as significant founders of the field of educational anthropology. This book brings together their best, most seminal work from the last 50 years--a time frame representing the developmental epoch of the field--and binds them together with a master commentary by George Spindler. Previously scattered over a wide range of publications, the articles collected here allow for a unified view of the Spindlers' work and of the development of the field. The book opens with an insightful Foreword by Henry T. Trueba, a fascinating piece titled "A Life With Anthropology and Education: Interviews With George and Louise Spindler by Ray McDermott and Frederick Erickson," and George Spindler's "Previews" essay which gives the reader a grasp of the whole to which the parts of the book contribute. These pieces frame and contextualize the work that follows. In Part I, Character Defining, many of the major themes of this volume are first encountered; this section sets the stage for what follows. Part II, Comparisons, focuses on comparison, which the Spindlers view as essential to an anthropological approach. Part III, Ethnography in Action, is devoted to the explicit exposition of ethnographic methods (though actually every piece in the book is a demonstration of method). Part IV, American Culture, moves from a traditional representation of American Culture to a processual analysis of how the culture is transmitted in real situations, and finally to an interpretation of right-wing actions that seem to constitute a reactive movement; the implications for education are pursued. Part V, Cultural Therapy , explains what cultural therapy is and how it may be applied to teachers and students. The volume concludes with Part VI, Orientation, Susan Parman's overview of the works of the Spindlers that spans their whole career.

How Economics Became a Mathematical Science


Author: E. Roy Weintraub
Publisher: Duke University Press
ISBN: 0822383802
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 328
View: 1469

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In How Economics Became a Mathematical Science E. Roy Weintraub traces the history of economics through the prism of the history of mathematics in the twentieth century. As mathematics has evolved, so has the image of mathematics, explains Weintraub, such as ideas about the standards for accepting proof, the meaning of rigor, and the nature of the mathematical enterprise itself. He also shows how economics itself has been shaped by economists’ changing images of mathematics. Whereas others have viewed economics as autonomous, Weintraub presents a different picture, one in which changes in mathematics—both within the body of knowledge that constitutes mathematics and in how it is thought of as a discipline and as a type of knowledge—have been intertwined with the evolution of economic thought. Weintraub begins his account with Cambridge University, the intellectual birthplace of modern economics, and examines specifically Alfred Marshall and the Mathematical Tripos examinations—tests in mathematics that were required of all who wished to study economics at Cambridge. He proceeds to interrogate the idea of a rigorous mathematical economics through the connections between particular mathematical economists and mathematicians in each of the decades of the first half of the twentieth century, and thus describes how the mathematical issues of formalism and axiomatization have shaped economics. Finally, How Economics Became a Mathematical Science reconstructs the career of the economist Sidney Weintraub, whose relationship to mathematics is viewed through his relationships with his mathematician brother, Hal, and his mathematician-economist son, the book’s author.

New Trends in Stochastic Analysis and Related Topics

A Volume in Honour of Professor K. D. Elworthy
Author: Huaizhong Zhao,Aubrey Truman
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814360910
Category: Mathematics
Page: 437
View: 5486

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The volume is dedicated to Professor David Elworthy to celebrate his fundamental contribution and exceptional influence on stochastic analysis and related fields. Stochastic analysis has been profoundly developed as a vital fundamental research area in mathematics in recent decades. It has been discovered to have intrinsic connections with many other areas of mathematics such as partial differential equations, functional analysis, topology, differential geometry, dynamical systems, etc. Mathematicians developed many mathematical tools in stochastic analysis to understand and model random phenomena in physics, biology, finance, fluid, environment science, etc. This volume contains 12 comprehensive review/new articles written by world leading researchers (by invitation) and their collaborators. It covers stochastic analysis on manifolds, rough paths, Dirichlet forms, stochastic partial differential equations, stochastic dynamical systems, infinite dimensional analysis, stochastic flows, quantum stochastic analysis and stochastic Hamilton Jacobi theory. Articles contain cutting edge research methodology, results and ideas in relevant fields. They are of interest to research mathematicians and postgraduate students in stochastic analysis, probability, partial differential equations, dynamical systems, mathematical physics, as well as to physicists, financial mathematicians, engineers, etc.

Mathematics and Its Teaching in the Southern Americas


Author: Hector Rosario,Patrick Scott,Bruce Ramon Vogeli
Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company Incorporated
ISBN: 9789814590563
Category: Education
Page: 479
View: 5097

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The summary of mathematics education in South America appeared in 1966. Progress in the field of mathematics in five decades has since remained unexamined until now! Thus, this book presents a comprehensive review of mathematics and its teaching in 17 nations in South America, Central America and the Caribbean. The chapters are written by national experts in the field of mathematics education. Anthology of the history of mathematics and its teaching in 17 countries from Latin America and the Caribbean: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, M xico, Panam, Paraguay, Per, Puerto Rico, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. It includes an introduction by Ubiratan D'Ambrosio and an epilogue by Patrick Scott.