Cyber War

Law and Ethics for Virtual Conflicts
Author: Claire Finkelstein,Jens David Ohlin,Kevin Govern
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0198717504
Category: Law
Page: 320
View: 2374

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Cyber weapons and cyber warfare have become one of the most dangerous innovations of recent years, and a significant threat to national security. Cyber weapons can imperil economic, political, and military systems by a single act, or by multifaceted orders of effect, with wide-ranging potential consequences. Unlike past forms of warfare circumscribed by centuries of just war tradition and Law of Armed Conflict prohibitions, cyber warfare occupies a particularly ambiguous status in the conventions of the laws of war. Furthermore, cyber attacks put immense pressure on conventional notions of sovereignty, and the moral and legal doctrines that were developed to regulate them. This book, written by an unrivalled set of experts, assists in proactively addressing the ethical and legal issues that surround cyber warfare by considering, first, whether the Laws of Armed Conflict apply to cyberspace just as they do to traditional warfare, and second, the ethical position of cyber warfare against the background of our generally recognized moral traditions in armed conflict. The book explores these moral and legal issues in three categories. First, it addresses foundational questions regarding cyber attacks. What are they and what does it mean to talk about a cyber war? The book presents alternative views concerning whether the laws of war should apply, or whether transnational criminal law or some other peacetime framework is more appropriate, or if there is a tipping point that enables the laws of war to be used. Secondly, it examines the key principles of jus in bello to determine how they might be applied to cyber-conflicts, in particular those of proportionality and necessity. It also investigates the distinction between civilian and combatant in this context, and studies the level of causation necessary to elicit a response, looking at the notion of a 'proximate cause'. Finally, it analyzes the specific operational realities implicated by particular regulatory regimes. This book is unmissable reading for anyone interested in the impact of cyber warfare on international law and the laws of war.

Inside Cyber Warfare

Mapping the Cyber Underworld
Author: Jeffrey Carr
Publisher: "O'Reilly Media, Inc."
ISBN: 1449325459
Category: Computers
Page: 318
View: 2598

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When the Stuxnet computer worm damaged the Iranian nuclear program in 2010, the public got a small glimpse into modern cyber warfare—without truly realizing the scope of this global conflict. Inside Cyber Warfare provides fascinating and disturbing details on how nations, groups, and individuals throughout the world increasingly rely on Internet attacks to gain military, political, and economic advantages over their adversaries. This updated second edition takes a detailed look at the complex domain of cyberspace, and the players and strategies involved. You’ll discover how sophisticated hackers working on behalf of states or organized crime patiently play a high-stakes game that could target anyone, regardless of affiliation or nationality. Discover how Russian investment in social networks benefits the Kremlin Learn the role of social networks in fomenting revolution in the Middle East and Northern Africa Explore the rise of anarchist groups such as Anonymous and LulzSec Look inside cyber warfare capabilities of nations including China and Israel Understand how the U.S. can legally engage in covert cyber operations Learn how the Intellectual Property war has become the primary focus of state-sponsored cyber operations Jeffrey Carr, the founder and CEO of Taia Global, Inc., is a cyber intelligence expert and consultant who specializes in the investigation of cyber attacks against governments and infrastructures by state and non-state hackers.

Cyber Warfare and the Laws of War


Author: Heather Harrison Dinniss
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107011086
Category: Law
Page: 331
View: 988

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An analysis of the status of computer network attacks in international law.

Cyber Warfare

Techniques, Tactics and Tools for Security Practitioners
Author: Jason Andress,Steve Winterfeld
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0124166334
Category: Computers
Page: 324
View: 4289

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Cyber Warfare, Second Edition, takes a comprehensive look at how and why digital warfare is waged. The book explores the participants, battlefields, and the tools and techniques used in today's digital conflicts. The concepts discussed gives students of information security a better idea of how cyber conflicts are carried out now, how they will change in the future, and how to detect and defend against espionage, hacktivism, insider threats and non-state actors such as organized criminals and terrorists. This book provides concrete examples and real-world guidance on how to identify and defend a network against malicious attacks. It probes relevant technical and factual information from an insider's point of view, as well as the ethics, laws and consequences of cyber war and how computer criminal law may change as a result. Logical, physical, and psychological weapons used in cyber warfare are discussed. This text will appeal to information security practitioners, network security administrators, computer system administrators, and security analysts. Provides concrete examples and real-world guidance on how to identify and defend your network against malicious attacks Dives deeply into relevant technical and factual information from an insider's point of view Details the ethics, laws and consequences of cyber war and how computer criminal law may change as a result

