Crimes Against Humanity

A Historical Perspective
Author: Benjamin Ricci
Publisher: iUniverse
ISBN: 0595303986
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Page: 435
View: 1526

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An accounting of the celebrated, historically significant and precedent-setting class action suit, Robert Simpson Ricci et. al., plaintiffs v. Milton Greenblatt, M.D. et. al., defendants was authored by Benjamin Ricci, retired professor emeritus, University of Massachusetts at Amherst, father and next friend of Robert Simpson Ricci principal plaintiff.

Crimes Against Humanity

The Struggle for Global Justice
Author: Geoffrey Robertson
Publisher: The New Press
ISBN: 9781595588630
Category: Political Science
Page: 864
View: 3974

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When it was first published in 1999, Crimes Against Humanity called for a radical shift from diplomacy to justice in international affairs. In vivid, non-legalese prose, leading human rights lawyer Geoffrey Robertson made a riveting case for holding political and military leaders accountable in international courts for genocide, torture, and mass murder. Since then, fearsome figures such as Charles Taylor, Laurent Gbagbo, and Ratko Mladic´ have been tried in international criminal court, and a global movement has rallied around the human rights framework of justice. Any such legal framework requires constant evolution in order to stay relevant, and this newly revised and expanded volume brings the conversation up to date. In substantial new chapters, Robertson covers the protection of war correspondents, the problem of piracy, crimes against humanity in Syria, nuclear armament in Iran, and other challenges we are grappling with today. He criticizes the Obama administration’s policies around “targeted killing” and the trials of Khalid Sheik Mohammed and other “high value” detainees. By rendering a complex debate accessible, Robertson once again provides an essential guide for anyone looking to understand human rights and how to work toward a more complete blueprint for justice.

Crimes Against Humanity in the Land of the Free: Can a Truth and Reconciliation Process Heal Racial Conflict in America?


Author: Imani Michelle Scott
Publisher: ABC-CLIO
ISBN: 1440830444
Category: Political Science
Page: 306
View: 8078

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This vital book considers the compelling and addictive hold that racism has had on centuries of Americans, explores historical and contemporary norms complicit in the problem, and appeals to the U.S. government to improve race relations, rectify existent social imperfections, and guard against future race-based abuses. • Presents the inescapable evidence of persistent social violence, inequalities, and injustices perpetrated against blacks within America's borders prior to and for centuries since the nation's founding • Identifies the negative psycho-social consequences and harmful impact of "transgenerated trauma"—based on the experiences of living in an overtly oppressive society for centuries—on both the oppressed and the oppressor in America • Emphasizes the necessity for all American citizens to share the responsibility for exposing historical truths, working through painful memories and realities, engaging in long-avoided dialogue, and implementing systems to assure a more just America for all its citizens

The Girls and Boys of Belchertown

A Social History of the Belchertown State School for the Feeble-Minded
Author: Robert N. Hornick
Publisher: Univ of Massachusetts Press
ISBN: 155849944X
Category: History
Page: 193
View: 4943

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During much of the twentieth century, people labeled "feeble-minded," "mentally deficient," and "mentally retarded" were often confined in large, publicly funded, residential institutions located on the edges of small towns and villages some distance from major population centers. At the peak of their development in the late 1960s, these institutions--frequently called "schools" or "homes"--housed 190,000 men, women, and children in the United States. The Girls and Boys of Belchertown offers the first detailed history of an American public institution for intellectually disabled persons. Robert Hornick recounts the story of the Belchertown State School in Belchertown, Massachusetts, from its beginnings in the 1920s to its closure in the 1990s following a scandalous exposé and unprecedented court case that put the institution under direct supervision of a federal judge. He draws on personal interviews, private letters, and other unpublished sources as well as local newspapers, long out-of-print materials, and government reports to re-create what it was like to live and work at the school. More broadly, he gauges the impact of changing social attitudes toward intellectual disability and examines the relationship that developed over time between the school and the town where it was located. What emerges is a candid and complex portrait of the Belchertown State School that neither vilifies those in charge nor excuses the injustices perpetrated on its residents, but makes clear that despite the court-ordered reforms of its final decades, the institution needed to be closed.

