Crimes Against Art

International Art and Cultural Heritage Law
Author: Bonnie Czegledi
Publisher: Carswell Legal Publications
ISBN: 9780779823161
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Page: 488
View: 9350

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Art and Cultural Heritage

Law, Policy and Practice
Author: Barbara T. Hoffman
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521857642
Category: Law
Page: 562
View: 2264

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Art and Cultural Heritage is appropriately, but not solely, about national and international law respecting cultural heritage. It is a bubbling cauldron of law mixed with ethics, philosophy, politics and working principles looking at how cultural heritage law, policy and practice should be sculpted from the past as the present becomes the future. Art and cultural heritage are two pillars on which a society builds its identity, its values, its sense of community and the individual. The authors explore these demanding concerns, untangle basic values, and look critically at the conflicts and contradictions in existing art and cultural heritage law and policy in its diverse sectors. The rich and provocative contributions collectively provide a reasoned discussion of the issues from a multiplicity of views to permit the reader to understand the theoretical and philosophical underpinnings of the cultural heritage debate.

Contemporary Perspectives on the Detection, Investigation and Prosecution of Art Crime

Australasian, European and North American Perspectives
Author: Dr Saskia Hufnagel,Professor Duncan Chappell
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
ISBN: 140946315X
Category: Law
Page: 290
View: 3699

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In the world of law enforcement art and antiquity crime has in the past usually assumed a place of low interest and priority. That situation has now slowly begun to change on both the local and international level as criminals, encouraged in part by the record sums now being paid for art treasures, are now seeking to exploit the art market more systematically by means of theft, fraud and looting. In this collection academics and practitioners from Australasia, Europe and North America combine to examine the challenges presented to the criminal justice system by these developments. Best practice methods of detecting, investigating, prosecuting and preventing such crimes are explored. This book will be of interest and use to academics and practitioners alike in the areas of law, crime and justice.

Enforcing International Cultural Heritage Law


Author: Francesco Francioni,James Gordley
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199680248
Category: Law
Page: 259
View: 3680

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Cultural heritage property can be protected in a variety of ways, including at the international level, by enforcement in domestic courts, and through alternative dispute resolution mechanisms. This book sets out the legal framework applicable to cultural heritage and assesses how this works in practice, including in situations of conflict.

Crime in the Art and Antiquities World

Illegal Trafficking in Cultural Property
Author: Stefano Manacorda,Duncan Chappell
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441979469
Category: Social Science
Page: 454
View: 9098

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The theft, trafficking, and falsification of cultural property and cultural heritage objects are crimes of a particularly complex nature, which often have international ramifications and significant economic consequences. Organized criminal groups of various types and origins are involved in these illegal acts. The book Crime in the Art and Antiquities World has contributions both from researchers specializing in the illegal trafficking of art, and representatives of international institutions involved with prevention and detection of cultural property-related crimes, such as Interpol and UNESCO. This work is a unique and useful reference for scholars and private and public bodies alike. This innovative volume also includes an Appendix of the existing legal texts, i.e. international treaties, conventions, and resolutions, which have not previously been available in a single volume. As anyone who has undertaken research or study relating to the protection of cultural heritage discovers one of the frustrations encountered is the absence of ready access to the multi- various international instruments which exist in the field. Since the end of the Second World War these instruments have proliferated, first in response to increasing recognition of the need for concerted multinational action to give better protection to cultural property during armed conflict as well as ensuring the repatriation of cultural property looted during such conflict. Thus the international community agreed in 1954 upon a Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict. That Convention, typically referred to as the Hague Convention of 1954, is now to be found reproduced in the Appendix to this book (Appendix I) together with 25 other important and diverse documents that we believe represent a core of the essential international sources of reference in this subject area. In presenting these documents in one place we hope that readers will now experience less frustration while having the benefit of supplementing their understanding and interpretation of the various instruments by referring to individual chapters in the book dealing with a particular issue or topic. For example, Chapter 9 by Mathew Bogdanos provides some specific and at times rather depressing descriptions of the application in the field of the Hague Convention 1954, and its Protocols (Appendices II and III), to the armed conflict in Iraq. Reference may also be had to the resolution of the UN Security Council in May 2003 (Appendix VI) urging Member States to take appropriate steps to facilitate the safe return of looted Iraqi cultural property taken from the Iraq National Museum, the National Library and other locations in Iraq. Despite such pleas the international antiquities market seems to have continued to trade such looted property in a largely unfettered manner, as demonstrated by Neil Brodie in Chapter 7. Fittingly, as referred to in the Preface to this book, the last document contained in the Appendix (Appendix 26) is the “Charter of Courmayeur”, formulated at a ground breaking international workshop on the protection of cultural property conducted by the International Scientific and Professional Advisory Council (ISPAC) to the United Nations Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Program in Courmayeur, Italy, in June 1992. The Charter makes mention of many of the instruments contained in the Appendix while also foreshadowing many of the developments which have taken place in the ensuing two decades designed to combat illicit trafficking in cultural property through international collaboration and action in the arena of crime prevention and criminal justice.

