Social Robots

Boundaries, Potential, Challenges
Author: Marco Nørskov
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1134806639
Category: Philosophy
Page: 270
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Social robotics is a cutting edge research area gathering researchers and stakeholders from various disciplines and organizations. The transformational potential that these machines, in the form of, for example, caregiving, entertainment or partner robots, pose to our societies and to us as individuals seems to be limited by our technical limitations and phantasy alone. This collection contributes to the field of social robotics by exploring its boundaries from a philosophically informed standpoint. It constructively outlines central potentials and challenges and thereby also provides a stable fundament for further research of empirical, qualitative or methodological nature.

Mobile Microrobotics


Author: Metin Sitti
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262341018
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 304
View: 4793

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Progress in micro- and nano-scale science and technology has created a demand for new microsystems for high-impact applications in healthcare, biotechnology, manufacturing, and mobile sensor networks. The new robotics field of microrobotics has emerged to extend our interactions and explorations to sub-millimeter scales. This is the first textbook on micron-scale mobile robotics, introducing the fundamentals of design, analysis, fabrication, and control, and drawing on case studies of existing approaches.The book covers the scaling laws that can be used to determine the dominant forces and effects at the micron scale; models forces acting on microrobots, including surface forces, friction, and viscous drag; and describes such possible microfabrication techniques as photo-lithography, bulk micromachining, and deep reactive ion etching. It presents on-board and remote sensing methods, noting that remote sensors are currently more feasible; studies possible on-board microactuators; discusses self-propulsion methods that use self-generated local gradients and fields or biological cells in liquid environments; and describes remote microrobot actuation methods for use in limited spaces such as inside the human body. It covers possible on-board powering methods, indispensable in future medical and other applications; locomotion methods for robots on surfaces, in liquids, in air, and on fluid-air interfaces; and the challenges of microrobot localization and control, in particular multi-robot control methods for magnetic microrobots. Finally, the book addresses current and future applications, including noninvasive medical diagnosis and treatment, environmental remediation, and scientific tools.

Cyberpsychology

An Introduction to Human-Computer Interaction
Author: Kent Norman
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107102545
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 488
View: 5731

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This textbook provides a comprehensive overview of the human-computer interface in clear, non-technical language, making it an ideal introduction for students of both psychology and computer science. Covering the past, present, and future developments in technology and psychology, it combines cutting-edge academic research with engaging illustrations and examples that show students how the material relates to their lives. Topics addressed include: human factors of input devices, and the basics of sensation and perception; memory and cognitive issues of users navigating their way through interfaces; communication via programming languages and natural speech interaction; cyberpathologies such as techno-stress and Internet addiction disorders; and challenges surrounding automation and artificial intelligence. This thoroughly updated second edition features new chapters on virtual reality and cybersecurity; expanded coverage of social media, mobile computing, e-learning, and video games; and end-of-chapter review questions that ensure students have mastered key objectives.

Bio-Inspired Artificial Intelligence

Theories, Methods, and Technologies
Author: Dario Floreano,Claudio Mattiussi
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262303914
Category: Computers
Page: 674
View: 5285

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New approaches to artificial intelligence spring from the idea that intelligence emerges as much from cells, bodies, and societies as it does from evolution, development, and learning. Traditionally, artificial intelligence has been concerned with reproducing the abilities of human brains; newer approaches take inspiration from a wider range of biological structures that that are capable of autonomous self-organization. Examples of these new approaches include evolutionary computation and evolutionary electronics, artificial neural networks, immune systems, biorobotics, and swarm intelligence -- to mention only a few. This book offers a comprehensive introduction to the emerging field of biologically inspired artificial intelligence that can be used as an upper-level text or as a reference for researchers. Each chapter presents computational approaches inspired by a different biological system; each begins with background information about the biological system and then proceeds to develop computational models that make use of biological concepts. The chapters cover evolutionary computation and electronics; cellular systems; neural systems, including neuromorphic engineering; developmental systems; immune systems; behavioral systems -- including several approaches to robotics, including behavior-based, bio-mimetic, epigenetic, and evolutionary robots; and collective systems, including swarm robotics as well as cooperative and competitive co-evolving systems. Chapters end with a concluding overview and suggested reading.

Autonomous Bidding Agents

Strategies and Lessons from the Trading Agent Competition
Author: Michael P. Wellman,Amy Greenwald,Peter Stone
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 026223260X
Category: Computers
Page: 238
View: 5479

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Overview and analysis of algorithmic advances developed within an integrated bidding agent architecture that emerged from recent research in a growing domain of AI.

