Deliberate Discretion?

The Institutional Foundations of Bureaucratic Autonomy
Author: John D. Huber,Charles R. Shipan
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521520706
Category: Juvenile Nonfiction
Page: 284
View: 9324

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This book explains the different approaches legislators use when they write laws.

Legislator Success in Fragmented Congresses in Argentina

Plurality Cartels, Minority Presidents, and Lawmaking
Author: Ernesto Calvo
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107065135
Category: Political Science
Page: 232
View: 6119

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Plurality-led Congresses are among the most pervasive and least studied phenomena in presidential systems around the world. Often conflated with divided government, where an organized opposition controls a majority of seats in congress, plurality-led congresses are characterized by a party with fewer than 50 percent of the seats still in control of the legislative gates. Extensive gatekeeping authority without plenary majorities, this book shows, leads to policy outcomes that are substantially different from those observed in majority-led congresses. Through detailed analyses of legislative success in Argentina and Uruguay, this book explores the determinants of law enactment in fragmented congresses. It describes in detail how the lack of majority support explains legislative success in standing committees, the chamber directorate, and the plenary floor.

Exclusion by Elections

Inequality, Ethnic Identity, and Democracy
Author: John D. Huber
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1316872777
Category: Political Science
Page: N.A
View: 5275

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Exclusion by Elections develops a theory about the circumstances under which 'class identities' as opposed to 'ethnic identities' become salient in democratic politics, and links this theory to issues of inequality and the propensity of governments to address it. The book argues that in societies with even modest levels of ethnic diversity, inequality invites ethnic politics, and ethnic politics results in less redistribution than class politics. Thus, contrary to existing workhorse models in social science, where democracies are expected to respond to inequality by increasing redistribution, the argument here is that inequality interacts with ethnic diversity to discourage redistribution. As a result, inequality often becomes reinforced by inequality itself. The author explores the argument empirically by examining cross-national patterns of voting behaviour, redistribution and democratic transitions, and he discusses the argument's implications for identifying strategies that can be used to address rising inequality in the world today.

Presidents and Assemblies

Constitutional Design and Electoral Dynamics
Author: Matthew Soberg Shugart,John M. Carey
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521429900
Category: Political Science
Page: 316
View: 4046

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In recent years renewed attention has been directed to the importance of the role of institutional design in democratic politics. Particular interest has concerned constitutional design and the relative merits of parliamentary versus presidential systems. In this book, the authors systematically assess the strengths and weaknesses of various forms of presidential systems, drawing on recent developments in the theoretical literature about institutional design and electoral rules. They develop a typology of democratic regimes structured around the separation of powers principle, including two hybrid forms, the premier-presidential and president-parliamentary systems, and they evaluate a number of alternative ways of balancing powers between the branches within these basic frameworks. They also demonstrate that electoral rules are critically important in determining how political authority is exercised.

Delegating Powers

A Transaction Cost Politics Approach to Policy Making Under Separate Powers
Author: David Epstein,Sharyn O'Halloran
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521669603
Category: Political Science
Page: 319
View: 1132

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In this path-breaking book, David Epstein and Sharyn O'Halloran produce the first unified theory of policy making between the legislative and executive branches. Examining major US policy initiatives from 1947 to 1992, the authors describe the conditions under which the legislature narrowly constrains executive discretion, and when it delegates authority to the bureaucracy. In doing so, the authors synthesize diverse and competitive literatures, from transaction cost and principal-agent theory in economics, to information models developed in both economics and political science, to substantive and theoretical work on legislative organization and on bureaucratic discretion.

The Oxford Handbook of Legislative Studies


Author: Shane Martin,Thomas Saalfeld,Kaare W. Strøm
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191019070
Category: Political Science
Page: 800
View: 3522

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Legislatures are political bodies essential to democracy and the rule of law. They present social scientists with numerous intriguing puzzles, with far-reaching implications for our understanding of political institutions. Why, and how, have these ancient assemblies, established in pre-democratic times, survived the transition to mass democracies? How have they adapted? How do they structure such processes as budgeting, legislation, and executive oversight? How do their members get selected, and what consequences flow from differences in these rules? What roles do committees and political parties play in contemporary legislatures? What functions do legislatures perform in autocratic, semi-democratic or recently democratized societies? What explains the similarities and differences in legislative rules, powers and recruitment? What are the policy and other consequences of variation in how legislatures are organized and function? The 33 chapters in The Oxford Handbook of Legislative Studies, written by 47 of the most distinguished legislative scholars, provide a comprehensive and up-to-date description and assessment of the state of the art in legislative studies. Key themes explored include theoretical paradigms and methodological approaches to the study of legislatures, representation and legislative careers, internal organization, the role of parties within legislatures and the role of legislatures in policy making and accountability. The Handbook also explores the emergence of parliaments in historical and contemporary contexts, including new democracies and trans-national institutions.