The International Human Rights Movement

A History
Author: Aryeh Neier
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400841879
Category: Political Science
Page: 392
View: 5339

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During the past several decades, the international human rights movement has had a crucial hand in the struggle against totalitarian regimes, cruelties in wars, and crimes against humanity. Today, it grapples with the war against terror and subsequent abuses of government power. In The International Human Rights Movement, Aryeh Neier--a leading figure and a founder of the contemporary movement--offers a comprehensive and authoritative account of this global force, from its beginnings in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries to its essential place in world affairs today. Neier combines analysis with personal experience, and gives a unique insider's perspective on the movement's goals, the disputes about its mission, and its rise to international importance. Discussing the movement's origins, Neier looks at the dissenters who fought for religious freedoms in seventeenth-century England and the abolitionists who opposed slavery before the Civil War era. He pays special attention to the period from the 1970s onward, and he describes the growth of the human rights movement after the Helsinki Accords, the roles played by American presidential administrations, and the astonishing Arab revolutions of 2011. Neier argues that the contemporary human rights movement was, to a large extent, an outgrowth of the Cold War, and he demonstrates how it became the driving influence in international law, institutions, and rights. Throughout, Neier highlights key figures, controversies, and organizations, including Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch, and he considers the challenges to come. Illuminating and insightful, The International Human Rights Movement is a remarkable account of a significant world movement, told by a key figure in its evolution.

Atrocities on Trial

Historical Perspectives on the Politics of Prosecuting War Crimes
Author: Patricia Heberer,J_rgen MatthÜus
Publisher: U of Nebraska Press
ISBN: 0803210841
Category: History
Page: 327
View: 524

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These essays are organised into four sections, dealing with the history of war crime trials from Weimar Germany to just after World War II, the sometimes diverging Allied attempts to come to terms with the Nazi concentration camp system, the ability of postwar societies to confront war crimes of the past and the legacy of war crime trials.

All the Missing Souls

A Personal History of the War Crimes Tribunals
Author: David Scheffer
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 0691140154
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Page: 533
View: 4047

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Recounts the author's experiences of setting up the International Criminal Court, including problems with achieving international cooperation for tribunals, war crimes victims, and challenges from the U.S. due to fears of soldiers facing prosecution.

War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity in the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court


Author: Christine Byron
Publisher: Manchester University Press
ISBN: 1847796516
Category: Law
Page: 336
View: 1431

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This book provides a critical analysis of the definitions of war crimes and crimes against humanity as construed in the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Each crime is discussed from its origins in treaty or customary international law, through developments as a result of the jurisprudence of modern ad hoc or internationalised tribunals, to modifications introduced by the Rome Statute and the Elements of Crimes. The influence of human rights law upon the definition of crimes is discussed, as is the possible impact of State reservations to the underlying treaties which form the basis for the conduct covered by the offences in the Rome Statute. Examples are also given from recent conflicts to aid a 'real life' discussion of the type of conduct over which the International Criminal Court may take jurisdiction. This will be relevant to postgraduates, academics and professionals with an interest in the International Criminal Court and the normative basis for the crimes over which the Court may take jurisdiction.

Cultural heritage

dispute resolution and avoidance
Author: Willamette University. College of Law
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Law
Page: 114
View: 8543

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East West Street

On the Origins of "Genocide" and "Crimes Against Humanity"
Author: Philippe Sands
Publisher: Vintage
ISBN: 0385350724
Category: History
Page: 448
View: 4633

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A profound and profoundly important book—a moving personal detective story, an uncovering of secret pasts, and a book that explores the creation and development of world-changing legal concepts that came about as a result of the unprecedented atrocities of Hitler’s Third Reich. East West Street looks at the personal and intellectual evolution of the two men who simultaneously originated the ideas of “genocide” and “crimes against humanity,” both of whom, not knowing the other, studied at the same university with the same professors, in a city little known today that was a major cultural center of Europe, “the little Paris of Ukraine,” a city variously called Lemberg, Lwów, Lvov, or Lviv. The book opens with the author being invited to give a lecture on genocide and crimes against humanity at Lviv University. Sands accepted the invitation with the intent of learning about the extraordinary city with its rich cultural and intellectual life, home to his maternal grandfather, a Galician Jew who had been born there a century before and who’d moved to Vienna at the outbreak of the First World War, married, had a child (the author’s mother), and who then had moved to Paris after the German annexation of Austria in 1938. It was a life that had been shrouded in secrecy, with many questions not to be asked and fewer answers offered if they were. As the author uncovered, clue by clue, the deliberately obscured story of his grandfather’s mysterious life, and of his mother’s journey as a child surviving Nazi occupation, Sands searched further into the history of the city of Lemberg and realized that his own field of humanitarian law had been forged by two men—Rafael Lemkin and Hersch Lauterpacht—each of whom had studied law at Lviv University in the city of his grandfather’s birth, each considered to be the father of the modern human rights movement, and each, at parallel times, forging diametrically opposite, revolutionary concepts of humanitarian law that had changed the world. In this extraordinary and resonant book, Sands looks at who these two very private men were, and at how and why, coming from similar Jewish backgrounds and the same city, studying at the same university, each developed the theory he did, showing how each man dedicated this period of his life to having his legal concept—“genocide” and “crimes against humanity”—as a centerpiece for the prosecution of Nazi war criminals. And the author writes of a third man, Hans Frank, Hitler’s personal lawyer, a Nazi from the earliest days who had destroyed so many lives, friend of Richard Strauss, collector of paintings by Leonardo da Vinci. Frank oversaw the ghetto in Lemberg in Poland in August 1942, in which the entire large Jewish population of the area had been confined on penalty of death. Frank, who was instrumental in the construction of concentration camps nearby and, weeks after becoming governor general of Nazi-occupied Poland, ordered the transfer of 133,000 men, women, and children to the death camps. Sands brilliantly writes of how all three men came together, in October 1945 in Nuremberg—Rafael Lemkin; Hersch Lauterpacht; and in the dock at the Palace of Justice, with the twenty other defendants of the Nazi high command, prisoner number 7, Hans Frank, who had overseen the extermination of more than a million Jews of Galicia and Lemberg, among them, the families of the author’s grandfather as well as those of Lemkin and Lauterpacht. A book that changes the way we look at the world, at our understanding of history and how civilization has tried to cope with mass murder. Powerful; moving; tender; a revelation.