Cybersecurity

What Everyone Needs to Know
Author: Peter W. Singer,Allan Friedman
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199918112
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 306
View: 4441

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An authoritative, single-volume introduction to cybersecurity addresses topics ranging from phishing and electrical-grid takedowns to cybercrime and online freedom, sharing illustrative anecdotes to explain how cyberspace security works and what everyday people can do to protect themselves. Simultaneous.

Cyberspace and National Security

Threats, Opportunities, and Power in a Virtual World
Author: Derek S. Reveron
Publisher: Georgetown University Press
ISBN: 1589019199
Category: Political Science
Page: 256
View: 3415

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In a very short time, individuals and companies have harnessed cyberspace to create new industries, a vibrant social space, and a new economic sphere that are intertwined with our everyday lives. At the same time, individuals, subnational groups, and governments are using cyberspace to advance interests through malicious activity. Terrorists recruit, train, and target through the Internet, hackers steal data, and intelligence services conduct espionage. Still, the vast majority of cyberspace is civilian space used by individuals, businesses, and governments for legitimate purposes. Cyberspace and National Security brings together scholars, policy analysts, and information technology executives to examine current and future threats to cyberspace. They discuss various approaches to advance and defend national interests, contrast the US approach with European, Russian, and Chinese approaches, and offer new ways and means to defend interests in cyberspace and develop offensive capabilities to compete there. Policymakers and strategists will find this book to be an invaluable resource in their efforts to ensure national security and answer concerns about future cyberwarfare.

Experiences in researching conflict and violence

Fieldwork interrupted
Author: Rivas, Althea-Maria,Browne, Brendan Ciarán
Publisher: Policy Press
ISBN: 1447337719
Category: Social Science
Page: 256
View: 7268

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This international, edited collection brings together personal accounts from researchers working in and on conflict and explores the roles of emotion, violence, uncertainty, identity and positionality within the process of doing research, as well as the complexity of methodological choices. It highlights the researchers’ own subjectivity and presents a nuanced view of conflict research that goes beyond the ‘messiness’ inherent in the process of research in and on violence. It addresses the uncomfortable spaces of conflict research, the potential for violence of research itself and the need for deeper reflection on these issues. This powerful book opens up spaces for new conversations about the realities of conflict research. These critical self-reflections and honest accounts provide important insights for any scholar or practitioner working in similar environments.

Routledge Handbook of the Law of Armed Conflict


Author: Rain Liivoja,Tim McCormack
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136028803
Category: Law
Page: 665
View: 4349

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The law of armed conflict is a key element of the global legal order yet it finds itself in a state of flux created by the changing nature of warfare and the influences of other branches of international law. The Routledge Handbook of the Law of Armed Conflict provides a unique perspective on the field covering all the key aspects of the law as well as identifying developing and often contentious areas of interest. The handbook will feature original pieces by international experts in the field, including academics, staff of relevant NGOs and (former) members of the armed forces. Made up of six parts in order to offer a comprehensive overview of the field, the structure of the handbook is as follows: Part I: Fundamentals Part II: Principle of distinction Part III: Means and methods of warfare Part IV: Special protection regimes Part V: Compliance and enforcement Part VI: Some contemporary issues Throughout the book, attention is paid to non-international conflicts as well as international conflicts with acknowledgement of the differences. The contributors also consider the relationship between the law of armed conflict and human rights law, looking at how the various rules and principles of human rights law interact with specific rules and principles of international humanitarian law in particular circumstances. The Routledge Handbook of the Law of Armed Conflict provides a fresh take on the contemporary laws of war and is written for advanced level students, academics, researchers, NGOs and policy-makers with an interest in the field.

