Conjectures and Refutations

The Growth of Scientific Knowledge
Author: Karl Popper
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135971307
Category: Philosophy
Page: 608
View: 6786

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Conjectures and Refutations is one of Karl Popper's most wide-ranging and popular works, notable not only for its acute insight into the way scientific knowledge grows, but also for applying those insights to politics and to history. It provides one of the clearest and most accessible statements of the fundamental idea that guided his work: not only our knowledge, but our aims and our standards, grow through an unending process of trial and error.

Vermutungen und Widerlegungen

das Wachstum der wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnis
Author: Karl R. Popper
Publisher: Mohr Siebeck
ISBN: 9783161473111
Category:
Page: 627
View: 8161

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Die Bände I und II der Vermutungen und Widerlegungen liegen nun in einer preiswerten einbändigen Studienausgabe vor. Die beiden Teilbände in den bisherigen Ausgaben sind weiterhin lieferbar."In Vorträgen, also in lockerer Form, führt Popper seine wichtigsten Gedanken vor: daß die Wissenschaft durch kühne Hypothesen vorangetrieben wird; daß sich Theorien nicht bestätigen, sondern nur falsifizieren lassen; daß die Menschen die Chance haben, aus Fehlern zu lernen, und diese Chance nutzen sollten. Popper glaubt ..., daß ein Wachstum der Erkenntnis möglich ist."K.A. in Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung vom 25.11.1994, S. 39"Nach mehr als dreißig Jahren Abstand erscheinen so viele Passagen noch immer treffend und aktuell. Seine Kritik am neopositivistisch gefaßten Induktionsprinzip oder der Wissenschaft des Wiener Kreises insgesamt ... wird hier noch einmal aufgegriffen und ausführlicher entwickelt. ... Zahlreiche hier zusammengetragene Vorträge und Aufsätze beschäftigen sich scheinbar mit nur philosophiehistorisch interessanten Fragen. Doch immer versucht Popper die dahinterstehenden sachlichen Probleme zu fassen, die zu dieser jeweiligen philosophischen Theorie geführt haben."Philosophischer Literaturanzeiger 1998, S. 84

Vermutungen und Widerlegungen

das Wachstum der wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnis
Author: Karl R. Popper
Publisher: Mohr Siebeck
ISBN: 9783161501975
Category: Philosophy
Page: 694
View: 1866

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English summary: This is the 2nd authorized, revised and expanded German edition of Karl Popper's famous collection of essays. German description: In diesen Aufsatzen und Vortragen veranschaulicht Karl Popper, dass wir unser Wissen nur erweitern konnen, wenn wir Fehler machen und daraus lernen. Die zweite Auflage ist revidiert und enthalt zusatzlich ein Nachwort und eine Konkordanz.Ich halte diese Aufsatzsammlung fur eine der einflussreichsten philosophischen Veroffentlichungen des letzten Jahrhunderts, die zu konsultieren ich jedem nahelegen kann, der an einer Philosophie interessiert ist, die ihren Gegenstand den Problemen entnimmt, die unserem Versuch entgegenstehen, die Welt theoretisch fundiert zu erklaren. Insofern sind die 'Vermutungen und Widerlegungen' ein Buch uber die Bedeutsamkeit von Theorien und die Moglichkeit, mit ihrer Hilfe und trotz unseres begrenzten, falliblen Erkenntnisvermogens eine realistische Weltsicht zu gewinnen und zu verteidigen und damit den Fallstricken des Skeptizismus ebenso zu entgehen wie denen des Relativismus.Michael Schmid in Soziologische Revue 24 (2001), S. 408-416Nach mehr als dreissig Jahren Abstand erscheinen so viele Passagen noch immer treffend und aktuell. Seine Kritik am neopositivistisch gefassten Induktionsprinzip oder der Wissenschaft des Wiener Kreises insgesamt [...] wird hier noch einmal aufgegriffen und ausfuhrlicher entwickelt. [...] Zahlreiche hier zusammengetragene Vortrage und Aufsatze beschaftigen sich scheinbar mit nur philosophiehistorisch interessanten Fragen. Doch immer versucht Popper die dahinterstehenden sachlichen Probleme zu fassen, die zu dieser jeweiligen philosophischen Theorie gefuhrt haben. Philosophischer Literaturanzeiger 1998, S. 84

Fault Lines and Controversies in the Study of Seventeenth-century English Literature


Author: Claude J. Summers,Ted-Larry Pebworth
Publisher: University of Missouri Press
ISBN: 9780826264084
Category: History
Page: 236
View: 2212

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Written by various experts in the field, this volume of thirteen original essays explores some of the most significant theoretical and practical fault lines and controversies in seventeenth-century English literature. The turn into the twenty-first century is an appropriate time to take stock of the state of the field, and, as part of that stocktaking, the need arises to assess both where literary study of the early modern period has been and where it might desirably go. Hence, many of the essays in this collection look both backward and forward. They chart the changes in the field over the past half century, while also looking forward to more change in the future.

Basic Principles and Practical Applications in Epidemiological Research


Author: Jung-Der Wang
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9789810249250
Category: Medical
Page: 367
View: 1433

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Based on the concept of ?conjecture and refutation? from the Popperian philosophy of science, i.e. looking for alternative causes, this book simplifies the design and inferences of human observational studies into two types: descriptive and causal. It clarifies how and why causal inference should be considered from the search for alternative explanations or causes, and descriptive inference from the sample at hand to the source population. Furthermore, it links the health policy and epidemiological concept with decisional questions, for which the basic measurement can be quality-adjusted survival time or quality-adjusted life year.

