Crystallography

A Very Short Introduction
Author: A. M. Glazer
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198717598
Category: Science
Page: 140
View: 2767

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Crystals have fascinated us for centuries with their beauty and symmetry, and have often been invested with magical powers. The use of X-ray diffraction, first pioneered in 1912 by father and son William and Lawrence Bragg, enabled us to probe the structure of molecules, and heralded the scientific study of crystals, leading to an understanding of their atomic arrangements at a fundamental level. The new discipline, called X-ray crystallography, has subsequently evolved into a formidable science that underpins many other scientific areas. Starting from the determination of the structures of very simple crystals, such as that of common salt, today it has become almost routine to determine the positions of tens of thousands of atoms in a crystal. In this Very Short Introduction Mike Glazer shows how the discoveries in crystallography have been applied to the creation of new and important materials, to drugs and pharmaceuticals and to our understanding of genetics, cell biology, proteins, and viruses. Tracing the history of crystallography, he analyses astonishing developments in new sources of X-rays, as well as of neutrons, and in electron microscopy, and considers the impact they have on the study of crystals today. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Introduction to Crystallography


Author: Donald E. Sands
Publisher: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 0486136809
Category: Science
Page: 192
View: 9783

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Clear, concise explanation of logical development of basic crystallographic concepts. Topics include crystals and lattices, symmetry, x-ray diffraction, and more. Problems, with answers. 114 illustrations. 1969 edition.

Minerals: A Very Short Introduction


Author: David Vaughan
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191505323
Category: Science
Page: 144
View: 1045

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Minerals existed long before any forms of life, playing a key role in the origin and evolution of life; an interaction with biological systems that we are only now beginning to understand. Exploring the traditional strand of mineralogy, which emphasises the important mineral families, the well-established analytical methods (optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction) and the dramatic developments made in techniques over recent decades, David Vaughan also introduces the modern strand of mineralogy, which explores the role minerals play in the plate tectonic cycle and how they interact with the living world. Demonstrating how minerals can be critical for human health and illness by providing essential nutrients and releasing poisons, Vaughan explores the multitude of ways in which minerals have aided our understanding of the world. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Complexity

A Very Short Introduction
Author: John H. Holland
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0199662541
Category: History
Page: 95
View: 2983

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In this Very Short Introduction, John Holland presents an introduction to the science of complexity. Using examples from biology and economics, he shows how complexity science models the behaviour of complex systems.

Rocks: A Very Short Introduction


Author: Jan Zalasiewicz
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0191038318
Category: Science
Page: 144
View: 607

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Rocks, more than anything else, underpin our lives. They make up the solid structure of the Earth and of other rocky planets, and are present at the cores of gas giant planets. We live on the rocky surface of the planet, grow our food on weathered debris derived from rocks, and we obtain nearly all of the raw materials with which we found our civilization from rocks. From the Earth's crust to building bricks, rocks contain our sense of planetary history, and are a guide to our future. In this Very Short Introduction Jan Zalsiewicz looks at the nature and variety of rocks, and the processes by which they are formed. Starting from the origin of rocks and their key role in the formation of the Earth, he considers what we know about the deep rocks of the mantle and core, and what rocks can tell us about the evolution of the Earth, and looks at those found in outer space and on other planets. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Economics: A Very Short Introduction


Author: Partha Dasgupta
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 9780191578281
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 192
View: 3773

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Economics has the capacity to offer us deep insights into some of the most formidable problems of life, and offer solutions to them too. Combining a global approach with examples from everyday life, Partha Dasgupta describes the lives of two children who live very different lives in different parts of the world: in the Mid-West USA and in Ethiopia. He compares the obstacles facing them, and the processes that shape their lives, their families, and their futures. He shows how economics uncovers these processes, finds explanations for them, and how it forms policies and solutions. Along the way, Dasgupta provides an intelligent and accessible introduction to key economic factors and concepts such as individual choices, national policies, efficiency, equity, development, sustainability, dynamic equilibrium, property rights, markets, and public goods. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