Understanding Cyber Conflict

Fourteen Analogies
Author: George Perkovich,Ariel E. Levite
Publisher: Georgetown University Press
ISBN: 1626164983
Category: History
Page: 312
View: 9530

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Cyber weapons and the possibility of cyber conflict—including interference in foreign political campaigns, industrial sabotage, attacks on infrastructure, and combined military campaigns—require policymakers, scholars, and citizens to rethink twenty-first-century warfare. Yet because cyber capabilities are so new and continually developing, there is little agreement about how they will be deployed, how effective they can be, and how they can be managed. Written by leading scholars, the fourteen case studies in this volume will help policymakers, scholars, and students make sense of contemporary cyber conflict through historical analogies to past military-technological problems. The chapters are divided into three groups. The first—What Are Cyber Weapons Like?—examines the characteristics of cyber capabilities and how their use for intelligence gathering, signaling, and precision striking compares with earlier technologies for such missions. The second section—What Might Cyber Wars Be Like?—explores how lessons from several wars since the early nineteenth century, including the World Wars, could apply—or not—to cyber conflict in the twenty-first century. The final section—What Is Preventing and/or Managing Cyber Conflict Like?—offers lessons from past cases of managing threatening actors and technologies.

The Virtual Battlefield

Perspectives on Cyber Warfare
Author: Christian Czosseck,Kenneth Geers
Publisher: IOS Press
ISBN: 1607500604
Category: Computers
Page: 305
View: 4943

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"All political and military conflicts now have a cyber dimension, the size and impact of which are difficult to predict. Internet-enabled propaganda, espionage, and attacks on critical infrastructure can target decision makers, weapons systems, and citizens in general, during times of peace or war. Traditional threats to national security now have a digital delivery mechanism which would increase the speed, diffusion, and power of an attack. There have been no true cyber wars to date, but cyber battles of great consequence are easy to find. This book is divided into two sections--Strategic viewpoints and Technical challenges & solutions--and highlights the growing connection between computer security and national security"--P. 4 of cover.

Cybersecurity Ethics

An Introduction
Author: Mary Manjikian
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351766554
Category: Political Science
Page: 232
View: 5822

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This new textbook offers an accessible introduction to the topic of cybersecurity ethics. The book is split into three parts. Part I provides an introduction to the field of ethics, philosophy and philosophy of science, three ethical frameworks – virtue ethics, utilitarian ethics and communitarian ethics – and the notion of ethical hacking. Part II applies these frameworks to particular issues within the field of cybersecurity, including privacy rights, intellectual property and piracy, surveillance, and cyberethics in relation to military affairs. The third part concludes by exploring current codes of ethics used in cybersecurity. The overall aims of the book are to: provide ethical frameworks to aid decision making; present the key ethical issues in relation to computer security; highlight the connection between values and beliefs and the professional code of ethics. The textbook also includes three different features to aid students: ‘Going Deeper’ provides background information on key individuals and concepts; ‘Critical Issues’ features contemporary case studies; and ‘Applications’ examine specific technologies or practices which raise ethical issues. The book will be of much interest to students of cybersecurity, cyberethics, hacking, surveillance studies, ethics and information science.

Targeted Killings

Law and Morality in an Asymmetrical World
Author: Claire Finkelstein,Jens David Ohlin,Andrew Altman
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199646481
Category: Law
Page: 496
View: 3214

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The controversy surrounding targeted killings represents a crisis of conscience for policymakers, lawyers, philosophers and leading military experts grappling with the moral and legal limits of the war on terror. The book examines the legal and philosophical issues raised by government efforts to target suspected terrorists without giving them the safeguards of a fair trial.

Soft War


Author: Michael L. Gross,Tamar Meisels
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 110713224X
Category: Political Science
Page: 294
View: 8424

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Just war theory focuses primarily on bodily harm, such as killing, maiming, and torture, while other harms are often largely overlooked. At the same time, contemporary international conflicts increasingly involve the use of unarmed tactics, employing 'softer' alternatives or supplements to kinetic power that have not been sufficiently addressed by the ethics of war or international law. Soft war tactics include cyber-warfare and economic sanctions, media warfare, and propaganda, as well as non-violent resistance as it plays out in civil disobedience, boycotts, and 'lawfare.' While the just war tradition has much to say about 'hard' war - bullets, bombs, and bayonets - it is virtually silent on the subject of 'soft' war. Soft War: The Ethics of Unarmed Conflict illuminates this neglected aspect of international conflict.