Affective Computing


Author: Rosalind W. Picard
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262661157
Category: Computers
Page: 292
View: 9634

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According to Rosalind Picard, if we want computers to be genuinely intelligent and tointeract naturally with us, we must give computers the ability to recognize, understand, even tohave and express emotions.

Interactions


Author: N.A
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Computers
Page: N.A
View: 2203

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A magazine for designers of interactive products.

Commonsense Reasoning

An Event Calculus Based Approach
Author: Erik T. Mueller
Publisher: Morgan Kaufmann
ISBN: 0128016477
Category: Computers
Page: 516
View: 7671

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To endow computers with common sense is one of the major long-term goals of artificial intelligence research. One approach to this problem is to formalize commonsense reasoning using mathematical logic. Commonsense Reasoning: An Event Calculus Based Approach is a detailed, high-level reference on logic-based commonsense reasoning. It uses the event calculus, a highly powerful and usable tool for commonsense reasoning, which Erik Mueller demonstrates as the most effective tool for the broadest range of applications. He provides an up-to-date work promoting the use of the event calculus for commonsense reasoning, and bringing into one place information scattered across many books and papers. Mueller shares the knowledge gained in using the event calculus and extends the literature with detailed event calculus solutions that span many areas of the commonsense world. The Second Edition features new chapters on commonsense reasoning using unstructured information including the Watson system, commonsense reasoning using answer set programming, and techniques for acquisition of commonsense knowledge including crowdsourcing. Drawing upon years of practical experience and using numerous examples and illustrative applications Erik Mueller shows you the keys to mastering commonsense reasoning. You’ll be able to: Understand techniques for automated commonsense reasoning Incorporate commonsense reasoning into software solutions Acquire a broad understanding of the field of commonsense reasoning. Gain comprehensive knowledge of the human capacity for commonsense reasoning

Introduction to Autonomous Mobile Robots


Author: Roland Siegwart,Illah Reza Nourbakhsh,Davide Scaramuzza
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262015358
Category: Computers
Page: 453
View: 4847