The History of Chemistry


Author: William H. Brock
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198716486
Category: Chemistry
Page: 144
View: 6996

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From man's first exploration of natural materials and their transformations to today's materials science, chemistry has always been the central discipline that underpins both the physical and biological sciences, as well as technology. In this Very Short Introduction, William H. Brock traces the unique appeal of this fundamental science throughout history. Covering alchemy, early-modern chemistry, pneumatic chemistry and Lavoisier's re-interpretation of chemical change, the rise of organic and physical chemistry, and the transforming power of synthesis, Brock explores the extraordinary and often puzzling transformations of natural and artificial materials, as well as the men and women who experimented, speculated, and explained matter and change. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Logic: A Very Short Introduction


Author: Graham Priest
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0192539701
Category: Philosophy
Page: 152
View: 4177

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Logic is often perceived as having little to do with the rest of philosophy, and even less to do with real life. In this lively and accessible introduction, Graham Priest shows how wrong this conception is. He explores the philosophical roots of the subject, explaining how modern formal logic deals with issues ranging from the existence of God and the reality of time to paradoxes of probability and decision theory. Along the way, the basics of formal logic are explained in simple, non-technical terms, showing that logic is a powerful and exciting part of modern philosophy. In this new edition Graham Priest expands his discussion to cover the subjects of algorithms and axioms, and proofs in mathematics. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

The Mongols

A Very Short Introduction
Author: Morris Rossabi
Publisher: OUP USA
ISBN: 019984089X
Category: Art
Page: 136
View: 6593

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The Mongols carved out the largest land-based empire in world history, stretching from Korea to Russia in the north and from China to Syria in the south in the thirteenth century. Along with their leader Chinggis Khan they conjure up images of plunder and total destruction. Although this book does not ignore the devastation and killings wrought by the Mongols, it also reveals their contributions to governance, arts, culture, and the promotion of trade. The Mongol peace resulted in considerable travel and relations among numerous merchants, scientists, artists, missionaries, and entertainers of different ethnic groups. It is no accident that Europeans, including Marco Polo, first reached China in this period. Eurasian and perhaps global history starts with the Mongol empire.

An Introduction to Hydrogen Bonding


Author: George A. Jeffrey
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 9780195095494
Category: Fiction
Page: 303
View: 5614

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Hydrogen bonds range from the very strong, comparable with covalent bonds, to the very weak, comparable with van der Waals forces. Most hydrogen bonds are weak attractions with a binding strength about one-tenth of that of a normal covalent bond. Nevertheless, they are very important. Without them, all wooden structures would collapse, cement would crumble, oceans would vaporize, and all living things would disintegrate into inanimate matter. An easy-to-read supplement to the often brief descriptions of hydrogen bonding found in most undergraduate chemistry and molecular biology textbooks, An Introduction to Hydrogen Bonding describes and discusses the current ideas concerning hydrogen bonding, ranging from the very strong to the very weak, with introductions to the experimental and theoretical methods involved. Ideal for courses in chemistry and biochemistry, it will also be useful for structural biology and crystallography courses. For students and researchers interested in supramolecular chemistry, biological structure and recognition, and other sophisticated concepts and methodologies, it provides a careful selection of key references from the vast hydrogen bonding literature.

Materials: A Very Short Introduction


Author: Christopher Hall
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191653101
Category: Science
Page: 144
View: 2336

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The study of materials is a major field of research that supports and drives innovation in technology. Using modern scientific techniques, materials scientists and engineers explore and manipulate materials, and create new ones with remarkable strength and extraordinary optical and electrical properties. In this Very Short Introduction, Christopher Hall looks at a wide range of materials, from steel, wood, and rubber, to gold, silicon, and graphene, describing how materials are used, how their properties arise from their internal structure, and how useful and novel things are made from them. He concludes by looking at how the global scale of materials consumption now threatens the goal of sustainability. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

The British Empire: A Very Short Introduction


Author: Ashley Jackson
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0199605416
Category: Political Science
Page: 160
View: 2027

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The British Empire influenced many aspects of the world we live in today. The international system remains heavily marked by British imperialism, and the borders, nations, and federations it created. This Very Short Introduction introduces and defines the British Empire, reviewing how it evolved into such a force, and the legacy it left behind.

