Characterization of Polymer Blends

Miscibility, Morphology and Interfaces
Author: Sabu Thomas,Yves Grohens,P. Jyotishkumar
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527331530
Category: Science
Page: 976
View: 7382

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Filling the gap for a reference dedicated to the characterization of polymer blends and their micro and nano morphologies, this book provides comprehensive, systematic coverage in a one-stop, two-volume resource for all those working in the field. Leading researchers from industry and academia, as well as from government and private research institutions around the world summarize recent technical advances in chapters devoted to their individual contributions. In so doing, they examine a wide range of modern characterization techniques, from microscopy and spectroscopy to diffraction, thermal analysis, rheology, mechanical measurements and chromatography. These methods are compared with each other to assist in determining the best solution for both fundamental and applied problems, paying attention to the characterization of nanoscale miscibility and interfaces, both in blends involving copolymers and in immiscible blends. The thermodynamics, miscibility, phase separation, morphology and interfaces in polymer blends are also discussed in light of new insights involving the nanoscopic scale. Finally, the authors detail the processing-morphology-property relationships of polymer blends, as well as the influence of processing on the generation of micro and nano morphologies, and the dependence of these morphologies on the properties of blends. Hot topics such as compatibilization through nanoparticles, miscibility of new biopolymers and nanoscale investigations of interfaces in blends are also addressed. With its application-oriented approach, handpicked selection of topics and expert contributors, this is an outstanding survey for anyone involved in the field of polymer blends for advanced technologies.

Characterization of Polymer Blends

Miscibility, Morphology and Interfaces
Author: Sabu Thomas,Yves Grohens,P. Jyotishkumar
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527645616
Category: Science
Page: 994
View: 8735

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Filling the gap for a reference dedicated to the characterization of polymer blends and their micro and nano morphologies, this book provides comprehensive, systematic coverage in a one-stop, two-volume resource for all those working in the field. Leading researchers from industry and academia, as well as from government and private research institutions around the world summarize recent technical advances in chapters devoted to their individual contributions. In so doing, they examine a wide range of modern characterization techniques, from microscopy and spectroscopy to diffraction, thermal analysis, rheology, mechanical measurements and chromatography. These methods are compared with each other to assist in determining the best solution for both fundamental and applied problems, paying attention to the characterization of nanoscale miscibility and interfaces, both in blends involving copolymers and in immiscible blends. The thermodynamics, miscibility, phase separation, morphology and interfaces in polymer blends are also discussed in light of new insights involving the nanoscopic scale. Finally, the authors detail the processing-morphology-property relationships of polymer blends, as well as the influence of processing on the generation of micro and nano morphologies, and the dependence of these morphologies on the properties of blends. Hot topics such as compatibilization through nanoparticles, miscibility of new biopolymers and nanoscale investigations of interfaces in blends are also addressed. With its application-oriented approach, handpicked selection of topics and expert contributors, this is an outstanding survey for anyone involved in the field of polymer blends for advanced technologies.

Polymer Characterization Techniques and Their Application to Blends


Author: George P. Simon
Publisher: Amer Chemical Society
ISBN: N.A
Category: Foreign Language Study
Page: 516
View: 6311

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This book aims to introduce the reader to a wide range of polymer characterization techniques including thermal, rheology, mechanical, relaxational, scattering, and spectroscopic analysis. In addition to discussing the techniques and their experimental considerations in general, the chapters will show how the techniques are applied to polymer systems and how the data obtained is analyzed and interpreted. In order to connect each technique to applications, each chapter explains the use of the technique in the popular application of polymer blends. The blending of polymers continues to be a major area of polymer research in academia and industry, and in addition to its instructive role, each chapter serves as a review of the blend literature as relevant to a polymer blends researcher.

High Temperature Polymer Blends


Author: Mark T. DeMeuse
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0857099019
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 232
View: 2530

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Polymer blends offer properties not easily obtained through the use of a single polymer, including the ability to withstand high temperatures. High Temperature Polymer Blends outlines the characteristics, developments, and use of high temperature polymer blends. The first chapter introduces high temperature polymer blends, their general principles, and thermodynamics. Further chapters go on to deal with the characterization of high temperature polymer blends for specific uses, such as fuel cells and aerospace applications. The book discusses different types of high temperature polymer blends, including liquid crystal polymers, polysulfones, and polybenzimidazole polymer blends and their commercial applications. High Temperature Polymer Blends provides a key reference for material scientists, polymer scientists, chemists, and plastic engineers, as well as academics in these fields. Reviews characterization methods and analysis of the thermodynamic properties of high temperature polymer blends Reviews the use of materials such as liquid crystals as reinforcements as well as applications in such areas as energy and aerospace engineering