Cyberspace and International Relations

Theory, Prospects and Challenges
Author: Jan-Frederik Kremer,Benedikt Müller
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642374816
Category: Political Science
Page: 284
View: 8497

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Cyberspace is everywhere in today’s world and has significant implications not only for global economic activity, but also for international politics and transnational social relations. This compilation addresses for the first time the “cyberization” of international relations - the growing dependence of actors in IR on the infrastructure and instruments of the internet, and the penetration of cyberspace into all fields of their activities. The volume approaches this topical issue in a comprehensive and interdisciplinary fashion, bringing together scholars from disciplines such as IR, security studies, ICT studies and philosophy as well as experts from everyday cyber-practice. In the first part, concepts and theories are presented to shed light on the relationship between cyberspace and international relations, discussing implications for the discipline and presenting fresh and innovative theoretical approaches. Contributions in the second part focus on specific empirical fields of activity (security, economy, diplomacy, cultural activity, transnational communication, critical infrastructure, cyber espionage, social media, and more) and address emerging challenges and prospects for international politics and relations.

International Humanitarian Law and the Changing Technology of War


Author: Dan Saxon
Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
ISBN: 9004229493
Category: Law
Page: 376
View: 835

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"This book, edited by Dan Saxon, formerly of Cambridge University, is an important contribution to the literature on the relationship between law, war, and technology" (From the Foreword by Professor Michael N. Schmitt).

The Virtual Weapon and International Order


Author: Lucas Kello
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 0300226292
Category: Computers
Page: 320
View: 1641

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An urgently needed examination of the current cyber revolution that draws on case studies to develop conceptual frameworks for understanding its effects on international order The cyber revolution is the revolution of our time. The rapid expansion of cyberspace brings both promise and peril. It promotes new modes of political interaction, but it also disrupts interstate dealings and empowers non-state actors who may instigate diplomatic and military crises. Despite significant experience with cyber phenomena, the conceptual apparatus to analyze, understand, and address their effects on international order remains primitive. Here, Lucas Kello adapts and applies international relations theory to create new ways of thinking about cyber strategy. Kello draws on a broad range of case studies, including the Estonian crisis, the Olympic Games operation against Iran, and the cyber attack against Sony Pictures. Synthesizing qualitative data from government documents, forensic reports of major incidents and interviews with senior officials from around the globe, this important work establishes new conceptual benchmarks to help security experts adapt strategy and policy to the unprecedented challenges of our times.

Cyber War

The Next Threat to National Security and What to Do About It
Author: Richard A. Clarke,Robert Knake
Publisher: Harper Collins
ISBN: 0061992399
Category: Political Science
Page: 320
View: 925

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Author of the #1 New York Times bestseller Against All Enemies, former presidential advisor and counter-terrorism expert Richard A. Clarke sounds a timely and chilling warning about America’s vulnerability in a terrifying new international conflict—Cyber War! Every concerned American should read this startling and explosive book that offers an insider’s view of White House ‘Situation Room’ operations and carries the reader to the frontlines of our cyber defense. Cyber War exposes a virulent threat to our nation’s security. This is no X-Files fantasy or conspiracy theory madness—this is real.

Ethics and Policies for Cyber Operations

A NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence Initiative
Author: Mariarosaria Taddeo,Ludovica Glorioso
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319453009
Category: Philosophy
Page: 252
View: 915

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This book presents 12 essays that focus on the analysis of the problems prompted by cyber operations (COs). It clarifies and discusses the ethical and regulatory problems raised by the deployment of cyber capabilities by a state’s army to inflict disruption or damage to an adversary’s targets in or through cyberspace. Written by world-leading philosophers, ethicists, policy-makers, and law and military experts, the essays cover such topics as the conceptual novelty of COs and the ethical problems that this engenders; the applicability of existing conceptual and regulatory frameworks to COs deployed in case of conflicts; the definition of deterrence strategies involving COs; and the analysis of models to foster cooperation in managing cyber crises. Each essay is an invited contribution or a revised version of a paper originally presented at the workshop on Ethics and Policies for Cyber Warfare, organized by the NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence in collaboration with the University of Oxford. The volume endorses a multi-disciplinary approach, as such it offers a comprehensive overview of the ethical, legal, and policy problems posed by COs and of the different approaches and methods that can be used to solve them. It will appeal to a wide readership, including ethicists, philosophers, military experts, strategy planners, and law- and policy-makers.