The delinquent way of life

third report of the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development
Author: Donald James West,David P. Farrington,Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development
Publisher: Taylor & Francis Group
ISBN: N.A
Category: Social Science
Page: 209
View: 7290

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Legacies of Crime

A Follow-Up of the Children of Highly Delinquent Girls and Boys
Author: Peggy C. Giordano
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 052187971X
Category: Family & Relationships
Page: 251
View: 2226

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This book follows a cohort of seriously delinquent girls and boys over twenty years, documenting the effects of their criminal involvement on their children.

Life in the Gang

Family, Friends, and Violence
Author: Scott H. Decker,Barrik van Winkle
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521565660
Category: Social Science
Page: 303
View: 8362

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This study is based on three years of field work with ninety-nine active gang members and twenty-four family members. The book describes the attractiveness of gangs, the process of joining, their chaotic and loose organization, and their members' predominant activities--mostly hanging out, drinking, and using drugs--and their rather slapdash involvement in major property crime and drug traffic. Extensive interviews with family members provide groundbreaking insights into the gang members' lives, and the story is told largely in the gang members' own words.

Gangs and Delinquency in Developmental Perspective


Author: Terence P. Thornberry
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521891295
Category: Social Science
Page: 238
View: 5983

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Gang membership has long been understood to have a disruptive influence on adolescent development and to contribute disproportionately to the rate of delinquent crime. The nature of the impact, and the long-term effects on individuals, have not been well understood. This book uses longitudinal data to examine the developmental consequences of gang membership, and its longer term influence on the life course. This longitudinal approach is made possible by data from a study of antisocial behavior, The Rochester Youth Development Study, which followed one thousand adolescents through their early adult years. The subjects include delinquents who were gang members and others who were not, allowing the authors to compare motives, patterns of behavior, and recurring problems with caregivers and the law, education, peer relations, and career paths. The findings indicate that multiple developmental deficits lead to gang membership and that membership leads to an increase in delinquency.

Schools and Delinquency


Author: Denise C. Gottfredson
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521626293
Category: Education
Page: 316
View: 3035

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Schools and Delinquency, first published in 2001, provides a comprehensive review and critique of the current research about the causes of delinquency, substance use, drop-out, and truancy, and the role of the school in preventing these behavior patterns. Examining school-based prevention programs and practices for grades K-12, Denise Gottfredson identifies a broad array of effective strategies improving the school environment, as well as some that specifically target youths at risk of developing problem behaviors. She also explains why several popular school-based prevention strategies are ineffective and should be abandoned. Gottfredson analyzes, within the larger context of the community, the special challenges to effective prevention programming that arise in disorganized settings, identifying ways to overcome these obstacles and to make the most troubled schools safer and more productive environments.

Companions in Crime

The Social Aspects of Criminal Conduct
Author: Mark Warr
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521009164
Category: Psychology
Page: 172
View: 8756

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The principal thesis of Companions in Crime is that deviant behavior is predominantly social behavior.

Key Issues in Criminal Career Research

New Analyses of the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development
Author: Alex R. Piquero,David P. Farrington,Alfred Blumstein
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139459929
Category: Social Science
Page: N.A
View: 4951

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This book examines several contentious and under-studied criminal career issues using one of the world's most important longitudinal studies, the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development (CSDD), a longitudinal study of 411 South London boys followed in criminal records to age 40. The analysis reported in the book explores issues related to prevalence, offending frequency, specialization, onset sequences, co-offending, chronicity, career length, and trajectory estimation. The results of the study are considered in the context of developmental/life-course theories, and the authors outline an agenda for criminal career research generally, and within the context of the CSDD specifically.

What Works in Corrections

Reducing the Criminal Activities of Offenders and Deliquents
Author: Doris Layton MacKenzie
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521001205
Category: Social Science
Page: 404
View: 7934

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What Works in Corrections, first published in 2006, examines the impact of correctional interventions, management policies, treatment and rehabilitation programs on the recidivism of offenders and delinquents. The book reviews different strategies for reducing recidivism and describes how the evidence for effectiveness is assessed. Thousands of studies were examined in order to identify those of sufficient scientific rigor to enable conclusions to be drawn about the impact of various interventions, policies and programs on recidivism. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses were performed to further examine these results. This book assesses the relative effectiveness of rehabilitation programs (e.g., education, life skills, employment, cognitive behavioral), treatment for different types of offenders (e.g. sex offenders, batterers, juveniles), management and treatment of drug-involved offenders (e.g., drug courts, therapeutic communities, outpatient drug treatment) and punishment, control and surveillance interventions (boot camps, intensive supervision, electronic monitoring). Through her extensive research, MacKenzie illustrates which of these programs are most effective and why.

