Defining Street Gangs in the 21st Century

Fluid, Mobile, and Transnational Networks
Author: C.E. Prowse
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461443075
Category: Social Science
Page: 54
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In contrast to the pattern of long-standing occidental street gangs modelled in the North American paradigm, new-age gangs have appeared as loosely organized, with a high degree of interchangeability of their membership. Associated with this structural fluidity is an equally significant geographic mobility, which paradoxically does not appear to diminish the intensity of personal bonds formed within and between ‘new-age’ gangs. The dimensions of fluidity of gang membership and geographic mobility across police jurisdictions is increasingly seen as the organizational pattern of emerging gangs, in large part shaped by worldwide patterns of human migration and globalization. While the structure of new-age gangs appears as loose-knit, what must be emphasized is that this characteristic is reflective of a criminal network of economic commodity-based ‘turf’ as opposed to a close-knit geographically anchored ‘turf’ that has characterized the prevailing North American (occidental) gang model. This volume illuminates the structure and organization of increasingly emergent, fluid and mobile, new-age gangs within the context of transnational networks. The implications for law enforcement agencies is two-fold: i) the fluidity of new-age gang players challenges investigative techniques that remain predicated on suspect recognition through modus operandi repetition by those involved, and; ii) the movement of new-age gang players across police jurisdictions challenges the sharing of police information. This innovative work will be of interest to researchers in Criminology and Criminal Justice, as well as related disciplines including Sociology and Anthropology studying gangs and group-organization. It has strong implications for practitioners and professionals working in law enforcement, public policy, or with at-risk youth/young adults.

UN Peacekeeping in Africa

A Critical Examination and Recommendations for Improvement
Author: Kwame Akonor
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319391623
Category: Social Science
Page: 97
View: 8314

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This timely volume explores the “dark side” of United Nations (UN) Peacekeeping in Africa: when rather than help establish a rule of law in the host country, they become perpetrators of crime. The work of the UN peacekeepers is generally comprised of police and military personnel, from countries who contribute voluntarily to assist war-torn countries create conditions for lasting peace. Overall, these peacekeeping efforts are perceived positively, with volunteers giving their time and risking their lives to bring normalcy and peace to civilians in countries with conflict. In fact, there are cases where UN Peacekeepers are sometimes the victims of violent crimes, and need security and protection themselves. Although instances of abuse are not widespread and are certainly not isolated to Africa, this work focuses on Africa because there is a high concentration of UN Peacekeepers there, and lessons learned can be applied to other regions. The instances of abuse cover serious crimes including sexual abuse and exploitation, child and arms trafficking, and corruption, all of some of the most vulnerable populations in the world at the time. Although these instances are not extensive, they remain a fundamental problem because there is no existing mechanism for prosecution in the international area: it is only the troops’ home country, not the UN, who has the right to exercise criminal jurisdiction. The also undermine the good work that UN Peacekeepers are doing all over the world. This work is concerned with highlighting why these instances occur, and why specific forms of abuse are more prevalent than others. It also discusses how to prevent abuse and violations from happening in the first place, and creating a culture of change and accountability. Finally, taking into account cultural and legal systems from troops’ home countries, the author considers the ways that local rules can be aligned with international standards. In will be of interest to researchers in Criminology and Criminal Justice, International Relations, Sociology and Demography, Public Health, Comparative Law, and other related disciplines.

Street Gangs Throughout the World


Author: Herbert C. Covey
Publisher: Charles C Thomas Publisher
ISBN: 0398079706
Category: Electronic books
Page: 328
View: 8578

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This updated and expanded new edition continues the theme of the first edition of emphasizing the substantial growth of street gangs throughout the world. Although a substantial amount of research on street gangs has been conducted in recent decades, much of it has focused on the United States. This book summarizes much of the research being conducted in many other countries where the street gang phenomenon is currently developing, which includes poverty, the retreat of the state, increasing income inequality, urbanization, population growth, exploitation, marginalization, underground economie.

Mitochondrial Medicine

Mitochondrial Metabolism, Diseases, Diagnosis and Therapy
Author: Anna Gvozdjáková
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402067143
Category: Medical
Page: 409
View: 7487

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Mitochondrial medicine deals with diseases that are related to mitochondrial dysfunction due to a number of causes from free radical damage to genetic mutation. This book is based on extensive data gathered over 30 years of clinical and experimental research. In it, internationally recognized authors share their experience in various fields of their expertise and guide readers through the disease process, from basic biochemical mechanisms to diagnosis to therapeutic aspects.

