Contact in the 16th Century

Networks Among Fishers, Foragers and Farmers
Author: Brad Loewen,Claude Chapdelaine
Publisher: University of Ottawa Press
ISBN: 0776623613
Category: Social Science
Page: 412
View: 6981

Continue Reading →

From Labrador to Lake Ontario, the Gulf of Saint Lawrence to French Acadia, and Huronia-Wendaki to Tadoussac, and from one chapter to the next, this scholarly collection of archaeological findings focuses on 16th century European goods found in Native contexts and within greater networks, forming a conceptual interplay of place and mobility. The four initial chapters are set around the Gulf of Saint Lawrence where Euro-Native contact was direct and the historical record is strongest. Contact networks radiated northward into Inuit settings where European iron nails, roofing tile fragments and ceramics are found. Glass beads are scarce on Inuit sites as well as on Basque sites on the Gulf’s north shore, but they are numerous in French Acadia. Ceramics on northern Basque sites are mostly from Spain. An historical review discusses the partnership between Spanish Basques and Saint Lawrence Iroquoians c.1540-1580. The four chapters set in the Saint Lawrence valley show Tadoussac as a fork in inland networks. Saint Lawrence Iroquoians obtained glass beads around Tadoussac before 1580. Algonquin from Lac Saint-Jean began trading at Tadoussac after that. They plied a northern route that linked to Huronia-Wendaki via the Ottawa Valley and the Frontenac Uplands. Finally, four chapters set around Lake Ontario focus on contact between this region and the Saint Lawrence valley. Huron-Wendat sites around the Kawartha Lakes show an influx of Saint Lawrence trade in the 16th century, followed by an immigration wave about 1580. Huron-Wendat sites near Toronto show an unabated inflow of Native materials from the Saint Lawrence valley; however, neutral sites west of Lake Ontario show Native and European materials arriving from the south. A review of glass bead evidence presented by various authors shows trends that cut across chapters and bring new impetus to the study of beads to discover 16th-century networks among French and Basque fishers, Inuit and Algonquian foragers and Iroquoian farmers. With contributions from Saraí Barreiro, Meghan Burchell, Claude Chapdelaine, Martin S. Cooper, Amanda Crompton, Vincent Delmas, Sergio Escribano-Ruiz, William Fox, Sarah Grant, François Guindon, Erik Langevin, Brad Loewen, Jean-François Moreau, Jean-Luc Pilon, Michel Plourde, Peter Ramsden, Lisa Rankin and Ronald F. Williamson.

Subsistence and Culture in the Western Canadian Arctic

A Multicontextual Approach
Author: Matthew W. Betts
Publisher: Canadian Mus of Civilization
ISBN: N.A
Category: Social Science
Page: 298
View: 2681

Continue Reading →

The Siglit, or Mackenzie Inuit, the ancestors of the modern Inuvialuit, were, at the time of Euroamerican contact, the most populous and complex Inuit society in the Canadian Arctic. Through innovative analysis of animal bones recovered from their ancient archaeological sites, this comprehensive study documents the complex relationships between the Mackenzie Inuit and their food animals, and tracks these connections over some 800 years, from their earliest occupations to the arrival of Europeans in the 19th century.Methodological in focus, this study examines the way in which archaeologists integrate animal remains into their analyses and proposes a systematic methodology for evaluating faunal data against other archaeological information. This volume chronicles the relationship between developing Siglit economic strategies and shifts in technology, settlement strategies, demography, and climate, exposing in the process the primary link between Siglit culture and their subsistence practices.Matthew Betts is Curator of Atlantic Provinces Archaeology at the Canadian Museum of Civilization. He received his PhD from the University of Toronto and has published on a broad range of topics including dating methods, historical archaeology, archaeological method and theory, and hunter-gatherer subsistence. His current research focuses on maritime hunter-gatherers and their complex economic and social relationships with the animals they exploit

Exploring Atlantic Transitions

Archaeologies of Transience and Permanence in New Found Lands
Author: Peter Edward Pope,Shannon Lewis-Simpson
Publisher: Boydell & Brewer Ltd
ISBN: 1843838591
Category: Social Science
Page: 353
View: 9506