Art and Crime: Exploring the Dark Side of the Art World

Exploring the Dark Side of the Art World
Author: Noah Charney
Publisher: ABC-CLIO
ISBN: 0313366365
Category: Social Science
Page: 261
View: 6773

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Through the use of case examples and careful examination, this book presents the first interdisciplinary essay collection on the study of art crime, and its effect on all aspects of the art world. Contributors discuss art crime subcategories, including vandalism, iconoclasm, forgery, fraud, peace-time theft, war looting, archaeological looting, smuggling, submarine looting, and ransom. The contributors offer insightful analyses coupled with specific practical suggestions to implement in the future to prevent and address art crime. This work is of critical importance to anyone involved in the art world, its trade, study, and security. Art crime has received relatively little attention from those who study art to those who prosecute crimes. Indeed, the general public is not well-aware of the various forms of art crime and its impact on society at large, to say nothing of museums, history, and cultural affairs. And yet it involves a multi-billion dollar legitimate industry, with a conservatively-estimated $6 billion annual criminal profit. Information about and analysis of art crime is critical to the wide variety of fields involved in the art trade and art preservation, from museums to academia, from auction houses to galleries, from insurance to art law, from policing to security. Since the Second World War, art crime has evolved from a relatively innocuous crime, into the third highest-grossing annual criminal trade worldwide, run primarily by organized crime syndicates, and therefore funding their other enterprises, from the drug and arms trades to terrorism. It is no longer merely the art that is at stake.

Yearbook of Cultural Property Law 2010


Author: Sherry Hutt,David Tarler
Publisher: Left Coast Press
ISBN: 1598744429
Category: Law
Page: 284
View: 3097

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The yearbooks provide the key, up-to-date information and analyses that keep heritage professionals, lawyers, and land managers abreast of current legal practice, including summaries of notable court cases, settlements and other dispositions, legislation, government regulations, policies and agency decisions. Interviews with key figures, refereed research articles, think pieces, and a substantial resources section accompany thorough updates in 8 practice areas: federal land management; state and local; tribes, tribal lands, and Indian arts; marine environment; museums; art market; international; enforcement actions. Thoughtful analyses and useful information from leading practitioners in the diverse field of cultural property law will assist government land managers, state, tribal and museum officials, attorneys, anthropologists, archaeologists, public historians, and others to better preserve, protect and manage cultural property in domestic and international venues.

