Criminology in a Hostile Environment


Author: Alain Bauer
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9781935907381
Category:
Page: 132
View: 2493

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Is using the humanities and social sciences (psychology, sociology, law, etc.) to understand the crime, the criminal, the victim, criminality, and society's reaction to crime a science? A crime is the unique combination of a perpetrator, a victim, and a set of circumstances. Its individual and quantitative analysis requires scientific methods and specific intellectual and technical abilities. Emile Durkheim emphasizes that " ...] A number of acts can be observed, all with the external characteristic that once accomplished, they provoke this particular reaction from society known as punishment. We make of them a group sui generis, on which we impose a common rubric. We call any punished act a crime and make crime thus defined the focus of a dedicated science: criminology." About the editor: Alain Bauer is Professor, Chair of Criminology, National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts, Paris, Senior Fellow at the Terrorist Center of John Jay College of Criminal Justice in New York (USA), Senior Fellow at the Law and Political Science University of China in Beijing (PRC), President of the National Private Security Control Council (CNAPS) (since 2012), President of the Strategic Research High Council to the President of France (since 2009), sometime Vice President of the Sorbonne University, Consultant for the New York Police Department (USA), the Los Angeles Sheriff Department (USA), the Surete du Quebec (Canada), Colonel of the Air Force (Reserve), Republic of France. His books include Violences et insecurite urbaines (PUF 1998, 12eme ed. 2010), L'Amerique, la violence, le crime (PUF 2000, 2eme ed. 2001), La guerre ne fait que commencer (Jean-Claude Lattes 2002, Folio Gallimard 2003), Les polices en France (PUF 2001, 3eme ed. 2010), Le crime aux Etats-Unis (PUF 2003), Les polices aux Etats-Unis (PUF 2003), Dico Rebelle (Michalon 2004), Imaginer la securite globale (La pensee et les hommes Bruxelles 2004), Etat d'urgence (Robert Laffont 2004), L'enigme Al Qaida (Jean Claude Lattes 2005), Geographie criminelle de la France (Odile Jabob 2006, Histoire criminelle de la France."

Fixing Broken Windows

Restoring Order And Reducing Crime In Our Communities
Author: George L. Kelling,Catherine M. Coles
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
ISBN: 0684837382
Category: Political Science
Page: 319
View: 5027

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Cites successful examples of community-based policing

Deviant and Criminal Behavior in the Workplace


Author: Steven M. Elias
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 0814722601
Category: Psychology
Page: 270
View: 7346

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Workplace crimes are never far from the news. From major scandals like Enron to violent crimes committed by co-workers to petty theft of office supplies, deviant and criminal behavior is common in the workplace. Psychological factors are almost always involved when an employee engages in such behavior. Deviant and Criminal Behavior in the Workplace offers insights at the level of the individual employee and also sheds light on the role organizations themselves may play in fostering such criminal behavior. The volume considers psychological factors involved in theft and fraud, workplace violence, employee discrimination, and sexual harassment. It also analyses a number of variables which can influence such behavior including employee personality, employee emotional processes, experience of occupational stress, organizational culture, organizational injustice, and human resource management practices. The book will be of core interest to those interested in the psychology and sociology of work, organizational behavior, and human resource management.

Crime, Violence, and Global Warming


Author: John P. Crank,Linda S. Jacoby
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317523350
Category: Law
Page: 320
View: 3370

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Crime, Violence, and Global Warming introduces the many connections between climate change and criminal activity. Conflict over natural resources can escalate to state and non-state actors, resulting in wars, asymmetrical warfare, and terrorism. Crank and Jacoby apply criminological theory to each aspect of this complicated web, helping readers to evaluate conflicting claims about global warming and to analyze evidence of the current and potential impact of climate change on conflict and crime. Beginning with an overview of the science of global warming, the authors move on to the links between climate change, scarce resources, and crime. Their approach takes in the full scope of causes and consequences, present and future, in the United States and throughout the world. The book concludes by looking ahead at the problem of forecasting future security implications if global warming continues or accelerates. This fresh approach to the criminology of climate change challenges readers to examine all sides of this controversial question and to formulate their own analysis of our planet’s future.

Environmental Criminology

Evolution, Theory, and Practice
Author: Martin A. Andresen
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135006237
Category:
Page: 274
View: 5714

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The field of environmental criminology is a staple theoretical framework in contemporary criminological theory. With this book, Martin Andresen presents the first comprehensive and sole-authored textbook on this influential and compelling school of criminological thought. He covers a wide range of topics, including: the origins of environmental criminology; the primary theoretical frameworks, such as routine activity theory, geometric theory of crime, rational choice theory, and the pattern theory of crime; the practical application of environmental criminology; an examination of how theories are operationalized and tested; policy implications for the practice of crime prevention. As well as these "popular topics", Andresen also discusses also a number of topics that are at the leading edge of research within environmental criminology. This text will be ideal for courses on crime prevention, where students are often encouraged to consider policy problems and apply theory to practice. This book offers up environmental criminology as a theoretical framework for making sense of complex neighbourhood problems, meaning that it will be perfect for modules on geography of crime, crime analysis and indeed, environmental criminology. It would also be a good supplement for courses on criminological theory.