Offending from Childhood to Late Middle Age

Recent Results from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development
Author: David P. Farrington,Alex R. Piquero,Wesley G. Jennings
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461461057
Category: Social Science
Page: 80
View: 7633

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Offending from Childhood to Late Middle Age is a timely volume by leading researchers in Life Course Criminology, which reports new findings from The Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development, a prospective longitudinal survey of 411 South London males first studied at age 8 in 1961. The main aim of the study is to advance knowledge about criminal careers up to age 56. At the time of these most recent findings, forty-two percent of the males were convicted, with an average ten-year conviction career. Only seven percent of the males accounted for half of all convictions. Almost all of the males (93 percent) reported committing an offense in four age ranges, compared with 29 percent who were convicted at these ages. There were on average of 39 self-reported offenses per conviction. Group-based trajectory analyses indicated that, while there were distinct groups of offenders who followed different age-crime trajectories between ages 10 and 56, five groups best characterized the criminal careers of the men, with two groups, high adolescence peak and high rate chronic, exhibiting the most offending. Also, the offending trajectories were predicted by individual and environmental childhood risk factors, with the most chronic offenders (to age 56) having the most extreme scores on childhood risk. Based on these results, risk assessment instruments could be developed and risk-focused prevention could be implemented in early childhood, including parent training, pre-school intellectual enrichment programs and home visiting programs, in order to prevent chronic styles of offending from being initiated. This work will be of interest to researchers in criminology and criminal justice, especially those with an interest in life course criminology and crime prevention, while also being of use as a research framework for other studies.​ It will also be of interest to researchers in sociology, psychology, and other social sciences, as well as policy makers and practitioners. “This is a ‘must read’ for anyone seeking to understand the development and course of crime from childhood through adulthood. Comparative analyses of officially recorded and self-reported offending and analyses of the predictive power of childhood risks to distinguish offending trajectories are important contributions of this new milestone in the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development.” J. David Hawkins, Ph.D., Endowed Professor of Prevention, Social Development Research Group, School of Social Work, University of Washington “For more than four decades the Cambridge Study of Delinquent Development has been a guiding light for research on what has come to be called developmental criminology. This latest installment is still another demonstration of the importance of this seminal study.” Daniel S. Nagin, Teresa and H. John Heinz III University Professor of Public Policy and Statistics, Carnegie Mellon University

Family Life and Youth Offending

Home is Where the Hurt is
Author: Raymond Arthur
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134132751
Category: Social Science
Page: 240
View: 2070

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The contention that young people commit offences due to inadequate parenting and parental difficulties has been an abiding feature of the debates on juvenile offending. Previously this evidence has been used to design prevention programmes for young offenders who have been processed by the criminal justice system, but this book examines how this evidence can be used to prevent offending in the first place. Examining the relationship between the causes of youth offending and the legal duty of the state to address those causes, this book provides evidence to show that improving the family environment could be the most effective and enduring strategy for combating juvenile delinquency and associated behavioural, social and emotional problems. It examines how current child welfare legislation, in particular the Children Act 1989, could be employed to prevent children who are at risk of engaging in antisocial and delinquent behaviour from offending. It abandons the traditional ‘welfare vs. justice’ dichotomy and instead outlines a new approach which focuses on the rights and needs of young people in troubled circumstances and their families.

International Criminology

A Critical Introduction
Author: Rob Watts,Judith Bessant,Richard Hil
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134083335
Category: Law
Page: 280
View: 361

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International Criminology is an easy-access critical introduction to how conventional criminologists in the international arena think about and research crime. By using examples from the US, UK and Australia, the authors outline key ideas, vocabulary, assumptions and findings of the discipline while opening up a set of critical underlying issues and problems. From theoretical traditions to historical perspectives; contemporary criminology to reflexive criminology; this all encompassing text covers it all. This is the most valuable introduction to international criminology available for undergraduates and works as a superb refresher for more experienced students.

Criminal Recidivism

Explanation, prediction and prevention
Author: Georgia Zara,David P. Farrington
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136185127
Category: Social Science
Page: 420
View: 3516

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Criminal Recidivism intends to fill a gap in the criminological psychology literature by examining the processes underlying persistent criminal careers. This book aims to investigate criminal recidivism, and why, how and for how long an individual continues to commit crimes, whilst also reviewing knowledge about risk assessment and the role of psychopathy (including neurocriminological factors) in encouraging recidivism. It also focuses on the recidivism of sex offenders and on what works in reducing reoffending. At an empirical level, this book attempts to explain criminal persistence and recidivism using longitudinal data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development (CSDD). At a psycho-criminological level it joins together quantitative and qualitative analyses, making its content a practical guide to explain, predict, and intervene to reduce the risk of criminal recidivism. The authors present quantitative analyses of criminal careers, as well as qualitative life histories of chronic offenders, in order to bring home the reality and consequences of a life of crime. The book is aimed not only at advanced students and academics in psychology, criminology, probation studies, social sciences, psychiatry, sociology, political science, and penology, but also at decision makers, policy officials, and practitioners within the realm of crime intervention and prevention, and also at forensic experts, judges and lawyers.