YEARBOOK OF CULTURAL PROPERTY LAW 2009


Author: Sherry Hutt,David Tarler
Publisher: Left Coast Press
ISBN: 1598744194
Category: Law
Page: 367
View: 5613

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The Yearbooks of Cultural Property Law provide the key, up-to-date information and analyses that keep heritage professionals, lawyers, and land managers abreast of current legal practice, including summaries of notable court cases, settlements and other dispositions, legislation, government regulations, policies and agency decisions. Interviews with key figures, refereed research articles, think pieces, and a substantial resources section round out each volume. Thoughtful analyses and useful information from leading practitioners in the diverse field of cultural property law will assist government land managers, state, tribal and museum officials, attorneys, anthropologists, archaeologists, public historians, and others to better preserve, protect and manage cultural property in domestic and international venues. In addition to eight practice-area sections (federal land management; state and local; tribes, tribal lands, and Indian arts; marine environment; museums; art market; international; enforcement actions), the 2009 volume features an interview with an important figure in the field and original articles on new ICOMOS rules on dispute resolution, Section 47 of the Internal Revenue Code, risk and fair market value of antiquities, the visual artists rights act, and religious free exercise and historic preservation. All royalties are donated to the Lawyer’s Committee on Cultural Heritage Preservation.

Accountability for Human Rights Atrocities in International Law

Beyond the Nuremberg Legacy
Author: Steven R. Ratner,Jason S. Abrams,James L. Bischoff
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191018678
Category: Political Science
Page: 536
View: 8849

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This book explores the promises and limitations of holding individuals accountable for violations of international human rights and humanitarian law. It analyses the principal crimes under international law, such as genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes, and appraises both prosecutorial and other key mechanisms developed to bring individuals to justice. After applying their conclusions in a detailed case study, the authors offer a series of compelling conclusions on the prospects for accountability. This fully updated new edition contains expanded coverage of national trials under universal jurisdiction, international criminal tribunals including the International Criminal Court, new hybrid tribunals in Cambodia and elsewhere, truth commissions, and lustration. It also explores individual accountability for terrorist acts and for abuses committed in the name of counter-terrorism policy.

Art Crime

Terrorists, Tomb Raiders, Forgers and Thieves
Author: Noah Charney
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137407573
Category: Social Science
Page: 364
View: 4290

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Since the Second World War, art crime has shifted from a relatively innocuous, often ideological crime, into a major international problem, considered by some to be the third-highest grossing criminal trade worldwide. This rich volume features essays on art crime by the most respected and knowledgeable experts in this interdisciplinary subject.

Cultural Property Crime

An Overview and Analysis of Contemporary Perspectives and Trends
Author: Joris Kila,Marc Balcells
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9004280545
Category: LAW
Page: 396
View: 1265

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In "Cultural Property Crime," experts from a wide range of disciplines provide analytical insights into classical and contemporary criminal acts that affect our cultural heritage worldwide, both in peace and wartime.

The Illicit Trade in Art and Antiquities

International Recovery and Criminal and Civil Liability
Author: Janet Ulph,Ian Smith
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1509905456
Category: Law
Page: 352
View: 5452

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This new text provides practical guidance on the modern law relating to cultural objects which have been stolen, looted or illegally exported. It explains how English criminal law principles, including money laundering measures, apply to those who deal in cultural objects in a domestic or international setting. It discusses the recovery of works of art and antiquities in the English courts where there are competing claims between private individuals, or between individuals and the UK Government or a foreign State. Significantly, this text also provides an exposition of the law where a British law enforcement agency, or a foreign law enforcement agency, is involved in the course of criminal or civil proceedings in an English court. The growth of relevant international instruments, which include not only those devoted to the protection of mankind's cultural heritage but also those concerned with money laundering and serious organised crime, provide a backdrop to this discussion. The UK's ratification of the UNESCO Convention on Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property 1970 in 2002 is considered. The problems posed in attempting to curb trafficking in art and antiquities are explored and the effectiveness of the current law is analysed.