Real Gangstas

Legitimacy, Reputation, and Violence in the Intergang Environment
Author: Timothy R. Lauger
Publisher: Rutgers University Press
ISBN: 081355375X
Category: Social Science
Page: 272
View: 4277

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Street gangs are a major concern for residents in many inner-city communities. However, gangs’ secretive and, at times, delinquent tendencies limit most people’s exposure to the realities of gang life. Based on eighteen months of qualitative research on the streets of Indianapolis, Real Gangstas provides a unique and intimate look at the lives of street gang members as they negotiate a dangerous peer environment in a major midwestern city. Timothy R. Lauger interviewed and observed a mix of fifty-five gang members, former gang members, and non-gang street offenders. He spent much of his fieldwork time in the company of a particular gang, the “Down for Whatever Boyz,” who allowed him to watch and record many of their day-to-day activities and conversations. Through this extensive research, Lauger is able to understand and explain the reasons for gang membership, including a chaotic family life, poverty, and the need for violent self-assertion in order to foster the creation of a personal identity. Although the book exposes many troubling aspects of gang life, it is not a simple descriptive or a sensationalistic account of urban despair and violence. Steeped in the tradition of analytical ethnography, the study develops a central theoretical argument: combinations of street gangs within cities shape individual gang member behavior within those urban settings. Within Indianapolis, members of rival gangs interact on a routine basis within an ambiguous and unstable environment. Participants believe that many of their contemporaries claiming gang affiliations are not actually “real” gang members, but instead are imposters who gain access to the advantages of gang membership through fraud and pretense. Consequently, the ability to discern “real” gang members—or to present oneself successfully as a real gang member—is a critical part of gangland Indianapolis. Real Gangstas offers an objective and fair characterization of active gang members, successfully balancing the seemingly conflicting idea that they generally seem like normal teenagers, yet are abnormally concerned with—and too often involved in—violence. Lauger takes readers to the edge of an actual gang conflict, providing a rare and up-close look at the troubling processes that facilitate hostility and violence.

Measuring Racial Discrimination


Author: Panel on Methods for Assessing Discrimination,Committee on National Statistics,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309091268
Category: Social Science
Page: 340
View: 1571

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Many racial and ethnic groups in the United States, including blacks, Hispanics, Asians, American Indians, and others, have historically faced severe discrimination-pervasive and open denial of civil, social, political, educational, and economic opportunities. Today, large differences among racial and ethnic groups continue to exist in employment, income and wealth, housing, education, criminal justice, health, and other areas. While many factors may contribute to such differences, their size and extent suggest that various forms of discriminatory treatment persist in U.S. society and serve to undercut the achievement of equal opportunity. Measuring Racial Discrimination considers the definition of race and racial discrimination, reviews the existing techniques used to measure racial discrimination, and identifies new tools and areas for future research. The book conducts a thorough evaluation of current methodologies for a wide range of circumstances in which racial discrimination may occur, and makes recommendations on how to better assess the presence and effects of discrimination.

Agenda Setting in a 2.0 World

New Agendas in Communication
Author: Thomas J. Johnson
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135007799
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 294
View: 434

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This volume explores agenda-setting theory in light of changes in the media environment in the 21st century. In the decades since the original Chapel Hill study that launched agenda-setting research, the theory has attracted the interest of scholars worldwide. Agenda Setting in a 2.0 World features the work of a new generation of scholars. The research provided by these young scholars reflects two broad contemporary trends in agenda-setting: A centrifugal trend of research in the expanding media landscape and in domains beyond the original focus on public affairs, and a centripetal trend further explicating agenda-setting’s core concepts.

A Question of Freedom

A Memoir of Learning, Survival, and Coming of Age in Prison
Author: Dwayne Betts
Publisher: Penguin
ISBN: 1101133368
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Page: 256
View: 1464

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A unique prison narrative that testifies to the power of books to transform a young man's life At the age of sixteen, R. Dwayne Betts-a good student from a lower- middle-class family-carjacked a man with a friend. He had never held a gun before, but within a matter of minutes he had committed six felonies. In Virginia, carjacking is a "certifiable" offense, meaning that Betts would be treated as an adult under state law. A bright young kid, he served his nine-year sentence as part of the adult population in some of the worst prisons in the state. A Question of Freedom chronicles Betts's years in prison, reflecting back on his crime and looking ahead to how his experiences and the books he discovered while incarcerated would define him. Utterly alone, Betts confronts profound questions about violence, freedom, crime, race, and the justice system. Confined by cinder-block walls and barbed wire, he discovers the power of language through books, poetry, and his own pen. Above all, A Question of Freedom is about a quest for identity-one that guarantees Betts's survival in a hostile environment and that incorporates an understanding of how his own past led to the moment of his crime.