Rationalizing Parliament

Legislative Institutions and Party Politics in France
Author: John D. Huber
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521562911
Category: Political Science
Page: 215
View: 7855

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Rationalizing Parliament examines how institutional arrangements in the French Constitution shape the bargaining strategies of political parties. Professor Huber investigates the decision by French elites to include in the Constitution legislative procedures intended to "rationalize" the policy-making role of parliament and analyzes the impact of these procedures on policy outcomes, cabinet stability, and political accountability. Through its use of theories developed in the American politics literature, the study reveals important similarities between legislative politics in the United States and in parliamentary systems and the shortcomings in conventional interpretations of French institutional arrangements.

The Craft of Bureaucratic Neutrality

Interests and Influence in Governmental Regulation of Occupational Safety
Author: Gregory A. Huber
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139464779
Category: Political Science
Page: 256
View: 7098

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Are political understandings of bureaucracy incompatible with Weberian features of administrative neutrality? In examining the question of whether interest groups and elected officials are able to influence how government agencies implement the law, this book identifies the political origins of bureaucratic neutrality. In bridging the traditional gap between questions of internal management (public administration) and external politics (political science), Huber argues that 'strategic neutrality' allows bureaucratic leaders to both manage their subordinates and sustain political support. By analyzing the OSH Act of 1970, Huber demonstrates the political origins and benefits of administrative neutrality, and contrasts it with apolitical and unconstrained administrative implementation. Historical analysis, interviews with field-level bureaucrats and their supervisors, and quantitative analysis provide a rich understanding of the twin difficulties agency leaders face as political actors and personnel managers.

The Engines of European Integration

Delegation, Agency, and Agenda Setting in the EU
Author: Mark A. Pollack
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 9780199251186
Category: Law
Page: 496
View: 8591

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This study of delegation and agency in the European Union, examines the role of supranational actors like the Commission, the Court of Justice, and the European Parliament in the process of European integration and in contemporary EU governance.

Approaches and Methodologies in the Social Sciences

A Pluralist Perspective
Author: Donatella Della Porta,Michael Keating
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139474596
Category: Political Science
Page: N.A
View: 5500

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A revolutionary textbook introducing masters and doctoral students to the major research approaches and methodologies in the social sciences. Written by an outstanding set of scholars, and derived from successful course teaching, this volume will empower students to choose their own approach to research, to justify this approach, and to situate it within the discipline. It addresses questions of ontology, epistemology and philosophy of social science, and proceeds to issues of methodology and research design essential for producing a good research proposal. It also introduces researchers to the main issues of debate and contention in the methodology of social sciences, identifying commonalities, historic continuities and genuine differences.

The Oxford Handbook of State and Local Government


Author: Donald P. Haider-Markel
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191611964
Category: Political Science
Page: 976
View: 1380

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The Oxford Handbook of State and Local Government is an historic undertaking. It contains a wide range of essays that define the important questions in the field, evaluate where we are in answering them, and set the direction and terms of discourse for future work. The Handbook will have a substantial influence in defining the field for years to come. The chapters critically assess both the key works of state and local politics literature and the ways in which the sub-field has developed. It covers the main areas of study in subnational politics by exploring the central contributions to the comparative study of institutions, behavior, and policy in the American context. Each chapter outlines an agenda for future research.

France and the European Union

After the Referendum on the European Constitution
Author: Emiliano Grossman
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9780415442428
Category: History
Page: 177
View: 3623

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The character of international trade has changed dramatically over the past twenty years. Previously published as a special issue of The Journal of European Public Policy, this volume provides a 'state of the art' study of the new trade politics.

A Government of Strangers

Executive Politics in Washington
Author: Hugh Heclo
Publisher: Brookings Institution Press
ISBN: 9780815705192
Category: Political Science
Page: 272
View: 2503

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How do political appointees try to gain control of the Washington bureaucracy? How do high-ranking career bureaucrats try to ensure administrative continuity? The answers are sought in this analysis of the relations between appointees and bureaucrats that uses the participants' own words to describe the imperatives they face and the strategies they adopt. Shifting attention away form the well-publicized actions of the President, High Heclo reveals the little-known everyday problems of executive leadership faced by hundreds of appointees throughout the executive branch. But he also makes clear why bureaucrats must deal cautiously with political appointees and with a civil service system that offers few protections for broad-based careers of professional public service. The author contends that even as political leadership has become increasingly bureaucratized, the bureaucracy has become more politicized. Political executives—usually ill-prepared to deal effectively with the bureaucracy—often fail to recognize that the real power of the bureaucracy is not its capacity for disobedience or sabotage but its power to withhold services. Statecraft for political executives consists of getting the changes they want without losing the bureaucratic services they need. Heclo argues further that political executives, government careerists, and the public as well are poorly served by present arrangements for top-level government personnel. In his view, the deficiencies in executive politics will grow worse in the future. Thus he proposes changes that would institute more competent management of presidential appointments, reorganize the administration of the civil service personnel system, and create a new Federal Service of public managers.