Continue Reading →

Current approaches to the archaeological understanding of permanence and transience in the early modern period,

The Archaeology of Plural and Changing Identities

Beyond Identification
Author: Eleanor Casella,Chris Fowler
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780306486951
Category: Social Science
Page: 272
View: 6692

Continue Reading →

As people move through life, they continually shift affiliation from one position to another, dependent on the wider contexts of their interactions. Different forms of material culture may be employed as affiliations shift, and the connotations of any given set of artifacts may change. In this volume the authors explore these overlapping spheres of social affiliation. Social actors belong to multiple identity groups at any moment in their life. It is possible to deploy one or many potential labels in describing the identities of such an actor. Two main axes exist upon which we can plot experiences of social belonging – the synchronic and the diachronic. Identities can be understood as multiple during one moment (or the extended moment of brief interaction), over the span of a lifetime, or over a specific historical trajectory. From the Introduction The international contributions each illuminate how the various identifiers of race, ethnicity, sexuality, age, class, gender, personhood, health, and/or religion are part of both material expressions of social affiliations, and transient experiences of identity. The Archaeology of Plural and Changing Identities: Beyond Identification will be of great interest to archaeologists, anthropologists, historians, curators and other social scientists interested in the mutability of identification through material remains.

Bad Year Economics

Cultural Responses to Risk and Uncertainty
Author: Paul Halstead,John O'Shea
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521611923
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 160
View: 2738

Continue Reading →

Explores the role of risk and uncertainty in human economics within an interdisciplinary an cross-cultural framework.

This Fleeting World

A Short History of Humanity
Author: David Christian
Publisher: Berkshire Publishing
ISBN: 1933782048
Category: History
Page: 113
View: 8858

Continue Reading →

Presents an overview of the history of the human race from its earliest beginnings as foragers to our current state as modern beings.

Tu sais, mon vieux Jean-Pierre

Essays on the Archaeology and History of New France and Canadian Culture in Honour of Jean-Pierre Chrestien
Author: John Willis
Publisher: University of Ottawa Press
ISBN: 077662458X
Category: History
Page: 448
View: 3732

Continue Reading →

Tu sais, mon vieux Jean-Pierre is inspired by the work of archaeologist Jean-Pierre Chrestien (1949–2008), who worked hand-in-glove with a generation of researchers in helping to unearth unexpected and always interesting aspects of New France. Contributions focus first upon the door to New France in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Newfoundland and Acadia. A second set of essays move further up the St. Lawrence and into the heartland of the continent. The final section examines aspects of Canadian culture: popular art, religion and communication. The essays share a curiosity for material culture, a careful regard for detail and nuance that forms the grain of New France studies, and sensitivity to the overall context that is part and parcel of how history proceeds on the local or regional scale. Happily we can now dispense with old-fashioned and facile generalizations about the allegedly absent bourgeoisie, the purportedly deficient commercial ethic of the habitants and the so-called underlying military character of the colony and get down the business of understanding real people and their possessions in context.

A Compact History of Humankind ...

The History of the World in Big Eras
Author: Edmund Burke,David Christian,Ross E. Dunn,National Center for History in the Schools (U.S.)
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9781937237011
Category: History
Page: 170
View: 3954

Continue Reading →

This a companion reader for the website World History for Us All, a site with free online lesson plans. http://worldhistoryforusall.sdsu.edu This reader is edited for language accessible to grades 6–9 and contains Big Eras One–Seven.

Process and Meaning in Spatial Archaeology

Investigations into Pre-Columbian Iroquoian Space and Place
Author: Eric Jones,John Creese
Publisher: University Press of Colorado
ISBN: 1607325101
Category: Social Science
Page: 256
View: 9845