The Development of Criminal and Antisocial Behavior

Theory, Research and Practical Applications
Author: Julien Morizot,Lila Kazemian
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319087207
Category: Social Science
Page: 564
View: 9807

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This edited book summarizes the current state of knowledge on the development of criminal and antisocial behavior over the life course. It focuses mainly on the developmental perspective, which has had a paradigmatic influence on current theoretical and empirical works in criminology. With a multidisciplinary perspective, the book reviews: (a) the fundamental concepts of developmental criminology; (b) the risk factors and developmental processes related to the most salient personal (e.g., genetics, personality) and environmental (e.g., family, peers, school) domains explaining the development of criminal and antisocial behavior; (c) the developmental issues related to a number a special themes (e.g., women criminality, street gangs) and (d) the applied and policy implications of research in developmental criminology. In each chapter, prominent researchers from different disciplines such as criminology and psychology summarize the state of knowledge on a specific topic, identify the shortcomings of past research, offer recommendations for future research needs.

Taking Stock of Delinquency

An Overview of Findings from Contemporary Longitudinal Studies
Author: Terence P. Thornberry,Marvin D. Krohn
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 030647364X
Category: Psychology
Page: 332
View: 6235

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Taking Stock in Delinquency is the comprehensive synthesis of the empirical findings of seven important ongoing longitudinal studies of delinquency. The seven projects included in this volume represent much of the diversity found in individual-based panel studies of antisocial behavior. Individually and collectively, the results of these investigations have been published in a wide range of disciplinary outlets, thus making it difficult to identify common themes and general principles. This volume intends to provide a comprehensive and unified picture of empirical results, both within these studies and across them. One of the fundamental purposes of Taking Stock in Delinquency is to examine the extent to which these studies answer the basic question of the origins of delinquent and criminal careers despite their varying guiding theories, methods, and settings. Taking Stock in Delinquency is an important resource for criminologists, psychologists, sociologists, and upper-level students on juvenile delinquency, criminology, developmental psychology, and deviant behavior.

Crime and the Lifecourse

An Introduction
Author: Michael L. Benson
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 0415994926
Category: Law
Page: 239
View: 4347

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In recent years, the lifecourse perspective has become a popular theoretical orientation toward crime. Yet despite its growing importance in the field of criminology, most textbooks give it only cursory treatment. Crime and the Lifecourse: An Introduction by Michael L. Benson provides a comprehensive overview of contemporary research and theory on the life-course approach to crime. The book emphasizes a conceptual understanding of this approach. A special feature is the integration of qualitative and quantitative research on criminal life histories. This book: provides an overview of the life course approach and describes the major concepts and issues in lifecourse theory as it applies to criminology reviews evidence on biological and genetic influences on crime reviews research on the role of the family in crime and juvenile delinquency provides a detailed discussion of the criminological lifecourse theories of Moffitt, Hagan, Sampson and Laub, and others discusses the connections between youthful crime and adult outcomes in education, occupation, and marriage presents an application of the lifecourse approach to white-collar crime discusses how macro sociological and historical developments have influenced the shape of the lifecourse in American society as it relates to patterns in crime.

Breaking Rules: The Social and Situational Dynamics of Young People's Urban Crime


Author: Per-Olof H. Wikström,Dietrich Oberwittler,Kyle Treiber,Beth Hardie
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191634107
Category: Law
Page: 512
View: 8099

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Why do certain people commit acts of crime? Why does crime happen in certain places? Presenting an ambitious new study designed to test a pioneering new theory of the causes of crime, Breaking Rules: The Social and Situational Dynamics of Young People's Urban Crime demonstrates that these questions can only go so far in explaining why crime happens - and, therefore, in preventing it. Based on the work of the Peterborough Adolescent and Young Adult Development Study (PADS+), Breaking Rules presents an analysis of the urban structure of Peterborough and its relation to young people's social life. Contemporary sciences state that behaviour is the outcome of an interaction between people and the environments to which they are exposed, and it is precisely that interaction and its relation to young people's crime involvement that PADS+ explores. Driven by a ground-breaking theory of crime, Situational Action Theory, which aims to explain why people break rules, it implements innovative methods of measuring social environments and people's exposure to them, involving a cohort of 700 young people growing up in the UK city of Peterborough. It focuses on the important adolescent time window, ages 12 to 17, during which young people's crime involvement is at its peak, using unique space-time budget data to explore young people's time use, movement patterns, and the spatio-temporal characteristics of their crime involvement. Presenting the first study of this kind, both in breadth and detail, with significant implications for policy and prevention, Breaking Rules should not only be of great interest to academic readers, but also to policy-makers and practitioners, interested in issues of urban environments, crime within urban environments, and the role of social environments in crime causation.

Crime, Shame and Reintegration


Author: John Braithwaite
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521356688
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Page: 226
View: 6535

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This book, a contribution to general criminological theory, suggests that the key to why some societies have higher crime rates than others lies in the way different cultures go about the social process of shaming wrongdoers. Shaming can be counterproductive, making crime problems worse. But when shaming is done within a cultural context of respect for the offender, it can be extraordinarily powerful, efficient, and just form of social control.

Sex Differences in Antisocial Behaviour

Conduct Disorder, Delinquency, and Violence in the Dunedin Longitudinal Study
Author: Terrie E. Moffitt
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521010665
Category: Political Science
Page: 278
View: 2990

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A fresh approach to sex differences in the causes, course and consequences of antisocial behaviour.