The International Law of Property


Author: John G. Sprankling
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191502529
Category: Law
Page: 400
View: 7503

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Does a right to property exist under international law? The traditional answer to this question is no: a right to property can only arise under the domestic law of a particular nation. But the view that property rights are exclusively governed by national law is obsolete. Identifiable areas of property law have emerged at the international level, and the foundation is now arguably being laid for a comprehensive international regime. This book provides a detailed investigation into this developing international property law. It demonstrates how the evolution of international property law has been influenced by major economic, political, and technological changes: the embrace of private property by former socialist states after the end of the Cold War; the globalization of trade; the birth of new technologies capable of exploiting the global commons; the rise of digital property; and the increasing recognition of the human right to property. The first part of the book analyzes how international law impacts rights in specific types of property. In some situations, international law creates property rights, such as rights in aboriginal lands, deep seabed minerals, and satellite orbits. In other areas, it harmonizes property rights that arise at the national level, such as rights in intellectual property, rights in foreign investments, and security interests in personal property. Finally, it restricts property rights that may be recognized at the national level, such as rights in celestial bodies, contraband, and slaves. The second part of the book explores the thesis that a global right to property should be recognized as a general matter, not merely as a moral precept but rather as an entitlement that all nations must honour. It establishes the components of such a right, arguing that the right to property at the international level should be seen in the context of five key components of ownership: acquisition, use, destruction, exclusion, and transfer. This highly innovative book makes an important contribution to how we conceptualize the protection of property and to the understanding that much of this protection now takes place at the international level.

The Settlement of International Cultural Heritage Disputes


Author: Alessandro Chechi
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191009083
Category: Law
Page: 400
View: 8359

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The past forty years have seen a wide proliferation of disputes under international law concerning cultural heritage. These have included the restitution of stolen art objects or the protection of monuments. Unlike other fields of international law, international cultural heritage law does not have an ad hoc mechanism of dispute settlement. As a result, controversies are to be settled through negotiation or, if it fails, through existing dispute resolution means. This can result in similar cases being settled in different ways, thereby bringing about an incoherent and fragmentary enforcement of the law. This book offers a comprehensive and innovative analysis of the settlement of cultural heritage disputes. This examination is two-fold. First, it assesses the existing legal framework and the available dispute settlement means. Second, it explores the feasibility of two solutions for overcoming the lack of a specialized forum. The first is the establishment of a new international court. The second concerns existing judicial and extra-judicial fora and their interaction through the practice of 'cross-fertilization'. The book focuses on the substance of such interaction, and identifies a number of culturally-sensitive parameters (the 'common rules of adjudication'). It argues that existing judicial and non-judicial fora should adopt a cross-fertilizing perspective to use and disseminate jurisprudence containing these common rules of adjudication. It sets out how such an approach would enhance the effectiveness and coherence of decision-making processes and would be conducive to the development of a lex culturalis. This can be defined as a composite body of rules designed to protect cultural heritage by excluding the mechanical application of the norms established for standard business transactions of ordinary goods.

Law, Ethics, and the Visual Arts


Author: John Henry Merryman,Albert Edward Elsen,Stephen K. Urice
Publisher: Kluwer Law International B.V.
ISBN: 9041125175
Category: Law
Page: 1324
View: 3225

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This book describes the collisions between the art world and the law, with a critical eye through a combination of primary source materials, excerpts from professional and art journals, and extensive textual notes. Topics analysed include + the fate of works of art in wartime, + the international trade in stolen and illegally exported cultural property, + artistic freedom, + censorship and state support for art and artists, + copyright, + droit moral and droit de suite, + the artist's professional life and death, + collectors in the art market, + income and estate taxation, + charitable donations and works of art, and + art museums and their collections. The authors are recognised experts in the field who have defined the canon in many aspects of art law.