American Global Strategy and the 'War on Terrorism'


Author: Professor Hall Gardner
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
ISBN: 1409495892
Category: Political Science
Page: 252
View: 3733

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Contemporary international events, and indeed even the US presidential election, demonstrate the continuing need for debate and discourse over the direction and emphases of US foreign policy. Following the success of the original hardback publication, this revised and updated paperback re-conceptualizes the 'war on terrorism' and analyzes the nature of American domestic and international policy-making within the context of historical and structural constraints upon US policy. American Global Strategy and the 'War on Terrorism' addresses a wide range of themes that are crucial to understanding the 9/11 crisis and to formulating an affective American and global foreign and security policy to deal with that crisis. This study should be read by contemporary policy makers and scholars of foreign policy.

Sexual Violence in the Argentinean Crimes against Humanity Trials

Rethinking Victimhood
Author: Cecilia Macón
Publisher: Lexington Books
ISBN: 1498510396
Category: History
Page: 134
View: 4231

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The book highlights the experience of testifying in cases of sexual violence in the Argentinian crimes against humanity trials. Macón argues that affect in the experiences of women who did and did not testify is a useful tool in order to analyze sexual violence issues from a thought-provoking and heterodox perspective.

Reparations for Victims of Genocide, War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity

Systems in Place and Systems in the Making
Author: Carla Ferstman,Mariana Goetz,Alan Stephens
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9004174494
Category: Law
Page: 575
View: 6236

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This book provides detailed analyses of systems that have been established to provide reparations to victims of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes, and the way in which these systems have worked and are working in practice. Many of these systems are described and assessed for the first time in an academic publication. The publication draws upon a groundbreaking Conference organised by the Clemens Nathan Research Centre (CNRC) and REDRESS at the Peace Palace in The Hague, with the support of the Dutch Carnegie Foundation. Both CNRC and REDRESS had become very concerned about the extreme difficulty encountered by most victims of serious international crimes in attempting to access effective and enforceable remedies and reparation for harm suffered. In discussions between the Conference organisers and Judges and officials of the International Criminal Court, it became ever more apparent that there was a great need for frank and open exchanges on the question of effective reparation, between the representatives of victims, of NGOs and IGOs, and other experts. It was clear to all that the many current initiatives of governments and regional and international institutions to afford reparations to victims of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes could benefit greatly by taking into full account the wide and varied practice that had been built up over several decades. In particular, the Hague Conference sought to consider in detail the long experience of the Conference on Jewish Material Claims against Germany (the Claims Conference) in respect of Holocaust restitution programmes, as well as the practice of truth commissions, arbitral proceedings and a variety of national processes to identify common trends, best practices and lessons. This book thus explores the actions of governments, as well as of national and international courts and commissions in applying, processing, implementing and enforcing a variety of reparations schemes and awards. Crucially, it considers the entire complex of issues from the perspective of the beneficiaries - survivors and their communities - and from the perspective of the policy-makers and implementers tasked with resolving technical and procedural challenges in bringing to fruition adequate, effective and meaningful reparations in the context of mass victimisation.