On the Power of Fuzzy Markup Language


Author: Giovanni Acampora,Vincenzo Loia,Chang-Shing Lee,Mei-Hui Wang
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3642354882
Category: Computers
Page: 188
View: 2111

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One of the most successful methodology that arose from the worldwide diffusion of Fuzzy Logic is Fuzzy Control. After the first attempts dated in the seventies, this methodology has been widely exploited for controlling many industrial components and systems. At the same time, and very independently from Fuzzy Logic or Fuzzy Control, the birth of the Web has impacted upon almost all aspects of computing discipline. Evolution of Web, Web2.0 and Web 3.0 has been making scenarios of ubiquitous computing much more feasible; consequently information technology has been thoroughly integrated into everyday objects and activities. What happens when Fuzzy Logic meets Web technology? Interesting results might come out, as you will discover in this book. Fuzzy Mark-up Language is a son of this synergistic view, where some technological issues of Web are re-interpreted taking into account the transparent notion of Fuzzy Control, as discussed here. The concept of a Fuzzy Control that is conceived and modeled in terms of a native web wisdom represents another step towards the last picture of Pervasive Web Intelligence.

Pediatric Orthopedics

A Handbook for Primary Care Physicians
Author: Amr Abdelgawad,Osama Naga
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461471265
Category: Medical
Page: 591
View: 3955

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​Topics in pediatric orthopedics routinely surface in general pediatrics and primary care, whether on board exams or in clinical practice. From birth injuries to musculoskeletal infections, there are many conditions and presenting complaints that must be addressed by the primary care physician or pediatrician. This concise and targeted handbook contains just the need to know conditions, injuries, and diseases necessary for residents and even seasoned clinicians to brush up on pediatric orthopedic topics with ease. Information is contained within themed chapters (like neuromuscular diseases or musculoskeletal infections) and also by anatomical region (hip, knee foot, spine, etc.). This book gives readers the basic knowledge to be able to identify common orthopedic conditions, indications to either treat these conditions or refer patient to an orthopedist, and covers the entire required curriculum needed to answer musculoskeletal questions on the pediatrics board exam.

Women and the Mafia

Female Roles in Organized Crime Structures
Author: Giovanni Fiandaca
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387365427
Category: Social Science
Page: 300
View: 4150

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The insightful essays in this book shine a new light on the roles of women within criminal networks, roles that in reality are often less traditional than researchers used to think. The book seeks to answer questions from a wide range of academic disciplines and traces the portrait of women tied to organized crime in Italy and around the world. The book offers up accounts of mafia women, and also tales of severe abuse and violence against women.

Sphingolipids: Basic Science and Drug Development


Author: Erich Gulbins,Irina Petrache
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3709113687
Category: Medical
Page: 259
View: 4404

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Sphingolipids are lipid components of the plasma membrane in eukaryotic cells. They have an important function in signaling mechanisms in the cell. This book on sphingolipids provides insights into the basics of sphingolipid biology and drug development, with a particular emphasis on the sphingolipid derivative ceramide. In the first part basic functions of sphingolipids are described, as well as the genetics of important enzymes, sphingolipid metabolism and synthesis. The second part of this first volume focuses on drug development and pharmacology. The book is intended for scientists in pharmacology, biochemistry and cell biology with a focus on biomedical research as well as for clinicians working in pharmacology, oncology, cardiology, neurology and infectious disease. Together with Volume 216 by the same editors, the collection represents a unique, comprehensive work on sphingolipids, providing information on both sphingolipids’ basic biology (including synthesis, metabolism and cell biology) and their important function in a (patho-)physiological context.

Bosch Automotive Electrics and Automotive Electronics

Systems and Components, Networking and Hybrid Drive
Author: Robert Bosch GmbH
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3658017848
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 521
View: 6302

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This is a complete reference guide to automotive electrics and electronics. This new edition of the definitive reference for automotive engineers, compiled by one of the world's largest automotive equipment suppliers, includes new and updated material. As in previous editions different topics are covered in a concise but descriptive way backed up by diagrams, graphs, photographs and tables enabling the reader to better comprehend the subject. This fifth edition revises the classical topics of the vehicle electrical systems such as system architecture, control, components and sensors. There is now greater detail on electronics and their application in the motor vehicle, including electrical energy management (EEM) and discusses the topic of inter system networking within the vehicle. It also includes a description of the concept of hybrid drive a topic that is particularly current due to its ability to reduce fuel consumption and therefore CO2 emissions.This book will benefit automotive engineers and design engineers, automotive technicians in training and mechanics and technicians in garages. It may also be of interest to teachers/ lecturers and students at vocational colleges, and enthusiasts.​

