Computer

A History of the Information Machine
Author: Martin Campbell-Kelly
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 0429975007
Category: History
Page: 378
View: 2554

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Computer: A History of the Information Machine traces the history of the computer and shows how business and government were the first to explore its unlimited, information-processing potential. Old-fashioned entrepreneurship combined with scientific know-how inspired now famous computer engineers to create the technology that became IBM. Wartime needs drove the giant ENIAC, the first fully electronic computer. Later, the PC enabled modes of computing that liberated people from room-sized, mainframe computers.This third edition provides updated analysis on software and computer networking, including new material on the programming profession, social networking, and mobile computing. It expands its focus on the IT industry with fresh discussion on the rise of Google and Facebook as well as how powerful applications are changing the way we work, consume, learn, and socialize. Computer is an insightful look at the pace of technological advancement and the seamless way computers are integrated into the modern world. Through comprehensive history and accessible writing, Computer is perfect for courses on computer history, technology history, and information and society, as well as a range of courses in the fields of computer science, communications, sociology, and management.

Computer, Student Economy Edition

A History of the Information Machine
Author: Martin Campbell-Kelly
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 0429973640
Category: Social Science
Page: 378
View: 7135

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An exploration of the computer, tracing not only the development of the machine itself, but also chronicling the effects of manufacturing and sales innovations by companies that made the boom possible.

Computer, Student Economy Edition

A History of the Information Machine
Author: Martin Campbell-Kelly
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 0429962568
Category: Social Science
Page: 378
View: 8568

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An exploration of the computer, tracing not only the development of the machine itself, but also chronicling the effects of manufacturing and sales innovations by companies that made the boom possible.

A History of Modern Computing


Author: Paul E. Ceruzzi,Curator of Aerospace Electronics and Computing Paul E Ceruzzi
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262532037
Category: Computers
Page: 445
View: 1011

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Ceruzzi pens a history of computing from the development of the first electronic digital computer to the Web and dot-com crash.

Beyond Engineering

How Society Shapes Technology
Author: Robert Pool
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190283076
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 368
View: 588

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We have long recognized technology as a driving force behind much historical and cultural change. The invention of the printing press initiated the Reformation. The development of the compass ushered in the Age of Exploration and the discovery of the New World. The cotton gin created the conditions that led to the Civil War. Now, in Beyond Engineering, science writer Robert Pool turns the question around to examine how society shapes technology. Drawing on such disparate fields as history, economics, risk analysis, management science, sociology, and psychology, Pool illuminates the complex, often fascinating interplay between machines and society, in a book that will revolutionize how we think about technology. We tend to think that reason guides technological development, that engineering expertise alone determines the final form an invention takes. But if you look closely enough at the history of any invention, says Pool, you will find that factors unrelated to engineering seem to have an almost equal impact. In his wide-ranging volume, he traces developments in nuclear energy, automobiles, light bulbs, commercial electricity, and personal computers, to reveal that the ultimate shape of a technology often has as much to do with outside and unforeseen forces. For instance, Pool explores the reasons why steam-powered cars lost out to internal combustion engines. He shows that the Stanley Steamer was in many ways superior to the Model T--it set a land speed record in 1906 of more than 127 miles per hour, it had no transmission (and no transmission headaches), and it was simpler (one Stanley engine had only twenty-two moving parts) and quieter than a gas engine--but the steamers were killed off by factors that had little or nothing to do with their engineering merits, including the Stanley twins' lack of business acumen and an outbreak of hoof-and-mouth disease. Pool illuminates other aspects of technology as well. He traces how seemingly minor decisions made early along the path of development can have profound consequences further down the road, and perhaps most important, he argues that with the increasing complexity of our technological advances--from nuclear reactors to genetic engineering--the number of things that can go wrong multiplies, making it increasingly difficult to engineer risk out of the equation. Citing such catastrophes as Bhopal, Three Mile Island, the Exxon Valdez, the Challenger, and Chernobyl, he argues that is it time to rethink our approach to technology. The days are gone when machines were solely a product of larger-than-life inventors and hard-working engineers. Increasingly, technology will be a joint effort, with its design shaped not only by engineers and executives but also psychologists, political scientists, management theorists, risk specialists, regulators and courts, and the general public. Whether discussing bovine growth hormone, molten-salt reactors, or baboon-to-human transplants, Beyond Engineering is an engaging look at modern technology and an illuminating account of how technology and the modern world shape each other.

The Computer Industry


Author: Jeffrey R. Yost
Publisher: Penn State Press
ISBN: 9780313328442
Category: Computers
Page: 264
View: 751

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Traces the emergence and development of the computer industry in the United States as seen in the economic, historical, and social context of its times from the early twentieth century to the present.