Continue Reading →

Process and Meaning in Spatial Archaeology examines Northern Iroquoian archaeology through various lenses at multiple spatial levels, including individual households, village constructions, relationships between villages in a local region, and relationships between various Iroquoian nations and their territorial homelands. The volume includes scholars and scholarship from both sides of the US-Canadian border, presenting a contextualized analysis of settlement and landscape for a broad range of past Northern Iroquoian societies. The research in this volume represents a new wave of spatial research—exploring beyond settlement patterning to the process and the meaning behind spatial arrangement of past communities and people—and describes new approaches being used for better understanding of past Northern Iroquoian societies. Addressing topics ranging from household task-scapes and gender relations to bioarchaeology and social network analysis, Process and Meaning in Spatial Archaeology demonstrates the vitality of current archaeological research into ancestral Northern Iroquoian societies and its growing contribution to wider debates in North American archaeology. This cutting-edge research will be of interest to archaeologists globally, as well as academics and graduate students studying Northern Iroquoian societies and cultures, geography, and spatial analysis. Contributors: Kathleen M. S. Allen, Jennifer A. Birch, William Engelbrecht, Crystal Forrest, John P. Hart, Sandra Katz, Robert H. Pihl, Aleksandra Pradzynski, Erin C. Rodriguez, Dean R. Snow, Ronald F. Williamson, Rob Wojtowicz

Origins and Revolutions

Human Identity in Earliest Prehistory
Author: Clive Gamble
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139462490
Category: Social Science
Page: N.A
View: 7653

Continue Reading →

In this study Clive Gamble presents and questions two of the most famous descriptions of change in prehistory. The first is the 'human revolution', when evidence for art, music, religion and language first appears. The second is the economic and social revolution of the Neolithic period. Gamble identifies the historical agendas behind 'origins research' and presents a bold alternative to these established frameworks, relating the study of change to the material basis of human identity. He examines, through artefact proxies, how changing identities can be understood using embodied material metaphors and in two major case-studies charts the prehistory of innovations, asking, did agriculture really change the social world? This is an important and challenging book that will be essential reading for every student and scholar of prehistory.

Observations and Predictions of Eclipse Times by Early Astronomers


Author: J.M. Steele
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401595283
Category: History
Page: 324
View: 1865

Continue Reading →

Eclipses have long been seen as important celestial phenomena, whether as omens affecting the future of kingdoms, or as useful astronomical events to help in deriving essential parameters for theories of the motion of the moon and sun. This is the first book to collect together all presently known records of timed eclipse observations and predictions from antiquity to the time of the invention of the telescope. In addition to cataloguing and assessing the accuracy of the various records, which come from regions as diverse as Ancient Mesopotamia, China, and Europe, the sources in which they are found are described in detail. Related questions such as what type of clocks were used to time the observations, how the eclipse predictions were made, and how these prediction schemes were derived from the available observations are also considered. The results of this investigation have important consequences for how we understand the relationship between observation and theory in early science and the role of astronomy in early cultures, and will be of interest to historians of science, astronomers, and ancient and medieval historians.

Entangled

An Archaeology of the Relationships Between Humans and Things
Author: Ian Hodder
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0470672110
Category: History
Page: 252
View: 4981

Continue Reading →

A powerful and innovative argument that explores the complexity of the human relationship with material things, demonstrating how humans and societies are entrapped into the maintenance and sustaining of material worlds Argues that the interrelationship of humans and things is a defining characteristic of human history and culture Offers a nuanced argument that values the physical processes of things without succumbing to materialism Discusses historical and modern examples, using evolutionary theory to show how long-standing entanglements are irreversible and increase in scale and complexity over time Integrates aspects of a diverse array of contemporary theories in archaeology and related natural and biological sciences Provides a critical review of many of the key contemporary perspectives from materiality, material culture studies and phenomenology to evolutionary theory, behavioral archaeology, cognitive archaeology, human behavioral ecology, Actor Network Theory and complexity theory

Rewriting Marpole

The Path to Cultural Complexity in the Gulf of Georgia
Author: Terence N. Clark
Publisher: University of Ottawa Press
ISBN: 0776620835
Category: History
Page: 200
View: 5467