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Machine generated contents note: |g 1. |t Introduction -- |g 1.1. |t Introduction -- |g 1.2. |t An Overview of the Book -- |g 2. |t Locomotion -- |g 2.1. |t Introduction -- |g 2.1.1. |t Key issues for locomotion -- |g 2.2. |t Legged Mobile Robots -- |g 2.2.1. |t Leg configurations and stability -- |g 2.2.2. |t Consideration of dynamics -- |g 2.2.3. |t Examples of legged robot locomotion -- |g 2.3. |t Wheeled Mobile Robots -- |g 2.3.1. |t Wheeled locomotion: The design space -- |g 2.3.2. |t Wheeled locomotion: Case studies -- |g 2.4. |t Aerial Mobile Robots -- |g 2.4.1. |t Introduction -- |g 2.4.2. |t Aircraft configurations -- |g 2.4.3. |t State of the art in autonomous VTOL -- |g 2.5. |t Problems -- |g 3. |t Mobile Robot Kinematics -- |g 3.1. |t Introduction -- |g 3.2. |t Kinematic Models and Constraints -- |g 3.2.1. |t Representing robot position -- |g 3.2.2. |t Forward kinematic models -- |g 3.2.3. |t Wheel kinematic constraints -- |g 3.2.4. |t Robot kinematic constraints -- |g 3.g 3.3. |t Mobile Robot Maneuverability -- |g 3.3.1. |t Degree of mobility -- |g 3.3.2. |t Degree of steerability -- |g 3.3.3. |t Robot maneuverability -- |g 3.4. |t Mobile Robot Workspace -- |g 3.4.1. |t Degrees of freedom -- |g 3.4.2. |t Holonomic robots -- |g 3.4.3. |t Path and trajectory considerations -- |g 3.5. |t Beyond Basic Kinematics -- |g 3.6. |t Motion Control (Kinematic Control) -- |g 3.6.1. |t Open loop control (trajectory-following) -- |g 3.6.2. |t Feedback control -- |g 3.7. |t Problems -- |g 4. |t Perception -- |g 4.1. |t Sensors for Mobile Robots -- |g 4.1.1. |t Sensor classification -- |g 4.1.2. |t Characterizing sensor performance -- |g 4.1.3. |t Representing uncertainty -- |g 4.1.4. |t Wheel/motor sensors -- |g 4.1.5. |t Heading sensors -- |g 4.1.6. |t Accelerometers -- |g 4.1.7. |t Inertial measurement unit (IMU) -- |g 4.1.8. |t Ground beacons -- |g 4.1.9. |t Active ranging -- |g 4.1.10. |t Motion/speed sensors -- |g 4.1.11. |t Vision sensors -- |g 4.2. |t Fundameng 4.2.5. |t Structure from stereo -- |g 4.2.6. |t Structure from motion -- |g 4.2.7. |t Motion and optical flow -- |g 4.2.8. |t Color tracking -- |g 4.3. |t Fundamentals of Image Processing -- |g 4.3.1. |t Image filtering -- |g 4.3.2. |t Edge detection -- |g 4.3.3. |t Computing image similarity -- |g 4.4. |t Feature Extraction -- |g 4.5. |t Image Feature Extraction: Interest Point Detectors -- |g 4.5.1. |t Introduction -- |g 4.5.2. |t Properties of the ideal feature detector -- |g 4.5.3. |t Corner detectors -- |g 4.5.4. |t Invariance to photometric and geometric changes -- |g 4.5.5. |t Blob detectors -- |g 4.6. |t Place Recognition -- |g 4.6.1. |t Introduction -- |g 4.6.2. |t From bag of features to visual words -- |g 4.6.3. |t Efficient location recognition by using an inverted file -- |g 4.6.4. |t Geometric verification for robust place recognition -- |g 4.6.5. |t Applications -- |g 4.6.6. |t Other image representations for place recognition -- |g 4.7. |t Feature Extraction Based ong 4.7.3. |t Range histogram features -- |g 4.7.4. |t Extracting other geometric features -- |g 4.8. |t Problems -- |g 5. |t Mobile Robot Localization -- |g 5.1. |t Introduction -- |g 5.2. |t The Challenge of Localization: Noise and Aliasing -- |g 5.2.1. |t Sensor noise -- |g 5.2.2. |t Sensor aliasing -- |g 5.2.3. |t Effector noise -- |g 5.2.4. |t An error model for odometric position estimation -- |g 5.3. |t To Localize or Not to Localize: Localization-Based Navigation Versus Programmed Solutions -- |g 5.4. |t Belief Representation -- |g 5.4.1. |t Single-hypothesis belief -- |g 5.4.2. |t Multiple-hypothesis belief -- |g 5.5. |t Map Representation -- |g 5.5.1. |t Continuous representations -- |g 5.5.2. |t Decomposition strategies -- |g 5.5.3. |t State of the art: Current challenges in map representation -- |g 5.6. |t Probabilistic Map-Based Localization -- |g 5.6.1. |t Introduction -- |g 5.6.2. |t The robot localization problem -- |g 5.6.3. |t Basic concepts of probability theory -- |gg 5.6.6. |t Classification of localization problems -- |g 5.6.7. |t Markov localization -- |g 5.6.8. |t Kalman filter localization -- |g 5.7. |t Other Examples of Localization Systems -- |g 5.7.1. |t Landmark-based navigation -- |g 5.7.2. |t Globally unique localization -- |g 5.7.3. |t Positioning beacon systems -- |g 5.7.4. |t Route-based localization -- |g 5.8. |t Autonomous Map Building -- |g 5.8.1. |t Introduction -- |g 5.8.2. |t SLAM: The simultaneous localization and mapping problem -- |g 5.8.3. |t Mathematical definition of SLAM -- |g 5.8.4. |t Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) SLAM -- |g 5.8.5. |t Visual SLAM with a single camera -- |g 5.8.6. |t Discussion on EKF SLAM -- |g 5.8.7. |t Graph-based SLAM -- |g 5.8.8. |t Particle filter SLAM -- |g 5.8.9. |t Open challenges in SLAM -- |g 5.8.10. |t Open source SLAM software and other resources -- |g 5.9. |t Problems -- |g 6. |t Planning and Navigation -- |g 6.1. |t Introduction -- |g 6.2. |t Competences for Navigation: Planning and Reactig 6.4. |t Obstacle avoidance -- |g 6.4.1. |t Bug algorithm -- |g 6.4.2. |t Vector field histogram -- |g 6.4.3. |t The bubble band technique -- |g 6.4.4. |t Curvature velocity techniques -- |g 6.4.5. |t Dynamic window approaches -- |g 6.4.6. |t The Schlegel approach to obstacle avoidance -- |g 6.4.7. |t Nearness diagram -- |g 6.4.8. |t Gradient method -- |g 6.4.9. |t Adding dynamic constraints -- |g 6.4.10. |t Other approaches -- |g 6.4.11. |t Overview -- |g 6.5. |t Navigation Architectures -- |g 6.5.1. |t Modularity for code reuse and sharing -- |g 6.5.2. |t Control localization -- |g 6.5.3. |t Techniques for decomposition -- |g 6.5.4. |t Case studies: tiered robot architectures -- |g 6.6. |t Problems -- |t Bibliography -- |t Books -- |t Papers -- |t Referenced Webpages.