Engines of the Mind

The Evolution of the Computer from Mainframes to Microprocessors
Author: Joel N. Shurkin
Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company
ISBN: 9780393314717
Category: Computers
Page: 363
View: 1042

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Traces the history of the computer from its beginnings in the nineteenth century to the present and describes the development of the computer industry

Dream Reaper

The Story of an Old-Fashioned Inventor in the High-Tech, High-Stakes World of Modern Agriculture
Author: Craig Canine
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226092652
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 300
View: 8403

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Dream Reaper follows Mark Underwood, farmer and inventor, and his salesman cousin as they strive to perfect and market Mark's breakthrough invention, the Bi-Rotor combine. "This intriguing tale weaves together the creativity and ingenuity of an inventor and the hurdles he and his partner face in selling and producing what appears to be an amazingly efficient Bi-Rotor combine."—Science News "Canine writes with style and flourish. . . Dream Reaper is a riveting journey into America's heartland, where necessity is the mother of invention—and hard work, conviction, and sacrifice are its lifeblood."—People Magazine "Canine deftly interweaves the story of the two men's struggles with a history of the mechanization of agriculture. This lively account of men working under pressure, improvising repairs and demonstrating the new machine, is also a story of courage that illustrates the barriers facing an independent inventor."—Publishers Weekly "Craig Canine's Dream Reaper is a delight. It's an important book, rich with history and stories. It brings our most essential industry—farming—into new perspective. Reading it made me want to get out a crop."—Bobbie Ann Mason A volume in the Sloan Technology Series. The series presents to a general audience highly readable accounts of the development of 20th century technologies and the ways these have shaped and are shaped by society.

Fumbling the Future

How Xerox Invented, then Ignored, the First Personal Computer
Author: Douglas K. Smith
Publisher: iUniverse
ISBN: 1475916604
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 276
View: 2879

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Ask consumers and users what names they associate with the multibillion dollar personal computer market, and they will answer IBM, Apple, Tandy, or Lotus. The more knowledgable of them will add the likes of Microsoft, Ashton-Tate, Compaq, and Borland. But no one will say Xerox. Fifteen years after it invented personal computing, Xerox still means "copy." Fumbling the Future tells how one of America's leading corporations invented the technology for one of the fastest-growing products of recent times, then miscalculated and mishandled the opportunity to fully exploit it. It is a classic story of how innovation can fare within large corporate structures, the real-life odyssey of what can happen to an idea as it travels from inspiration to implementation. More than anything, Fumbling the Future is a tale of human beings whose talents, hopes, fears, habits, and prejudices determine the fate of our largest organizations and of our best ideas. In an era in which technological creativity and economic change are so critical to the competitiveness of the American economy, Fumbling the Future is a parable for our times.

Minding the Machines

Preventing Technological Disasters
Author: William M. Evan,Mark Manion
Publisher: Prentice Hall Professional
ISBN: 9780130656469
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 485
View: 1888

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A provocative and authoritative guide to understanding the questions surrounding technology disasters that occur, with a blueprint for the prevention of future disasters, this book looks at over three dozen case studies and the lessons learned from them.

Superminds

The Surprising Power of People and Computers Thinking Together
Author: Thomas W. Malone
Publisher: Little, Brown
ISBN: 0316349100
Category: Psychology
Page: 384
View: 6536

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From the founding director of the MIT Center for Collective Intelligence comes a fascinating look at the remarkable capacity for intelligence exhibited by groups of people and computers working together. If you're like most people, you probably believe that humans are the most intelligent animals on our planet. But there's another kind of entity that can be far smarter: groups of people. In this groundbreaking book, Thomas Malone, the founding director of the MIT Center for Collective Intelligence, shows how groups of people working together in superminds -- like hierarchies, markets, democracies, and communities -- have been responsible for almost all human achievements in business, government, science, and beyond. And these collectively intelligent human groups are about to get much smarter. Using dozens of striking examples and case studies, Malone shows how computers can help create more intelligent superminds simply by connecting humans to one another in a variety of rich, new ways. And although it will probably happen more gradually than many people expect, artificially intelligent computers will amplify the power of these superminds by doing increasingly complex kinds of thinking. Together, these changes will have far-reaching implications for everything from the way we buy groceries and plan business strategies to how we respond to climate change, and even for democracy itself. By understanding how these collectively intelligent groups work, we can learn how to harness their genius to achieve our human goals. Drawing on cutting-edge science and insights from a remarkable range of disciplines, Superminds articulates a bold -- and utterly fascinating -- picture of the future that will change the ways you work and live, both with other people and with computers.