Continue Reading →

This book examines prehistoric culture change in the Gulf of Georgia region of the Northwest Coast of North America during the Locarno Beach (3500 – 1100 BP) and Marpole (2000 – 1100 BP) periods. The Marpole culture has traditionally been seen to possess all the traits associated with complex hunter-gatherers on the Northwest Coast (hereditary inequality, multi-family housing, storage-based economies, resource ownership, wealth accumulation, etc.) while the Locarno Beach culture has not. This research examined artifact and faunal assemblages as well as data for art and mortuary architecture from a total of 164 Gulf of Georgia archaeological site components. Geographic location and ethnographic language distribution were also compared to the archaeological data. Analysis was undertaken using Integrative Distance Analysis (IDA), a new statistical methodology developed in the course of this research. Results indicated that Marpole culture was not a regional phenomenon but rather was much more spatially and temporally discrete than previously known. Artifactual assemblages identified as Marpole were restricted to the areas of the Fraser River, northern Gulf Islands and portions of Vancouver Island, an area contiguous with both Mitchell’s (1971b) “Fraser River Fishermen” economic sub-area and the ethnographic territory of the Downriver and Island Halkomelem peoples. In contrast, the geographic area of Mitchell’s (1971b) “Straits Reef-net Fishermen”, the ethnographic territory of the Straits Salish, showed no sign of Marpole culture but rather a presence of Late Locarno Beach culture. The pattern found in artifacts was replicated in the distribution of art and mortuary architecture variation suggesting the cultural differences between Marpole and Late Locarno Beach cultures was real and not a statistical anomaly. The matching distribution of prehistoric cultural variability and the ethnographic pattern of language groups indicate a long standing and stable cultural dynamic within the Gulf of Georgia.

From Kostenki to Clovis

Upper Paleolithic—Paleo-Indian Adaptations
Author: Olga Soffer,N.D. Praslov
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 148991112X
Category: Social Science
Page: 334
View: 9790

Continue Reading →

From the American Side I went to the USSR for the first time in 1982 to attend the 11th meeting of the International Union for Quaternary research (INQUA) held at the Moscow State University. At that time relations between our two countries were anything but congenial and many restrictions were placed on our viewing the archaeological and paleontological collections and labora tory facilities. This was not the ideal climate for the free exchange of ideas needed for meaningful research. However, it was obvious to us that the strained relations did not extend to scientific discussions between scholars. We left that meeting well aware that if the problems of prehistoric Old World-New World relationships were to be resolved, it would eventually require cooperative research efforts within the world community of archaeologists. At that time, the pre-Clovis problem in New World archaeology was foremost in the minds of many North American researchers: tool technology and assemblages were being studied as a possible means of establishing cultural relationships across the Bering Strait, Clovis sites and mammoth kills were being looked at with new ideas for interpretation, and New World researchers realized that to resolve these questions they had to become familiar with the archaeological record of northeast Asia. A chance meeting of the writer with Olga Soffer in 1983 led to serious discussions of the sites on the Russian or East European Plain.

The Theft of History


Author: Jack Goody
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107394708
Category: History
Page: N.A
View: 456

Continue Reading →

In The Theft of History Jack Goody builds on his own previous work to extend further his highly influential critique of what he sees as the pervasive Eurocentric or occidentalist biases of so much western historical writing and the consequent 'theft' by the West of the achievements of other cultures in the invention of (notably) democracy, capitalism, individualism and love. Goody, one of the world's most distinguished anthropologists, raises questions about theorists, historians and methodology and proposes a new comparative approach to cross-cultural analysis which allows for more scope in examining history than an East versus West style.

Tools of the Trade

Methods, Techniques and Innovative Approaches in Archaeology
Author: Kirsten Anderson,Jayne Wilkins
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Social Science
Page: 315
View: 3809

Continue Reading →

Collection of papers presented at the 37th Chacmool Conference, Nov. 10-13, 2005.