Neural-Immune Interactions in Brain Function and Alcohol Related Disorders


Author: Changhai Cui,Lindsey Grandison,Antonio Noronha
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461447291
Category: Medical
Page: 588
View: 4070

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Recent studies have provided clear evidence on the role of neural-immune interactions in normal brain function and neuropathological conditions. Neuroimmune factors, which play an essential role in neuroinflammatory response, have been implicated in the regulation of neuronal function and plasticity. Thus, neural-immune interactions provide a new frame work for understanding the role of the neuroimmune system in normal brain function, neurodevelopment, and a variety of neurological disorders. These advances have a far reaching impact on many areas of neuroscience, including alcohol research. Studies using human alcoholic brains, gene knockout mice, and gene expression profiling have established a clear link between alcoholism and an altered neuroimmune profile. This book integrates emerging knowledge on neural-immune interactions with key discoveries in alcohol research and provides a comprehensive overview of neural-immune interactions in brain function and behavior associated with alcohol use disorders. While Neural–Immune Interaction in Brain Function and Alcohol Related Disorders focuses on neural-immune interactions in areas directly related to alcohol use disorders, it is not intended to be all inclusive. Several areas, including sleep disorders, pain, and cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathways, are not covered as independent chapters but briefly mentioned in the text. The close relevance of these topics to neural-immune interactions and alcohol use disorders warrants future discussion and more research efforts.

Inclusive Policing from the Inside Out


Author: Angela L. Workman-Stark
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319533096
Category: Social Science
Page: 204
View: 6676

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This book provides a roadmap for how police services can address incivility in the workplace and become more inclusive from the inside out. In the past few years policing has come under increased scrutiny due to a number of police-involved shootings and in-custody deaths, where systemic racism, the inability to effectively confront persons suffering from mental illness, and excessive use of force have been perceived by civil rights groups to play a significant factor. These deaths and the subsequent public outcry have led to various constituents questioning the legitimacy of the police. The book incorporates real stories of police officers and case studies of select police organizations. A look inside a number of these departments has identified an equal concern for incivility within the workplace in the form of gender and ethnic harassment and discrimination. The costs of workplace incivility can be significant as workplace victims are not only likely to decrease their work effort, quality of work, and their level of commitment to the organization, they are also likely to mistreat others in the workplace and to take their frustrations out on those they serve. While these costs have a significant impact for police organizations, incivility by police officers against members of the public can have a much greater impact in terms of eroding perceptions of police legitimacy. This book takes a unique approach in providing a model for police organizations to pursue in becoming more inclusive. To this end, this book will be very relevant for police practitioners, reform advisors, researchers, and graduate-level course in special topics.

Intelligent Interactive Technologies and Multimedia

Second International Conference, IITM 2013, Allahabad, India, March 9-11, 2013. Proceedings
Author: Anupam Agrawal,R.C. Tripathi,Ellen Yi-Luen Do,M. D. Tiwari
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3642374638
Category: Computers
Page: 349
View: 2501

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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Second International Conference on Intelligent Interactive Technologies and Multimedia, IITM 2013, held in Allahabad, India, in March 2013. The 15 revised full papers and the 12 revised short papers were carefully reviewed and selected from more than 90 submissions. The papers present the latest research and development in the areas of intelligent interactive technologies, human-computer interaction and multimedia.

Community-Oriented Policing and Technological Innovations


Author: Georgios Leventakis,M. R. Haberfeld
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319892940
Category: Social Science
Page: 131
View: 9741

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This Brief presents new approaches and innovative challenges to address bringing technology into community-oriented policing efforts. “Community-oriented policing” is an approach that encourages police to develop and maintain personal relationships with citizens and community organizations. By developing these partnerships, the goal is to enhance trust and legitimacy of police by the community (and vice versa), and focus on engaging the community crime prevention and detection efforts for sustainable, long-term crime reduction. The contributions to this volume emphasize how technological innovations can advance community-oriented policing goals, such as: -Strengthening community policing principles through effective and efficient tools, procedures and approaches - Accelerating communication between citizens and police forces - Early identification, timely intervention, as well as better crime reporting, identification of risks, unreported and undiscovered crime through the community Contributions to this volume were developed out of the Next Generation Community Policing (NGCP) International Conference was co-organized by nine contributing research and development projects, funded by the Horizon 2020 SECURITY Program of the European Commission. It will be of interest to researchers in criminology and criminal justice, as well as related fields such as sociology, public health, security, IT and public policy. This book is open access under a CC BY license.