Trade Unions in the Green Economy

Working for the Environment
Author: Nora Räthzel,David Uzzell
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1849714649
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 266
View: 2480

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Combating climate change will increasingly impact on production industries and the workers they employ as production changes and consumption is targeted. Yet research has largely ignored labour and its responses. This book brings together sociologists, psychologists, political scientists, historians, economists, and representatives from international and local unions based in Australia, Brazil, South Africa, Taiwan, Spain, Sweden, the UK and the USA. Together they open up a new area of research: Environmental Labour Studies. The authors ask what kind of environmental policies are unions in different countries and sectors developing. How do they aim to reconcile the protection of jobs with the protection of the environment? What are the forms of cooperation developing between trade unions and environmental movements, especially the so-called Red-Green alliances? Under what conditions are unions striving to create climate change policies that transcend the economic system? Where are they trying to find solutions that they see as possible within the present socio-economic conditions? What are the theoretical and practical implications of trade unions' "Just Transition", and the problems and perspectives of "Green Jobs"? The authors also explore how food workers' rights would contribute to low carbon agriculture, the role workers' identities play in union climate change policies, and the difficulties of creating solidarity between unions across the global North and South. Trade Unions in the Green Economy opens the climate change debate to academics and trade unionists from a range of disciplines in the fields of labour studies, environmental politics, environmental management, and climate change policy. It will also be useful for environmental organisations, trade unions, business, and politicians.

Disability, Hate Crime and Violence


Author: Alan Roulstone,Hannah Mason-Bish
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 041567431X
Category: Law
Page: 194
View: 4300

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This text provides a comprehensive and interdisciplinary examination of disability, hate crime and violence, exploring its emergence on the policy agenda. Engaging with debates in criminology, disability and violence studies, it looks at violences in their myriad forms as they are seen to impact upon disabled people's lives.

The Borders of Punishment

Migration, Citizenship, and Social Exclusion
Author: Katja Franko Aas,Mary Bosworth
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191648140
Category: Law
Page: 336
View: 2078

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The Borders of Punishment: Migration, Citizenship, and Social Exclusion critically assesses the relationship between immigration control, citizenship, and criminal justice. It reflects on the theoretical and methodological challenges posed by mass mobility and its control and for the first time, sets out a particular sub-field within criminology, the criminology of mobility. Drawing together leading international scholars with newer researchers, the book systematically outlines why criminology and criminal justice should pay more attention to issues of immigration and border control. Contributors consider how 'traditional' criminal justice institutions such as the criminal law, police, and prisons are being shaped and altered by immigration, as well as examining novel forms of penality (such as deportation and detention facilities), which have until now seldom featured in criminological studies and textbooks. In so doing, the book demonstrates that mobility and its control are matters that ought to be central to any understanding of the criminal justice system. Phenomena such as the controversial use of immigration law for the purposes of the war on terror, closed detention centres, deportation, and border policing, raise in new ways some of the fundamental and enduring questions of criminal justice and criminology: What is punishment? What is crime? What should be the normative and legal foundation for criminalization, for police suspicion, for the exclusion from the community, and for the deprivation of freedom? And who is the subject of rights within a society and what is the relevance of citizenship to criminal justice?

Female Crime

The Construction of Women in Criminology
Author: Ngaire Naffine
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317296680
Category: Social Science
Page: 146
View: 473

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Female Crime, first published in 1987, surveys the major schools of criminology in order to explore the images of the female offender which underpin many contemporary crime theories. In reveals the ways in which male-centred norms dominated much analysis, and how crude stereotypes of women were a common attribute to the armoury of criminological research. Although feminists and other researchers are directing increasing attention to criminology, this was one of the first attempts to deploy feminist analyses developed within other disciplines to examine critically the range of modern criminological theories on women. Its findings demonstrate the importance of a program to create a new feminist criminology which recognises the female offender as a reasoning, purposeful subject. This title will be of interest to students of criminology.