It's Been a Good Life


Author: Isaac Asimov
Publisher: Prometheus Books
ISBN: 1615921931
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Page: N.A
View: 1374

Continue Reading →

...fascinating...this readable and idiosyncratic self-portrait should attract a whole new generation of readers to Asimov's fine creative works. --Publishers WeeklyNew one-volume autobiography spans Asimov's life for the first time!As one of the most gifted and prolific writers of the twentieth century, Isaac Asimov became legendary for his inexhaustible creativity, wide-ranging intellectual curiosity, and talent for explaining complex subjects in clear, concise prose. While regaling his readers with an incredible opus of almost five hundred entertaining and illuminating science fiction and nonfiction books, he also found time to write a three-volume autobiography. Now these volumes have been condensed into one by Asimov's wife, Janet, who also shares excerpts from letters he wrote to her. Together these writings provide an intimate portrait of a creative genius whose love of learning and playing with ideas is evident on every page.Reading this autobiography is like sitting down with Isaac Asimov and experiencing his witty, engaging, and brilliant personality firsthand. We are treated to many marvelous stories about his upbringing in Depression-era Brooklyn, his early fascination with the new science fiction pulp magazines, the thrill of his first published story, the creation of his well-known story Nightfall, the genesis of the Foundation series, and the evolution of his creative life as a writer.He also reveals his inner thoughts about and experiences with various luminaries in science and science fiction. Above all, Asimov's autobiography conveys unbounded enthusiasm for his craft, the infectious joy of learning and creating, complete intellectual honesty, his strong humanist convictions, and his infinite fund of good humor and optimism even at the end of his life - all told in the lively clear writing style that was his trademark.Although Janet Jeppson Asimov concludes this work with a shocking revelation about her husband's death, the volume is clearly intended as a celebration - as the title suggests - of a wonderful, creative life. As a poignant coda to this work, Janet has appended one short story that was Isaac's favorite, and his 400th essay on this thoughts about science.Janet Jeppson Asimov, M.D. (New York, NY), a retired physician, is the author of twenty books and many short stories and articles. She currently writes a bimonthly science column for a newspaper syndicate.

Beyond the Steppe and the Sown

Proceedings of the 2002 University of Chicago Conference on Eurasian Archaeology
Author: David L. Peterson,Laura M. Popova,Adam T. Smith
Publisher: Brill Academic Publishers
ISBN: 9789004146105
Category: Art
Page: 509
View: 5737

Continue Reading →

This collection of articles presents a wide array of fresh new perspectives on the archaeology of Eurasia from the Copper Age to early Mediaeval times, in the Independent States of the former USSR, as well as Turkey, China and Mongolia.

The Mismeasure of Desire

The Science, Theory, and Ethics of Sexual Orientation
Author: David E. Stannard
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199838981
Category: Psychology
Page: 416
View: 7735

Continue Reading →

For four hundred years--from the first Spanish assaults against the Arawak people of Hispaniola in the 1490s to the U.S. Army's massacre of Sioux Indians at Wounded Knee in the 1890s--the indigenous inhabitants of North and South America endured an unending firestorm of violence. During that time the native population of the Western Hemisphere declined by as many as 100 million people. Indeed, as historian David E. Stannard argues in this stunning new book, the European and white American destruction of the native peoples of the Americas was the most massive act of genocide in the history of the world. Stannard begins with a portrait of the enormous richness and diversity of life in the Americas prior to Columbus's fateful voyage in 1492. He then follows the path of genocide from the Indies to Mexico and Central and South America, then north to Florida, Virginia, and New England, and finally out across the Great Plains and Southwest to California and the North Pacific Coast. Stannard reveals that wherever Europeans or white Americans went, the native people were caught between imported plagues and barbarous atrocities, typically resulting in the annihilation of 95 percent of their populations. What kind of people, he asks, do such horrendous things to others? His highly provocative answer: Christians. Digging deeply into ancient European and Christian attitudes toward sex, race, and war, he finds the cultural ground well prepared by the end of the Middle Ages for the centuries-long genocide campaign that Europeans and their descendants launched--and in places continue to wage--against the New World's original inhabitants. Advancing a thesis that is sure to create much controversy, Stannard contends that the perpetrators of the American Holocaust drew on the same ideological wellspring as did the later architects of the Nazi Holocaust. It is an ideology that remains dangerously alive today, he adds, and one that in recent years has surfaced in American justifications for large-scale military intervention in Southeast Asia and the Middle East. At once sweeping in scope and meticulously detailed, American Holocaust is a work of impassioned scholarship that is certain to ignite intense historical and moral debate.