Designing Experimental Research in Archaeology

Examining Technology Through Production and Use
Author: Jeffrey R. Ferguson
Publisher: University Press of Colorado
ISBN: 9781607320234
Category: Social Science
Page: 304
View: 8811

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Designing Experimental Research in Archaeology is a guide for the design of archaeological experiments for both students and scholars. Experimental archaeology provides a unique opportunity to corroborate conclusions with multiple trials of repeatable experiments and can provide data otherwise unavailable to archaeologists without damaging sites, remains, or artifacts. Each chapter addresses a particular classification of material culture-ceramics, stone tools, perishable materials, composite hunting technology, butchering practices and bone tools, and experimental zooarchaeology-detailing issues that must be considered in the development of experimental archaeology projects and discussing potential pitfalls. The experiments follow coherent and consistent research designs and procedures and are placed in a theoretical context, and contributors outline methods that will serve as a guide in future experiments. This degree of standardization is uncommon in traditional archaeological research but is essential to experimental archaeology. The field has long been in need of a guide that focuses on methodology and design. This book fills that need not only for undergraduate and graduate students but for any archaeologist looking to begin an experimental research project.

Exploring and Explaining Diversity in Agricultural Technology


Author: Annelou van Gijn,John Whittaker,Patricia C. Anderson
Publisher: Oxbow Books
ISBN: 1842175157
Category: History
Page: 304
View: 453

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This volume is the outcome of collaborative European research among archaeologists, archaeobotanists, ethnographers, historians and agronomists, and frequently uses experiments in archaeology. It aims to establish new common ground for integrating different approaches and for viewing agriculture from the standpoint of the human actors involved. Each chapter provides an interdisciplinary overview of the skills used and the social context of the pursuit of agriculture, highlighting examples of tools, technologies and processes from land clearance to cereal processing and food preparation. This is the second of three volumes in the EARTH monograph series, The dynamics of non-industrial agriculture: 8,000 years of resilience and innovation , which shows the great variety of agricultural practices in human terms, in their social, political, cultural and legal contexts.

Lithic raw material variability and the reduction of short-term-use implements

an example from northwestern New Mexico
Author: Harry Joseph Lerner
Publisher: British Archaeological Reports Ltd
ISBN: N.A
Category: Social Science
Page: 170
View: 3983

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"Chipped stone tools are a truly dynamic medium of material culture. From initial reduction to contemporary excavation, lithic artifacts undergo continuous change. The role of the properties of raw materials in determining rates of use-wear accrual is poorly understood and has rarely been assessed quantitatively. This study offers such quantification regarding four materials exploited for the production of short-term use implements at the Late Archaic FA2-13 site located just outside the city of Farmington, New Mexico. Both experimental and archaeological use-wear evidence was assessed in separate but related ways. Digital image analysis of use-wear invasiveness using ClemexVision PE and GIS analysis of use-wear homogeneity using Idrisi Kilimanjaro yielded distinct but highly complementary results. Direct testing of material properties of non-archaeological samples using a Hysitron Triboindenter served to further clarify these findings in terms of the complex relationship between raw material surface hardness and roughness. The results of the present study show that there are significant differences between rates of wear accrual among the four materials. Analysis of tools from FA2-13 indicates that while scraping activities likely did predominate, it mayalso be feasible to generate more detailed assessments regarding the kinds of scraping activities that were undertaken and the respective intensities with which they were performed. This increased insight can then be extrapolated for application to long-term use technologies and their more complex life histories"--Publisher's web site.

Mesoamerican Lithic Technology

Experimentation and Interpretation
Author: Kenn Hirth
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9780874807653
Category: History
Page: 350
View: 377

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Any overview of prehispanic society in the Americas would identify its obsidian core-blade production as a unique and highly inventive technology. Normally termed prismatic blades, these long, parallel-sided flakes are among the sharpest cutting tools ever produced by humans. Their standardized form permitted interchangeable use, and such blades became the cutting tool of choice throughout Mesoamerica between 600-800 B.C. Because considerable production skill is required, increased demand may have stimulated the appearance of craft specialists who played an integral role in Mesoamerican society. Some investigators have argued that control over obsidian also had a significant effect on the development and organization of chiefdom and state-level societies. While researchers have long recognized the potential of obsidian studies, recent work has focused primarily on compositional analysis to reconstruct trade and distribution networks. Study of blade production has received much less attention, and many aspects of this highly evolved craft are still lost. This volume seeks to identify current research questions in Mesoamerican lithic technology and to demonstrate that replication studies coupled with experimental research design are valuable analytical approaches to such questions.