The Principle of the Separation of Powers

A Defense
Author: Zoltán Balázs
Publisher: Lexington Books
ISBN: 1498523358
Category: Political Science
Page: 202
View: 5675

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The separation of powers is one of the most cherished principles of constitutional government in the Western tradition. Despite its prestigious status, however, it has always been controversial. It has been attacked for being inadequate to account for institutional realities; for being inapplicable to parliamentary systems; for lacking a convincing normative grounding and even for being harmful, inasmuch as it hampers both the immediate enforcement of popular will and efficient political leadership. Current political crises all over the world, especially the rise of populist democracies and authoritarian regimes, however, make the principle worth a closer, more positive examination. This book takes stock of the criticisms of the principle of separation of powers and attempts to offer a new normative account of it. It argues that the separation of powers cannot be restricted to governmental institutions, agencies and decision-making procedures. Rather, it must be derived from the very basics of government, from the very notions of political order and articulated government and from the distinct though related concepts of social and governmental power and of authority. Once these distinctions are made, institutional separations are easier to be established. Contrary to the classical and most contemporary conceptions of the principle, the present account argues for a relational and negative conception of the separation of powers. The legislative branch in conceived of as the one where political authority, political power and social power are all equally represented. The executive branch is best understood as excluding social power whereas the judicial branch is marked for its opposition to the influence of political power. This conception avoids the pitfalls of essentialism and functionalism and makes the principle applicable in a much wider international context.

Policymaking in Latin America

How Politics Shapes Policies
Author: Ernesto Stein,Mariano Tommasi,Carlos G. Scartascini,Pablo Tomas Spiller
Publisher: Harvard Univ David Rockefeller
ISBN: 9781597820615
Category: History
Page: 500
View: 8441

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Political institutions, policymaking, and policy: an introduction / Pablo T. Spiller, Ernesto Stein, and Mariano Tommasi -- Who's who in the PMP: an overview of actors, incentives, and the roles they play / Carlos Scartascini -- Political institutions, policymaking processes, and policy outcomes in Argentina / Pablo T. Spiller and Mariano Tommasi -- On the road to good governance: recovering from economic and political shocks in Brazil / Lee J. Alston ... [et. al] -- Political institutions, policymaking processes, and policy outcomes in Chile / Cristóbal Aninat ... [et. al] -- Political institutions and policy outcomes in Colombia: the effects of the 1991 constitution / Mauricio Cárdenas, Roberto Junguito, Mónica Pachòn -- Veto players, fickle institutions, and low-quality policies: the policymaking process in Ecuador / Andrés Mejia Acosta ... [et. al] -- Policymaking in Mexico under one-party hegemony and divided government / Fabrice Lehoucq ... [et. al] -- Political institutions, policymaking processes, and policy outcomes in Paraguay / José Molinas ... [et. al] -- Political institutions and policymaking in Venezuela: the rise and collapse of political cooperation / Francisco Monaldi ... [et. al].

Stealth Democracy

Americans' Beliefs About How Government Should Work
Author: John R. Hibbing,Elizabeth Theiss-Morse
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521009867
Category: Political Science
Page: 284
View: 7739

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Examining how people want their democratic government to work, this study finds that Americans don't like many of the practices associated with democracy: the conflicts, the debates, the compromises. It finds that Americans don't want to have to see democracy in practice, nor do they want to be involved in politics. If American citizens had their way, political decisions would be made by unselfish decision-makers, lessening the need for monitoring government.

Choice

Publication of the Association of College and Research Libraries, a Division of the American Library Association
Author: N.A
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Academic libraries
Page: N.A
View: 2752

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Theatre of the Rule of Law

Transnational Legal Intervention in Theory and Practice
Author: Stephen Humphreys
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 113949533X
Category: Law
Page: N.A
View: 2071

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Theatre of the Rule of Law presents a sustained critique of global rule of law promotion - an expansive industry at the heart of international development, post-conflict reconstruction and security policy today. While successful in articulating and disseminating an effective global public policy, rule of law promotion has largely failed in its stated objectives of raising countries out of poverty and taming violent conflict. Furthermore, in its execution, this work deviates sharply from 'the rule of law' as commonly conceived. To explain this, Stephen Humphreys draws on the history of the rule of law as a concept, examples of legal export during colonial times, and a spectrum of contemporary interventions by development agencies and international organisations. Rule of law promotion is shown to be a kind of theatre, the staging of a morality tale about the good life, intended for edification and emulation, but blind to its own internal contradictions.