What Works in Crime Prevention and Rehabilitation

Lessons from Systematic Reviews
Author: David Weisburd,David P. Farrington,Charlotte Gill
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1493934775
Category: Social Science
Page: 331
View: 1455

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Systematic reviews aim to minimize any possible bias in drawing conclusions by stating explicit criteria for inclusion and exclusion of studies, by conducting extensive and wide-ranging searches for possibly eligible studies, and by making all stages of the review explicit and transparent so that the methods can be checked and replicated. Over a decade ago, a concerted effort was made by members of the criminology community, including the Editors and contributors of this volume, to bring the practice of systematic reviews to the study of Criminology, providing replicable, evidence-based data to answer key questions about the study of crime causation, detection, and prevention. Now, the pioneers in this effort present a comprehensive stock-taking of what has been learned in the past decade of systematic reviews in criminology. Much has been discovered about the effectiveness of (for example) boot camps, “hot spots” policing, closed-circuit television surveillance, neighborhood watch, anti-bullying programs in schools, early parenting programs, drug treatment programs, and other key topics. This ambitious volume aims to bring together and assess all major systematic reviews of the effectiveness of criminological interventions, to draw broad conclusions about what works in policing, corrections, developmental prevention, situational prevention, drug abuse treatments, sentencing and deterrence, and communities. It will be of interest to researchers in criminology and criminal justice, as well as in related fields such as public health and forensic science, with important implications for policy-makers and practitioners. Decisively showing that the “nothing works” era is over, this volume takes stock of what we know, and still need to know, to prevent crime. Focusing on different areas of prevention, individual chapters provide a state-of–the art analysis of the extent evaluation evidence. Together, they comprise an essential guide to improving both public safety and the lives of those most at risk of criminal involvement. I plan to keep this book close at hand and to use if often! Francis T. Cullen, Distinguished Research Professor Emeritus, University of Cincinnati This impressive volume, edited by Weisburd, Farrington and Gill, provides a comprehensive picture of what we’ve learned from systematic reviews about “what works” in addressing crime – and goes on to identify the “next step” issues that demand attention if the field is to move forward. At a time when there is a broad commitment to bringing science to the front lines of practice, this book should be on the reading list of both policymakers and scholars. Laurie O. Robinson, Clarence J. Robinson Professor of Criminology, Law Society, George Mason University and former Assistant Attorney General of the U.S. Department of Justice

Mining Text Data


Author: Charu C. Aggarwal,ChengXiang Zhai
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461432235
Category: Computers
Page: 524
View: 8782

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Text mining applications have experienced tremendous advances because of web 2.0 and social networking applications. Recent advances in hardware and software technology have lead to a number of unique scenarios where text mining algorithms are learned. Mining Text Data introduces an important niche in the text analytics field, and is an edited volume contributed by leading international researchers and practitioners focused on social networks & data mining. This book contains a wide swath in topics across social networks & data mining. Each chapter contains a comprehensive survey including the key research content on the topic, and the future directions of research in the field. There is a special focus on Text Embedded with Heterogeneous and Multimedia Data which makes the mining process much more challenging. A number of methods have been designed such as transfer learning and cross-lingual mining for such cases. Mining Text Data simplifies the content, so that advanced-level students, practitioners and researchers in computer science can benefit from this book. Academic and corporate libraries, as well as ACM, IEEE, and Management Science focused on information security, electronic commerce, databases, data mining, machine learning, and statistics are the primary buyers for this reference book.