Astrobiology: A Very Short Introduction


Author: David C. Catling
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199586454
Category: Science
Page: 142
View: 8609

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Examines the origins of life on Earth and the search for extraterrestrial life, through an understanding of the factors that have allowed life to exist on this planet and the commonalities on others that may enable life elsewhere.

The Periodic Table: A Very Short Introduction


Author: Eric R. Scerri
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199582491
Category: Science
Page: 147
View: 9331

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An introduction to the periodic table explores the deeper implications of the arrangements of the table to atomic physics and quantum mechanics.

Foundations of Crystallography with Computer Applications


Author: Maureen M. Julian
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420060767
Category: Science
Page: 368
View: 2444

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X-ray crystallography provides a unique opportunity to study the arrangement of atoms in a molecule. This book’s modern computer-graphics centered approach facilitates the extrapolation of these valuable observations. A unified treatment of crystal systems, the book explains how atoms are arranged in crystals using the metric matrix. Featuring two model crystal examples, the text develops theoretical concepts to point and space groups in two dimensions and then extends these ideas to three dimensions. The book interprets the International Tables for Crystallography to bridge the gap between the crystallographic literature and spatial interatomic relationships. Numerous computer-based exercises are integrated throughout the book, with MATLAB® starter programs that help reduce the minutiae of programming.

Crystals and Crystal Growing


Author: Alan Holden,Phylis Morrison
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262580502
Category: Science
Page: 318
View: 7448

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Experiments and problems to be done by the non-specialist to aid in his understanding of crystals

Groups

A Path to Geometry
Author: R. P. Burn
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521347938
Category: Mathematics
Page: 242
View: 3717

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Following the same successful approach as Dr. Burn's previous book on number theory, this text consists of a carefully constructed sequence of questions that will enable the reader, through participation, to study all the group theory covered by a conventional first university course. An introduction to vector spaces, leading to the study of linear groups, and an introduction to complex numbers, leading to the study of Möbius transformations and stereographic projection, are also included. Quaternions and their relationships to 3-dimensional isometries are covered, and the climax of the book is a study of the crystallographic groups, with a complete analysis of these groups in two dimensions.

Early Days of X-ray Crystallography


Author: André Authier
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199659842
Category: Science
Page: 441
View: 9909

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The modern applications of X-ray crystallography range from drug design to characterisation of high technology materials. This book tells the story of its pioneers and relates how the first crystal structures were determined.

Bacteria: A Very Short Introduction


Author: Sebastian G. B. Amyes
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191654086
Category: Medical
Page: 144
View: 3222

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Bacteria form a fundamental branch of life. They are the oldest forms of life as we know it, and they are still the most prolific living organisms. They inhabit every part of the Earth's surface, its ocean depths, and even terrains such as boiling hot springs. They are most familiar as agents of disease, but benign bacteria are critical to the recycling of elements and all ecology, as well as to human health. In this Very Short Introduction, Sebastian Amyes explores the nature of bacteria, their origin and evolution, bacteria in the environment, and bacteria and disease. In looking at our efforts to manage co-evolving bacteria, he also considers the challenges of resistance to antibiotics. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Crystals, X-rays and Proteins

Comprehensive Protein Crystallography
Author: Dennis Sherwood,Jon Cooper
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019955904X
Category: Science
Page: 621
View: 3132

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Update to: Crystals, X-rays, and proteins / Dennis Sherwood. 1976.