More Guns, Less Crime

Understanding Crime and Gun Control Laws, Third Edition
Author: John R. Lott
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226493671
Category: Social Science
Page: 472
View: 8640

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On its initial publication in 1998, John R. Lott’s More Guns, Less Crime drew both lavish praise and heated criticism. More than a decade later, it continues to play a key role in ongoing arguments over gun-control laws: despite all the attacks by gun-control advocates, no one has ever been able to refute Lott’s simple, startling conclusion that more guns mean less crime. Relying on the most rigorously comprehensive data analysis ever conducted on crime statistics and right-to-carry laws, the book directly challenges common perceptions about the relationship of guns, crime, and violence. For this third edition, Lott draws on an additional ten years of data—including provocative analysis of the effects of gun bans in Chicago and Washington, D.C—that brings the book fully up to date and further bolsters its central contention.

Environmental Criminology


Author: Paul J. Brantingham,Patricia L. Brantingham
Publisher: Waveland PressInc
ISBN: 9780881335392
Category: Crime
Page: 282
View: 8666

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This book is an effective teaching tool that raises a number of theoretical & methodological issues regarding the study of criminal events.

Women in Business

Theory, Case Studies, and Legal Challenges
Author: Martha Reeves
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113696925X
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 320
View: 6619

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This book uniquely combines gender theory, case studies, and the legal challenges surrounding the mechanisms of gender discrimination at work. It provides the student with real-life examples from managers (based on interviews with people who experienced discrimination) that help students understand how gender discrimination operates, even when there are legal protections against it. At the end of each case study, students are asked to put themselves in the shoes of the individual experiencing the discrimination and ask themselves reflect on how they would handle the situation. Students must examine their own beliefs about gender and work place practices and consider consequences of actions they might take. In addition to the sections of theory, cases, and legal challenges, websites of interest are included student assignments and classroom activities. Key features include: Engaging case studies embedded in each chapter Legal cases that highlight each chapter and lend credibility to each case study Discussions of international/global situations Suggestions for student assignments/projects

Presumed Incompetent

The Intersections of Race and Class for Women in Academia
Author: Gabriella Gutiérrez y Muhs,Yolanda Flores Niemann,Carmen G. González,Angela P. Harris
Publisher: University Press of Colorado
ISBN: 1457181223
Category: Education
Page: 588
View: 318

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Presumed Incompetent is a pathbreaking account of the intersecting roles of race, gender, and class in the working lives of women faculty of color. Through personal narratives and qualitative empirical studies, more than 40 authors expose the daunting challenges faced by academic women of color as they navigate the often hostile terrain of higher education, including hiring, promotion, tenure, and relations with students, colleagues, and administrators. The narratives are filled with wit, wisdom, and concrete recommendations, and provide a window into the struggles of professional women in a racially stratified but increasingly multicultural America.

The Encyclopedia of Theoretical Criminology


Author: J. Mitchell Miller
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0470658444
Category: Reference
Page: 1048
View: 8968

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The two–volume Encyclopedia of Theoretical Criminology, available in print and online, is the definitive reference resource for theoretical criminology. This encyclopedia offers a state–of–the–art survey of leading theories, concepts, and key figures in the field. It combines this breadth of coverage with the authority and international perspective of an experienced team of contributors, creating a definitive reference resource for students, scholars, and professionals. Comprehensive: Broad coverage spans the origins and evolution of leading theories, major theorists, concepts, applications, and degree of empirical support for both criminology and justice Authoritative: Edited by a leading team of experts in the field and enhanced by contributions from an international group of leading criminology and criminal justice scholars International: Offers a global perspective from an international team of leading scholars, including coverage of the strong and rapidly growing body of work on criminology in Europe and other areas Wide–ranging: Includes coverage of theories of justice, crime, applied criminology, and traditional and alternative criminological theories Multi–format: Publishing simultaneously as a two–volume print set and via Wiley Online Library; visit www.theoreticalcriminology.com for further details

Folk Devils and Moral Panics


Author: Stanley Cohen
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1136807047
Category: Social Science
Page: 328
View: 913

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'Richly documented and convincingly presented' -- New Society Mods and Rockers, skinheads, video nasties, designer drugs, bogus asylum seeks and hoodies. Every era has its own moral panics. It was Stanley Cohen’s classic account, first published in the early 1970s and regularly revised, that brought the term ‘moral panic’ into widespread discussion. It is an outstanding investigation of the way in which the media and often those in a position of political power define a condition, or group, as a threat to societal values and interests. Fanned by screaming media headlines, Cohen brilliantly demonstrates how this leads to such groups being marginalised and vilified in the popular imagination, inhibiting rational debate about solutions to the social problems such groups represent. Furthermore, he argues that moral panics go even further by identifying the very fault lines of power in society. Full of sharp insight and analysis, Folk Devils and Moral Panics is essential reading for anyone wanting to understand this powerful and enduring phenomenon. Professor Stanley Cohen is Emeritus Professor of Sociology at the London School of Economics. He received the Sellin-Glueck Award of the American Society of Criminology (1985) and is on the Board of the International Council on Human Rights. He is a member of the British Academy.