Recent Developments in Polymer Macro, Micro and Nano Blends

Preparation and Characterisation
Author: P. M. Visakh,Gordana Markovic,Daniel Pasquini
Publisher: Woodhead Publishing
ISBN: 0081004273
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 342
View: 2502

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Recent Developments in Polymer Macro, Micro and Nano Blends: Preparation and Characterisation discusses the various types of techniques that are currently used for the characterization of polymer-based macro, micro, and nano blends. It summarizes recent technical research accomplishments, emphasizing a broad range of characterization methods. In addition, the book discusses preparation methods and applications for various types of polymer-based macro, micro, and nano blends. Chapters include thermoplastic-based polymer & nano blends, applications of rubber based and thermoplastic blends, micro/nanostructures polymer blends containing block copolymers, advances in polymer-inorganic hybrids as membrane materials, synthesis of polymer/inorganic hybrids through heterophase polymerizations, nanoporous polymer foams from nanostructured polymer blends, and natural polymeric biodegradable nano blends for protein delivery. Describes the techniques pertaining to a kind (or small number) of blends, showing specific examples of their applications Covers micro, macro, and nano polymer blends Contains contributions from leading experts in the field

Recycling of Polymers

Methods, Characterization and Applications
Author: Raju Francis
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527338489
Category: Science
Page: 288
View: 4714

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This timely reference on the topic is the only book you need for a complete overview of recyclable polymers. Following an introduction to various polymer structures and their resulting properties, the main part of the book deals with different methods of recycling. It discusses in detail the recycling of such common polymers as polyethylene, polypropylene and PET, as well as rubbers, fibers, engineering polymers, polymer blends and composites. The whole is rounded off with a look at future technologies and the toxicological impact of recycled polymers. An indispensable reference source for those working in the field, whether in academia or industry, and whether newcomers or advanced readers.

Handbook of Polymer Synthesis, Characterization, and Processing


Author: Enrique Saldivar-Guerra,Eduardo Vivaldo-Lima
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118480775
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 644
View: 3617

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Covering a broad range of polymer science topics, Handbook of Polymer Synthesis, Characterization, and Processing provides polymer industry professionals and researchers in polymer science and technology with a single, comprehensive handbook summarizing all aspects involved in the polymer production chain. The handbook focuses on industrially important polymers, analytical techniques, and formulation methods, with chapters covering step-growth, radical, and co-polymerization, crosslinking and grafting, reaction engineering, advanced technology applications, including conjugated, dendritic, and nanomaterial polymers and emulsions, and characterization methods, including spectroscopy, light scattering, and microscopy.

Polymer Blends and Alloys


Author: Gabriel O. Shonaike,George P. Simon
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780824719807
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 768
View: 7445

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Distinguishing among blends, alloys and other types of combinations, clarifying terminology and presenting data on new processes and materials, this work present up-to-date and effective compounding techniques for polymers. It offers extensive analyses on the challenging questions that surround miscibility, compatibility, dynamic processing, interaction/phase behaviour, and computer simulations for predicting behaviours of polymer mixture and interaction.

Polymer Morphology

Principles, Characterization, and Processing
Author: Qipeng Guo
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118452151
Category: Science
Page: 464
View: 8950

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With a focus on structure-property relationships, this book describes how polymer morphology affects properties and how scientists can modify them. The book covers structure development, theory, simulation, and processing; and discusses a broad range of techniques and methods. • Provides an up-to-date, comprehensive introduction to the principles and practices of polymer morphology • Illustrates major structure types, such as semicrystalline morphology, surface-induced polymer crystallization, phase separation, self-assembly, deformation, and surface topography • Covers a variety of polymers, such as homopolymers, block copolymers, polymer thin films, polymer blends, and polymer nanocomposites • Discusses a broad range of advanced and novel techniques and methods, like x-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, and electron microscopy and their applications in the morphology of polymer materials

Specific Interactions and the Miscibility of Polymer Blends


Author: Michael M. Coleman,Paul C. Painter,John F. Graf
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780877628231
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 516
View: 6569