Wired for Thought

How the Brain Is Shaping the Future of the Internet
Author: Jeffrey M. Stibel
Publisher: Harvard Business Press
ISBN: 1422152766
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 256
View: 822

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In this age of hypercompetition, the Internet constitutes a powerful tool for inventing radical new business models that will leave your rivals scrambling. But as brain scientist and entrepreneur Jeffrey Stibel explains in Wired for Thought, you have to understand its true nature. The Internet is more than just a series of interconnected computer networks: it's the first real replication of the human brain outside the human body. To leverage its power, you first need to understand how the Internet has evolved to take on similarities to the brain. This engaging and provocative book provides the answer. Stibel lays out: - How networks have changed and what that implies for how people connect and form communities - What the Internet-and online business opportunities-will look like in the future - What the next stage of artificial intelligence will be and what opportunities it will present for businesses Stibel shows how exceptional companies are using their understanding of the Internet's brainlike powers to create competitive advantage-such as building more effective Web sites, predicting consumer behavior, leveraging social media, and creating a collective consciousness.

The Second Machine Age

Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies
Author: Erik Brynjolfsson,Andrew McAfee
Publisher: W W Norton & Company Incorporated
ISBN: 9780393350647
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 306
View: 370

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A pair of technology experts describe how humans will have to keep pace with machines in order to become prosperous in the future and identify strategies and policies for business and individuals to use to combine digital processing power with human ingenuity.

Inventing the Organizations of the 21st Century


Author: Thomas W. Malone,Robert Laubacher,Sloan School of Management
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262632737
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 433
View: 5728

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How to invent the future of business organization.

Open Standards and the Digital Age


Author: Andrew L. Russell
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107039193
Category: History
Page: 326
View: 2542

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This book answers how openness became the defining principle of the information age, examining the history of information networks.

Unscaled

How AI and a New Generation of Upstarts Are Creating the Economy of the Future
Author: Hemant Taneja
Publisher: PublicAffairs
ISBN: 1610398130
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 240
View: 7182

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Unscaled identifies the forces that are reshaping the global economy and turning one of the fundamental laws of business and society--the economies of scale--on its head. An innovative trend combining technology with economics is unraveling behemoth industries--including corporations, banks, farms, media conglomerates, energy systems, governments, and schools-that have long dominated business and society. Size and scale have become a liability. A new generation of upstarts is using artificial intelligence to automate tasks that once required expensive investment, and "renting" technology platforms to build businesses for hyper-focused markets, enabling them to grow big without the bloat of giant organizations. In Unscaled, venture capitalist Hemant Taneja explains how the unscaled phenomenon allowed Warby Parker to cheaply and easily start a small company, build a better product, and become a global competitor in no time, upending entrenched eyewear giant Luxottica. It similarly enabled Stripe to take on established payment processors throughout the world, and Livongo to help diabetics control their disease while simultaneously cutting the cost of treatment. The unscaled economy is remaking massive, deeply rooted industries and opening up fantastic possibilities for entrepreneurs, imaginative companies, and resourceful individuals. It can be the model for solving some of the world's greatest problems, including climate change and soaring health-care costs, but will also unleash new challenges that today's leaders must address.

Algorithms to Live By

The Computer Science of Human Decisions
Author: Brian Christian,Tom Griffiths
Publisher: Macmillan
ISBN: 1627790365
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 368
View: 1231

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A fascinating exploration of how insights from computer algorithms can be applied to our everyday lives, helping to solve common decision-making problems and illuminate the workings of the human mind All our lives are constrained by limited space and time, limits that give rise to a particular set of problems. What should we do, or leave undone, in a day or a lifetime? How much messiness should we accept? What balance of new activities and familiar favorites is the most fulfilling? These may seem like uniquely human quandaries, but they are not: computers, too, face the same constraints, so computer scientists have been grappling with their version of such issues for decades. And the solutions they've found have much to teach us. In a dazzlingly interdisciplinary work, acclaimed author Brian Christian and cognitive scientist Tom Griffiths show how the algorithms used by computers can also untangle very human questions. They explain how to have better hunches and when to leave things to chance, how to deal with overwhelming choices and how best to connect with others. From finding a spouse to finding a parking spot, from organizing one's inbox to understanding the workings of memory, Algorithms to Live By transforms the wisdom of computer science into strategies for human living.

Race Against the Machine

How the Digital Revolution is Accelerating Innovation, Driving Productivity, and Irreversibly Transforming Employment and the Economy
Author: Erik Brynjolfsson,Andrew McAfee
Publisher: Brynjolfsson and McAfee
ISBN: 0984725113
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 92
View: 1627

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Examines how information technologies are affecting jobs, skills, wages, and the economy.