Interpreting Southwestern Diversity

Underlying Principles and Overarching Patterns
Author: Paul R. Fish,J. Jefferson Reid
Publisher: Arizona State University
ISBN: N.A
Category: Indians of North America
Page: 320
View: 9339

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Exploring the Past

Readings in Archaeology
Author: James Bayman,Miriam T. Stark
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9780890896990
Category: Social Science
Page: 566
View: 5077

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Unit issues in archaeology

measuring time, space, and material
Author: Ann Felice Ramenofsky,Anastasia Steffen
Publisher: Univ of Utah Pr
ISBN: N.A
Category: Social Science
Page: 245
View: 6022

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The relativity of measurement is one of the paradoxes of science. Even as we seek evidence to explain the world around us, the nature of that knowledge depends on our tools. The apparent inconsistency between what we know and how and what we measure points to the importance of scientific method as a bridge between ideas and entities. This volume emphasizes one aspect of scientific method: units of measure and their construction as applied to archaeology. Attributes, artifact classes, locational designations, temporal periods, sampling universes, culture stages, and geographic regions are all examples of constructed units. Unit Issues in Archaeology discusses how units are defined, described, and evaluated within specified research contexts. Topics include projectile points as chronological markers, the Pecos classification, obsidian and ceramic sourcing, ceramic typology, the "Folsom problem, " and landscape-scale units. Throughout the volume, emphasis is placed on the relationship between research goal and measurement. Because research drives the selection and construction of units, units are not treated as unvarying sets of absolutes.

Basiswissen Archäologie

Theorien, Methoden, Praxis
Author: Colin Renfrew,Paul G. Bahn
Publisher: Philipp Von Zabern Verlag Gmbh
ISBN: 9783805339483
Category: History
Page: 304
View: 3540

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Mit mehr als 150.000 verkauften Exemplaren gilt der Band Archaeology: Theories, Methods and Practice im englischsprachigen Raum bereits jetzt als Standardwerk im Fach Archaologie. Diese jetzt erstmals auf Deutsch vorliegende sorgfaltig uberarbeitete und zum Teil vollig neu geschriebene Fassung ist eine ausserst gut lesbare Einfuhrung fur alle, die sich fur Archaologie interessieren und eine kompakte Darstellung der Methoden und Praxis archaologischer Arbeit suchen. Beruhmte Archaologen und Ausgrabungsstatten passieren Revue. Inhaltlich ist das Buch auf der Hohe der Forschung, auch die neuesten technischen Methoden und Technologien werden behandelt. (Philipp von Zabern 2009)

Exploring the role of analytical scale in archaeological interpretation


Author: James R. Mathieu
Publisher: British Archaeological Reports Ltd
ISBN: 9781841716190
Category: Social Science
Page: 108
View: 7529

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These eight papers, plus an introduction and two final discussions, grew from a symposium held at the Society for Americal Archaeology in Philadelphia in 2000, which discussed the effect on analytical scale on the interpretation of the archaeological record. In other words, the contributors debate the validity of archaeologists' choices regarding the limits of their research area, such as geographical and temporal limitations, and the size of the material discussed, ranging from a complete castle or settlement to a few finds. The case studies are broad in their range, including early European farming, the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition, the uses of archaeometry, early Anglo-Saxon East Anglia, Late Antique Volterra and early medieval European cities.

Arm und reich

die Schicksale menschlicher Gesellschaften
Author: Jared M. Diamond
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9783596149674
Category: Kontinent - Gesellschaft - Entwicklung - Umweltfaktor - Vor- und Frühgeschichte
Page: 550
View: 6758

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