Socially Intelligent Agents

Creating Relationships with Computers and Robots
Author: Kerstin Dautenhahn,Alan H. Bond,Lola Canamero,Bruce Edmonds
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0306473739
Category: Computers
Page: 281
View: 8773

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Socially situated planning provides one mechanism for improving the social awareness ofagents. Obviously this work isin the preliminary stages and many of the limitation and the relationship to other work could not be addressed in such a short chapter. The chief limitation, of course, is the strong commitment to de?ning social reasoning solely atthe meta-level, which restricts the subtlety of social behavior. Nonetheless, our experience in some real-world military simulation applications suggest that the approach, even in its preliminary state, is adequate to model some social interactions, and certainly extends the sta- of-the art found in traditional training simulation systems. Acknowledgments This research was funded by the Army Research Institute under contract TAPC-ARI-BR References [1] J. Gratch. Emile: Marshalling passions in training and education. In Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Autonomous Agents, pages 325–332, New York, 2000. ACM Press. [2] J. Gratch and R. Hill. Continous planning and collaboration for command and control in joint synthetic battlespaces. In Proceedings of the 8th Conference on Computer Generated Forces and Behavioral Representation, Orlando, FL, 1999. [3] B. Grosz and S. Kraus. Collaborative plans for complex group action. Arti?cial Intelli gence, 86(2):269–357, 1996. [4] A. Ortony, G. L. Clore, and A. Collins. The Cognitive Structure of Emotions. Cambridge University Press, 1988. [5] R.W.PewandA.S.Mavor,editors. Modeling Human and Organizational Behavior. National Academy Press, Washington D.C., 1998.

Human-Robot Interaction

A Survey
Author: Michael A. Goodrich,Alan C. Schultz
Publisher: Now Publishers Inc
ISBN: 1601980922
Category: Computers
Page: 79
View: 2163

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Human-Robot Interaction: A Survey presents a unified treatment of HRI-related issues, identifies key themes, and discusses challenge problems that are likely to shape the field in the near future. The survey includes research results from a cross section of the universities, government efforts, industry labs, and countries that contribute to HRI, and a cross section of the disciplines that contribute to the field, such as human factors, robotics, cognitive psychology and design

Sociable Robots and the Future of Social Relations

Proceedings of Robo-Philosophy 2014
Author: J. Seibt,M. Nørskov,R. Hakli
Publisher: IOS Press
ISBN: 1614994803
Category: Computers
Page: 380
View: 8652

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The robotics industry is growing rapidly, and to a large extent the development of this market sector is due to the area of social robotics – the production of robots that are designed to enter the space of human social interaction, both physically and semantically. Since social robots present a new type of social agent, they have been aptly classified as a disruptive technology, i.e. the sort of technology which affects the core of our current social practices and might lead to profound cultural and social change. Due to its disruptive and innovative potential, social robotics raises not only questions about utility, ethics, and legal aspects, but calls for “robo-philosophy” – the comprehensive philosophical reflection from the perspectives of all philosophical disciplines. This book presents the proceedings of the first conference in this new area, “Robo-Philosophy 2014 – Sociable Robots and the Future of Social Relations, held in Aarhus, Denmark, in August 2014. The short papers and abstracts collected here address questions of social robotics from the perspectives of philosophy of mind, social ontology, ethics, meta-ethics, political philosophy, aesthetics, intercultural philosophy, and metaphilosophy. Social robotics is still in its early stages, but it is precisely now that we need to reflect its possible cultural repercussions. This book is accessible to a wide readership and will be of interest to everyone involved in the development and use of social robotics applications, from social roboticists to policy makers.