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This book with software provides powerful tools for the analysis, prediction and creation of new polymer blends, an area of significant commercial potential. The R&D approaches and methods described in the book have attracted the interest of polymer R&D leaders in industry, and have been put into use in several major chemical companies. The companion set of computer programs speeds and facilitates work in this area. FROM THE AUTHORS' PREFACE: During the 1980's a steadily increasing number of compatible systems [polymer blends] have been reported. We believe that miscible mixtures will prove to be fairly common and the purpose of this book is to explore the circumstances in which single phase materials can be obtained. We will also describe a model for the phase behavior of these mixtures which we believe to have a predictive value, or be used as a practical guide to polymer miscibility. Our approach is based on the use of association models which have until recently been largely ignored in treating hydrogen bonding in polymer mixtures. They have most frequently been applied to mixtures of alcohols with simple hydrocarbons, where the equilibrium constants used to describe association have most frequently been determined by a fit to thermodynamic data (e.g., vapor pressures, heat of mixing). In our work we have sought to, first, adapt this approach to a description of the phase behavior of polymer mixtures; second, develop spectroscopic methods that provide an independent measurement of the equilibrium constants. Our purpose in this book is to explore and describe this approach and illustrate its broad utility. We address two overlapping yet different audiences. One would be primarily interested in the broad nature of this approach and the practical applications of a simple model. The second would be more interested in the derivations of the equations and some of the fundamental aspects of the spectroscopy of these systems. Accordingly this book is in the form of a sandwich. We begin with a brief introduction to theories of mixing and the phase behavior of polymeric mixtures, followed by a practical guide to polymer miscibility. This chapter also serves to identify the types of systems in which, by copolymerization or other means, one might introduce the appropriate hydrogen bonding functional groups and obtain a miscible system. The [main substance] of this book is in [the] chapters where fundamental aspects of hydrogen bonds, spectroscopy and the application of association models are described. We also offer [separately] computer programs that calculate and display many of the important quantities described in this book (e.g., the stoichiometry of hydrogen bonding and its relationship to infrared measurements, phase behavior, etc.). In our view one can obtain a good feel for the miscibility of many systems with these programs.

Crystallization in Multiphase Polymer Systems


Author: Sabu Thomas,Mohammed Arif P.,E. Bhoje Gowd,Nandakumar Kalarikkal
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0128094311
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 610
View: 4745

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Crystallization in Multiphase Polymer Systems is the first book that explains in depth the crystallization behavior of multiphase polymer systems. Polymeric structures are more complex in nature than other material structures due to their significant structural disorder. Most of the polymers used today are semicrystalline, and the subject of crystallization is still one of the major issues relating to the performance of semicrystalline polymers in the modern polymer industry. The study of the crystallization processes, crystalline morphologies and other phase transitions is of great significance for the understanding the structure-property relationships of these systems. Crystallization in block copolymers, miscible blends, immiscible blends, and polymer composites and nanocomposites is thoroughly discussed and represents the core coverage of this book. The book critically analyzes the kinetics of nucleation and growth process of the crystalline phases in multi-component polymer systems in different length scales, from macro to nanoscale. Various experimental techniques used for the characterization of polymer crystallization process are discussed. Written by experts in the field of polymer crystallization, this book is a unique source and enables professionals and students to understand crystallization behavior in multiphase polymer systems such as block copolymers, polymer blends, composites and nanocomposites. Covers crystallization of multiphase polymer systems, including copolymers, blends and nanocomposites Features comprehensive, detailed information about the basic research, practical applications and new developments for these polymeric materials Analyzes the kinetics of nucleation and growth process of the crystalline phases in multi-component polymer systems in different length scales, from macro to nanoscale

Polymer Structure Characterization

From Nano to Macro Organization in Small Molecules and Polymers
Author: Richard A Pethrick
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISBN: 1782625593
Category: Science
Page: N.A
View: 2805

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The different physical properties displayed by low molar mass organic materials and polymers are a result of their molecular organisation. In order to understand the structure – property relationship of a material it is necessary to first look at the interactions at a molecular level. This new edition of Polymer Structure Characterization provides readers with the background needed to understand the factors that influence molecular organization and how this affects the morphology and bulk physical properties of a material. In order to introduce the concepts, the book first looks at small molecular systems and builds up to complex macromolecular systems. The second edition has been fully revised and updated to include new examples and references. Topics covered include: organic crystals, liquid crystals, plastic crystals, polymer crystal growth, amorphous glassy materials, polymer surfaces and interfaces, colloids and molecular organization in liquids as well as two new chapters on self-assembly and biopolymer systems. The book is intended to provide complimentary material for a range of undergraduate and postgraduate courses in materials science, molecular chemistry and chemical physics. In addition to polymer and material scientists, the book would also be of interest to chemists and physicists studying the properties of organic materials.

Micro and Nano Fibrillar Composites (MFCs and NFCs) from Polymer Blends


Author: Sabu Thomas,Raghvendra Mishra,Nandakumar Kalarikkal
Publisher: Woodhead Publishing
ISBN: 0081019920
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 372
View: 4016