Crimes of the Art World


Author: Tom Bazley
Publisher: ABC-CLIO
ISBN: 0313360472
Category: Art
Page: 230
View: 1453

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This book offers a revealing look at the full scope of criminal activity in the art world-a category of crime that is far more pervasive than is generally realized. * Comprises 10 chapters covering the various types of crimes common in the art world, from forgeries to theft to vandalism * Includes case studies throughout to explore the characteristics of art crime * Provides a bibliography of important books on the subject of art crime * An index of important words and terms emphasizes works of art and artists covered in the book, along with terms unique to art and art crime

International Criminal Law


Author: Ilias Bantekas,Susan Nash
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135241791
Category: Law
Page: 640
View: 1430

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Providing an introduction to, and detailed examination of substantive, enforcement and procedural aspects of international criminal law, this book’s examination of international and transnational crimes under treaty and customary law has been fully updated and revised. Exploring the enforcement of international criminal law through an investigation of the practice of the Security Council-based tribunals for Yugoslavia and Rwanda, the International Criminal Court and other hybrid tribunals, such as those for Cambodia, Sierra Leone, Lockerbie and truth commissions, the authors look at terrorism, offences against the person, piracy and jurisdiction, and immunities amongst a variety of other topics. New to this edition are four additional chapters on: various forms of liability and participation in international crime war crimes crimes against humanity genocide and illegal rendition. This is an ideal text for undergraduate and postgraduate students of law or international relations, practitioners and those interested in gaining an insight into international criminal law

Cultural Property Law

A Practioner's Guide to the Management, Protection, and Preservation of Heritage Resources
Author: Sherry Hutt,Caroline M. Blanco
Publisher: American Bar Association
ISBN: 9781590312902
Category: Law
Page: 271
View: 5560

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Cultural Property Law is a practical guide to the application and interpretation of the statutes and codes that direct the management, protection, and preservation of cultural property.

Traditional Knowledge, Traditional Cultural Expressions, and Intellectual Property Law in the Asia-Pacific Region


Author: Christoph Antons
Publisher: Kluwer Law International B.V.
ISBN: 9041127216
Category: Law
Page: 394
View: 3674

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Among the many contentious matters thrown up by the relentless march of economic globalization, those forms of knowledge variously known as 'indigenous' or 'traditional' remain seriously threatened, despite numerous transnational initiatives and highly publicized debate. It is not proving easy to bring these holistic worldviews into accordance with the technical terms and classifications of intellectual property law. The contributions in this volume contrast efforts to find solutions and workable models at the international and regional level with experiences on the ground. Legal policies related to 'indigenous knowledge' in settler societies such as Australia and New Zealand are compared with those in densely populated neighbouring countries in Asia, where traditional knowledge is often regarded as national heritage. While many of the chapters are written by lawyers using an interdisciplinary approach, other chapters introduce the reader to perspectives from disciplines such as legal sociology and anthropology on controversial issues such as the understandings of 'art, ' 'culture, ' 'tradition, ' 'customary law' and the opportunities for traditional cultural knowledge and traditional cultural expressions in an Internet environment. Experienced observers of the international debate and regional experts discuss international model laws as well as legislation at regional and national level and the role of customary law. Topics covered include the following and much more: the concept of 'farmers' rights'; biodiscovery and bioprospecting; traditional knowledge as a commodity; encounters between different legalities; geographical indications; registration requirements; sanctions, remedies, and dispute resolution mechanisms; the ongoing fragmentation and loss of traditional knowledge; and systems of data collection.

Sustainable Development, International Criminal Justice, and Treaty Implementation


Author: Sébastien Jodoin,Marie-Claire Cordonier Segger
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107245060
Category: Law
Page: N.A
View: 4359

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Sustainable Development, International Criminal Justice, and Treaty Implementation provides a serious and timely perspective on the relationship between two important and dynamic fields of international law. Comprising chapters written by leading academics and international lawyers, this book examines how the principles and practices of international criminal law and sustainable development can contribute to one another's elaboration, interpretation and implementation. Chapters in the book discuss the potential and limitations of international criminalization as a means for protecting the basic foundations of sustainable development; the role of existing international crimes in penalizing serious forms of economic, social, environmental and cultural harm; the indirect linkages that have developed between sustainable development and various mechanisms of criminal accountability and redress; and innovative proposals to broaden the scope of international criminal justice. With its rigorous and innovative arguments, this book forms a unique and urgent contribution to current debates on the future of global justice and sustainability.