Moral Machines

Teaching Robots Right from Wrong
Author: Wendell Wallach,Colin Allen
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199705962
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 288
View: 1922

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Computers are already approving financial transactions, controlling electrical supplies, and driving trains. Soon, service robots will be taking care of the elderly in their homes, and military robots will have their own targeting and firing protocols. Colin Allen and Wendell Wallach argue that as robots take on more and more responsibility, they must be programmed with moral decision-making abilities, for our own safety. Taking a fast paced tour through the latest thinking about philosophical ethics and artificial intelligence, the authors argue that even if full moral agency for machines is a long way off, it is already necessary to start building a kind of functional morality, in which artificial moral agents have some basic ethical sensitivity. But the standard ethical theories don't seem adequate, and more socially engaged and engaging robots will be needed. As the authors show, the quest to build machines that are capable of telling right from wrong has begun. Moral Machines is the first book to examine the challenge of building artificial moral agents, probing deeply into the nature of human decision making and ethics.

Social Robotics

4th International Conference, ICSR 2012, Chengdu, China, October 29-31, 2012, Proceedings
Author: Shuzhi Sam Ge,Oussama Khatib,John-John Cabibihan,Reid Simmons,Mary Anne Williams
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3642341039
Category: Computers
Page: 663
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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Social Robotics, ICSR 2012, held in Chengdu, China, in October 2012. The 66 revised full papers were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on affective and cognitive sciences for socially interactive robots, situated interaction and embodiment, robots to assist the elderly and persons with disabilities, social acceptance of robots and their impact to the society, artificial empathy, HRI through non-verbal communication and control, social telepresence robots, embodiments and networks, interaction and collaboration among robots, humans and environment, human augmentation, rehabilitation, and medical robots I and II.

Flowers of Perversion

The Delirious Cinema of Jess Franco
Author: Stephen Thrower,Julian Grainger
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9781907222603
Category:
Page: 464
View: 642

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Forthcoming from the MIT Press.

Data Mining for Social Robotics

Toward Autonomously Social Robots
Author: Yasser Mohammad,Toyoaki Nishida
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319252321
Category: Computers
Page: 328
View: 8068

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This book explores an approach to social robotics based solely on autonomous unsupervised techniques and positions it within a structured exposition of related research in psychology, neuroscience, HRI, and data mining. The authors present an autonomous and developmental approach that allows the robot to learn interactive behavior by imitating humans using algorithms from time-series analysis and machine learning. The first part provides a comprehensive and structured introduction to time-series analysis, change point discovery, motif discovery and causality analysis focusing on possible applicability to HRI problems. Detailed explanations of all the algorithms involved are provided with open-source implementations in MATLAB enabling the reader to experiment with them. Imitation and simulation are the key technologies used to attain social behavior autonomously in the proposed approach. Part two gives the reader a wide overview of research in these areas in psychology, and ethology. Based on this background, the authors discuss approaches to endow robots with the ability to autonomously learn how to be social. Data Mining for Social Robots will be essential reading for graduate students and practitioners interested in social and developmental robotics.

The Laws of Robots

Crimes, Contracts, and Torts
Author: Ugo Pagallo
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400765649
Category: Law
Page: 200
View: 2539

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This book explores how the design, construction, and use of robotics technology may affect today’s legal systems and, more particularly, matters of responsibility and agency in criminal law, contractual obligations, and torts. By distinguishing between the behaviour of robots as tools of human interaction, and robots as proper agents in the legal arena, jurists will have to address a new generation of “hard cases.” General disagreement may concern immunity in criminal law (e.g., the employment of robot soldiers in battle), personal accountability for certain robots in contracts (e.g., robo-traders), much as clauses of strict liability and negligence-based responsibility in extra-contractual obligations (e.g., service robots in tort law). Since robots are here to stay, the aim of the law should be to wisely govern our mutual relationships.

Social Robotics

6th International Conference, ICSR 2014, Sydney, NSW, Australia, October 27-29, 2014. Proceedings
Author: Michael Beetz,Benjamin Johnston,Mary-Anne Williams
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319119737
Category: Computers
Page: 412
View: 6252

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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Social Robotics, ICSR 2014, held in Sydney, NSW, Australia, in October 2014. The 41 revised full papers presented in this book were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. Amongst others, topics covered are such as interaction and collaboration among robots, humans, and environments; robots to assist the elderly and persons with disabilities; socially assistive robots to improve quality of life; affective and cognitive sciences for socially interactive robots; personal robots for the home; social acceptance and impact in the society; robot ethics in human society and legal implications; context awareness, expectation, and intention understanding; control architectures for social robotics; socially appealing design methodologies; safety in robots working in human spaces; human augmentation, rehabilitation, and medical robots; robot applications in education, entertainment, and gaming; knowledge representation and reasoning frameworks for robot social intelligence; cognitive architectures that support social intelligence for robots; robots in the workplace; human-robot interaction; creative and entertaining robots.