The Young Turks' Crime against Humanity

The Armenian Genocide and Ethnic Cleansing in the Ottoman Empire
Author: Taner Akçam
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400841844
Category: History
Page: 528
View: 9546

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Introducing new evidence from more than 600 secret Ottoman documents, this book demonstrates in unprecedented detail that the Armenian Genocide and the expulsion of Greeks from the late Ottoman Empire resulted from an official effort to rid the empire of its Christian subjects. Presenting these previously inaccessible documents along with expert context and analysis, Taner Akçam's most authoritative work to date goes deep inside the bureaucratic machinery of Ottoman Turkey to show how a dying empire embraced genocide and ethnic cleansing. Although the deportation and killing of Armenians was internationally condemned in 1915 as a "crime against humanity and civilization," the Ottoman government initiated a policy of denial that is still maintained by the Turkish Republic. The case for Turkey's "official history" rests on documents from the Ottoman imperial archives, to which access has been heavily restricted until recently. It is this very source that Akçam now uses to overturn the official narrative. The documents presented here attest to a late-Ottoman policy of Turkification, the goal of which was no less than the radical demographic transformation of Anatolia. To that end, about one-third of Anatolia's 15 million people were displaced, deported, expelled, or massacred, destroying the ethno-religious diversity of an ancient cultural crossroads of East and West, and paving the way for the Turkish Republic. By uncovering the central roles played by demographic engineering and assimilation in the Armenian Genocide, this book will fundamentally change how this crime is understood and show that physical destruction is not the only aspect of the genocidal process.

Crimes against Humanity

Historical Evolution and Contemporary Application
Author: M. Cherif Bassiouni
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139498932
Category: Law
Page: N.A
View: 7841

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This book traces the evolution of crimes against humanity (CAH) and their application from the end of World War I to the present day, in terms of both historic legal analysis and subject-matter content. The first part of the book addresses general issues pertaining to the categorization of CAH in normative jurisprudential and doctrinal terms. This is followed by an analysis of the specific contents of CAH, describing its historic phases going through international criminal tribunals, mixed model tribunals and the International Criminal Court. The book examines the general parts and defenses of the crime, along with the history and jurisprudence of both international and national prosecutions. For the first time, a list of all countries that have enacted national legislation specifically directed at CAH is collected, along with all of the national prosecutions that have occurred under national legislation up to 2010.

Forging a Convention for Crimes against Humanity


Author: Leila Nadya Sadat
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139495828
Category: Law
Page: N.A
View: 499

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Crimes against humanity were one of the three categories of crimes elaborated in the Nuremberg Charter. However, unlike genocide and war crimes, they were never set out in a comprehensive international convention. This book represents an effort to complete the Nuremberg legacy by filling this gap. It contains a complete text of a proposed convention on crimes against humanity in English and in French, a comprehensive history of the proposed convention, and fifteen original papers written by leading experts on international criminal law. The papers contain reflections on various aspects of crimes against humanity, including gender crimes, universal jurisdiction, the history of codification efforts, the responsibility to protect, ethnic cleansing, peace and justice dilemmas, amnesties and immunities, the jurisprudence of the ad hoc tribunals, the definition of the crime in customary international law, the ICC definition, the architecture of international criminal justice, modes of criminal participation, crimes against humanity and terrorism, and the inter-state enforcement regime.

"They Can Live in the Desert but Nowhere Else"

A History of the Armenian Genocide
Author: Ronald Grigor Suny
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400865581
Category: History
Page: 520
View: 3343

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Starting in early 1915, the Ottoman Turks began deporting and killing hundreds of thousands of Armenians in the first major genocide of the twentieth century. By the end of the First World War, the number of Armenians in what would become Turkey had been reduced by 90 percent—more than a million people. A century later, the Armenian Genocide remains controversial but relatively unknown, overshadowed by later slaughters and the chasm separating Turkish and Armenian interpretations of events. In this definitive narrative history, Ronald Suny cuts through nationalist myths, propaganda, and denial to provide an unmatched account of when, how, and why the atrocities of 1915–16 were committed. Drawing on archival documents and eyewitness accounts, this is an unforgettable chronicle of a cataclysm that set a tragic pattern for a century of genocide and crimes against humanity.

Justice for Crimes Against Humanity


Author: Mark Lattimer,Philippe Sands
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1847312438
Category: Law
Page: 528
View: 6187

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The aim of this book is to assess recent developments in international law seeking to bring an end to impunity by bringing to justice those accused of war crimes and crimes against humanity. The book was originally conceived while the editors were engaged, in different capacities, in proceedings relating to the detention of Senator Pinochet in London. The vigorous public debate that attended that case - and related developments in international criminal justice, such as the creation of the International Criminal Court and the trial of former President Milosevic - demonstrate the close connections between the law and wider political or moral questions. In the field of international criminal justice there appeared, therefore, a clear need to distinguish legal from essentially political issues - promoting the application of the law in an impartial and apolitical manner - while at the same time enabling each to legitimately inform the development of the other. The essays in this volume, written by internationally recognised legal experts: scholars, practitioners, judges - explore a wide range of subjects, including immunities, justice in international and mixed courts, justice in national courts, and in a particularly practical section, perspectives offered by experienced practitioners in the field. "This is a welcome collection of papers on criminal justice both at the international and the national level...a book which fills many gaps and adds considerable value by discussing wider policy and moral issues; it is to be recommended to all who are interested in the development of international criminal justice." Elizabeth Wilmshurst, International Affairs