Appraising Lakatos

Mathematics, Methodology, and the Man
Author: György Kampis,L. Kvasz,Michael Stöltzner
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401707693
Category: Science
Page: 382
View: 1158

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Imre Lakatos (1922-1974) was one of the protagonists in shaping the "new philosophy of science". More than 25 years after his untimely death, it is time for a critical re-evaluation of his ideas. His main theme of locating rationality within the scientific process appears even more compelling today, after many historical case studies have revealed the cultural and societal elements within scientific practices. Recently there has been, above all, an increasing interest in Lakatos' philosophy of mathematics, which emphasises heuristics and mathematical practice over logical justification. But suitable modifications of his approach are called for in order to make it applicable to modern axiomatised theories. Pioneering historical research in England and Hungary has unearthed hitherto unknown facts about Lakatos' personal life, his wartime activities and his involvement in the political developments of post-war Europe. From a communist activist committed to Györgyi Lukács' thinking, Lakatos developed into a staunch anti-Marxist who found his intellectual background in Popper's critical rationalism. The volume also publishes for the first time a part of his Debrecen Ph.D. thesis and it is concluded by a bibliography of his Hungarian writings.

Rational Changes in Science

Essays on Scientific Reasoning
Author: Joseph C. Pitt,Marcello Pera
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400937792
Category: Science
Page: 248
View: 4595

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THE PROBLEMS OF SCIENTIFIC RATIONALITY Fashion is a fickle mistress. Only yesterday scientific rationality enjoyed considerable attention, consideration, and even reverence among phi losophers; "but today's fashion leads us to despise it, and the matron, rejected and abandoned as Hecuba, complains; modo maxima rerum, tot generis natisque potens - nunc trahor exui, inops", to cite Kant for our purpose, who cited Ovid for his. Like every fashion, ours also has its paradoxical aspects, as John Watkins correctly reminds in an essay in this volume. Enthusiasm for science was high among philosophers when significant scientific results were mostly a promise, it declined when that promise became an undeniable reality. Nevertheless, as with the decline of any fashion, even the revolt against scientific rationality has some reasonable grounds. If the taste of the philosophical community has changed so much, it is not due to an incident or a whim. This volume is not about the history of and reasons for this change. Instead, it provides a view of the new emerging image of scientific rationality in both its philosophical and historical aspects. In particular, the aim of the contributions gathered here is to focus on the concept around which the discussions about rationality have mostly taken place: scientific change.

Econometrics and the Philosophy of Economics

Theory-data Confrontations in Economics
Author: Bernt P. Stigum
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9780691113005
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 768
View: 2653

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This work shows that an econometrician with the proper understanding of economic theory and the right kind of questions can gain knowledge about characteristic features of the social world. It addresses varied topics in both classical and Bayesian econometrics.

For and Against Method

Including Lakatos's Lectures on Scientific Method and the Lakatos-Feyerabend Correspondence
Author: Imre Lakatos,Paul Feyerabend
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226467740
Category: Science
Page: 451
View: 3356

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The text opens with an imaginary dialogue between Lakatos and Feyerabend, which Matteo Motterlini has constructed, based on their published works, to synthesize their positions and arguments. Part one presents the transcripts of the last lectures on method that Lakatos delivered. Part two, Feyerabend's response, consists of a previously published essay on anarchism, which began the attack on Lakatos's position that Feyerabend later continued in "Against Method." The third and longest section consists of the correspondence Lakatos and Feyerabend exchanged on method and many other issues and ideas, as well as the events of their daily lives, between 1968 and Lakatos's death in 1974.

Philosophy and the Sciences of Exercise, Health and Sport

Critical Perspectives on Research Methods
Author: Mike McNamee
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134421443
Category: Medical
Page: 256
View: 7642

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Philosophy and the Sciences of Exercise, Health and Sport is a unique interdisciplinary study that calls on researchers in these disciplines to reflect more critically on the nature and aims of scientific enquiry. In doing so, the book questions the underlying assumptions and development of science itself. Written by a range of internationally respected philosophers, scientists and social scientists, each chapter addresses a key issue in research methodology. Questions asked by the authors include: Do natural and social scientists need to understand the philosophy of science? Are statistics misused in sport and exercise science research? Is sport science research gender-biased? How do external and commercial interests skew professional guidelines in health and sport reserach? Should scientists focus their attention on confirmation of theories, or on attempts to falsify them? Philosophy and the Sciences of Exercise, Health and Sport serves notice to exercise, health and sport researchers to think more philosophically about their subject and its scientific bases. It is essential reading for postgraduate researchers seeking to establish a sound theoretical foundation for their work.

Hermeneutic Philosophy of Science, Van Gogh’s Eyes, and God

Essays in Honor of Patrick A. Heelan, S.J.
Author: B.E. Babich
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401717672
Category: Science
Page: 500
View: 4496

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This richly textured book bridges analytic and hermeneutic and phenomenological philosophy of science. It features unique resources for students of the philosophy and history of quantum mechanics and the Copenhagen Interpretation, cognitive theory and the psychology of perception, the history and philosophy of art, and the pragmatic and historical relationships between religion and science.