Perceptions of Female Offenders

How Stereotypes and Social Norms Affect Criminal Justice Responses
Author: Brenda Russell
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461458714
Category: Social Science
Page: 198
View: 647

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​Female offenders are often perceived as victims who commit crimes as a self-defense mechanism or as criminal deviants whose actions strayed from typical ‘womanly’ behavior. Such cultural norms for violence exist in our gendered society and there has been scholarly debate about how male and female offenders are perceived and how this perception leads to differential treatment in the criminal justice system. This debate is primarily based upon theories associated with stereotypes and social norms and how these prescriptive norms can influence both public and criminal justice response. Scholars in psychology, sociology, and criminology have found that female offenders are perceived differently than male offenders and this ultimately leads to differential treatment in the criminal justice system. This interdisciplinary book provides an evidence based approach of how female offenders are perceived in society and how this translates to differential treatment within the criminal justice system and explores the ramifications of such differences. Quite often perceptions of female offenders are at odds with research findings. This book will provide a comprehensive evidence-based review of the research that is valuable to laypersons, researchers, practitioners, advocates, treatment providers, lawyers, judges, and anyone interested in equality in the criminal justice system. ​

Higher Police Education

An International View
Author: Colin Rogers,Bernhard Frevel
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319583867
Category: Social Science
Page: 274
View: 8196

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This edited collection is concerned with the ideas, challenges, demands and framework of conditions behind police education from an international perspective. Whilst not directly concerned with a classical comparison of education concepts from different countries, the broad range of international contributors consider issues such as professionalization programmes, how higher education programmes influence police organizations, as well how higher education influences police practice in a global context. Examining a wide array of countries from Germany to China and Brazil to show the flawed nature of an education system based purely upon an approach concerned with police officer numbers, the editors of this book argue for the need for greater scientific education among police around the world to meet contemporary developments. A timely and well-informed study, this book meets a crucial gap in the literature and will serve as an important contribution to existing work on policing, crime prevention, and theoretical criminology.

Preventing Crime and Violence


Author: Brent Teasdale,Mindy S. Bradley
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319441248
Category: Social Science
Page: 388
View: 8931

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This insightful volume integrates criminological theories, prevention science, and empirical findings to create an up-to-date survey of crime prevention research and strategies. Its interdisciplinary perspective expands on our knowledge of risk factors to isolate the malleable mechanisms that produce criminal outcomes, and can therefore be targeted for intervention. In addition, the text identifies developmental, lifespan, and social areas for effective intervention. Reviews of family-, community-, and criminal justice-based crime prevention approaches not only detail a wide gamut of successful techniques, but also provide evidence for why they succeed. And as an extra research dimension, the book’s chapters on methodological issues and challenges uncover rich possibilities for the next generation of crime prevention studies. Included in the coverage: Integrating criminology and prevention research Social disorganization theory: its history and relevance to crime prevention Research designs in crime and violence prevention Macro- and micro-approaches to crime prevention and intervention programs Implications of life course: approaches for prevention science Promising avenues for prevention, including confronting sexual victimization on college campuses Spotlighting current progress and continuing evolution of the field, Preventing Crime and Violence will enhance the work of researchers, practitioners, academicians, and policymakers in public health, prevention science, criminology, and criminal justice, as well as students interested in criminology and criminal justice.

Criminal Justice and Mental Health

An Overview for Students
Author: Jada Hector,David Khey
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 331976442X
Category: Social Science
Page: 225
View: 6672

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This textbook provides an overview for students in Criminology and Criminal Justice about the overlap between the criminal justice system and mental health. It provides an accessible overview of basic signs and symptoms of major mental illnesses and size of scope of justice-involved individuals with mental illness. In the United States, the criminal justice system is often the first public service to be in contact with individuals suffering from mental illness or in mental distress. Those with untreated mental illnesses are often at higher risk for committing criminal acts, yet research on this population continues to shed light on common myths – such a prevailing assumption that those with mental illness tend to commit more violent crimes. Law enforcement agents may be called in as first responders for cases of mental distress; and due to a lack of mental health facilities, resources, and pervasive misconceptions about this population, those with mental illness often end up in the corrections system. In this environment, students in Criminology and Criminal Justice are likely to encounter those with mental illness in their future career paths, and need to be prepared for this reality. This timely work covers the roles of each part of the criminal justice system interacting with mentally ill individuals, from law enforcement and first responders, social services, public health services, sentencing and corrections, to release and re-entry. It also covers the crucial topic of mental health for criminal justice professionals, who suffer from high rates of job stress, PTSD, and other mental health issues. The final section of the book includes suggestions for future research. This work will be of interest to students of criminology and criminal justice with an interest in working in the professional sector, as well as those in related fields of sociology, psychology, and public health. It will also be of interest to policy-makers and practitioners already working in the field. The overall goal of this work is to inform, educate, and inspire change.