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Micro and Nano Fibrillar Composites (MFCs and NFCs) from Polymer Blends is a comprehensive reference for researchers, students and scientists working in the field of plastics recycling and composites. The book aims to determine the influence of micro and nanofibrillar morphology on the properties of immiscible blend systems. Chapters cover micro and nanofibrillar composites based on polyolefin, liquid crystal polymer, biodegradable polymers, polyester and polyamide blends in various industrial application fields. The book brings together panels of highly-accomplished experts in the field of plastics recycling, blends and composites systems. For several decades, plastic technology has played an important role in many industrial applications, such as packaging, automobiles, aerospace and construction. However the increasing use of plastics creates a lot of waste. This has led to restrictions on the use of some plastics for certain applications and a drive towards recycling of plastics. More recently, microfibrillar in-situ composites have been prepared from waste plastics such as PET/PP, PET/PE and Nylon/PP as a way of formulating new high performance polymer systems. This book tackles these issues and more, and is an ideal resource for anyone interested in polymer blends. Provides information on MFC and NFC based polymer blends that have been accumulated over the last 25 years, providing a useful reference Adopts a novel approach in terms of understanding the relationship between processing, morphology, structure, properties and applications in micro and nanofibrillar composites Contains contributions from leading experts in the field from both industrial and academic research

Algae Based Polymers, Blends, and Composites

Chemistry, Biotechnology and Materials Science
Author: Khalid Mahmood Zia,Mohammad Zuber,Muhammad Ali
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0128123613
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 738
View: 3993

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Algae Based Polymers, Blends, and Composites: Chemistry, Biotechnology and Material Sciences offers considerable detail on the origin of algae, extraction of useful metabolites and major compounds from algal bio-mass, and the production and future prospects of sustainable polymers derived from algae, blends of algae, and algae based composites. Characterization methods and processing techniques for algae-based polymers and composites are discussed in detail, enabling researchers to apply the latest techniques to their own work. The conversion of bio-mass into high value chemicals, energy, and materials has ample financial and ecological importance, particularly in the era of declining petroleum reserves and global warming. Algae are an important source of biomass since they flourish rapidly and can be cultivated almost everywhere. At present the majority of naturally produced algal biomass is an unused resource and normally is left to decompose. Similarly, the use of this enormous underexploited biomass is mainly limited to food consumption and as bio-fertilizer. However, there is an opportunity here for materials scientists to explore its potential as a feedstock for the production of sustainable materials. Provides detailed information on the extraction of useful compounds from algal biomass Highlights the development of a range of polymers, blends, and composites Includes coverage of characterization and processing techniques, enabling research scientists and engineers to apply the information to their own research and development Discusses potential applications and future prospects of algae-based biopolymers, giving the latest insight into the future of these sustainable materials

Polymer Blends: Formulation and Performance, Two-Volume Set


Author: Donald R. Paul,Clive B. Bucknall
Publisher: Wiley-Interscience
ISBN: 9780471248255
Category: Science
Page: 1224
View: 7211

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The authoritative resource on polymer blends for the twenty-first century. The most definitive and up-date reference available on the subject, the two-volume set Polymer Blends: Formulation and Performanceexplores and summarizes the recent progress made in polymer blend technology through the use of carefully selected contributions from today's foremost authorities from around the world. Stemming from over two decades of growth within the field, each chapter offers a unique combination of expertise and point of view designed to guide professionals working in the field into the twenty-first century. Editors Donald R. Paul and Clive B. Bucknall have devoted considerable attention to coordinating the contents and style of each chapter to assure coherent transition from topic to topic, and chapter to chapter. Far more than a compendium of recent literature or a review on dramatic new advances, this highly practical handbook is essential reading for anyone concerned with development or use of polymer blends. The two-volume set provides the scientist with useful guidelines for designing polymers with desired properties. Volume 1 is devoted to the formulation of polymer blends. Coverage includes: * The basic thermodynamics of polymer-polymer mixtures * Characterization of blends by a variety of techniques * Structure formation, particularly of multiphase blends Volume 2 is devoted to the performance of polymer blends. Coverage includes: * Mechanical properties and fracture resistance * The performance of rubber-toughened polymers, including fatigue bahavior * Blending for specific performance characteristics * Reinforced polymer blends. Features: * · Contributions from the world's leading experts provide the most authoritative and objective examination of the past twenty years of progress in the field * · Careful editing ensures a smooth and logical transition from topic to topic * · Comprehensive coverage provide enough background to enable even a beginner to begin work in the field * · In-depth coverage presents the most important issues in the field culled from critical sifting through current literature * · Clear, concise entries and carefully selected graphics emphasize important basic principles and conceptual points to aid in understanding * · Bibliographies at the end of each chapter identify the most up-to-date and significant literature on each topic to facilitate further research. Donald R. Paul, PhD, is Director of the Texas Materials Institute of the University of Texas at Austin. Clive B. Bucknall, ScD, PhD, is Head of the Advanced Materials Department, SIMS, Cranfield University, Bedford, United Kingdom.

Thermal Degradation of Polymer Blends, Composites and Nanocomposites


Author: P. M. Visakh,Yoshihiko Arao
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319034642
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 245
View: 6076

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This book delivers a deep insight into thermal polymer degradation features and put a particular emphasis on blends, composites and nanocomposites. It examines the thermal stability and the mechanism of degrading for every class of polymer substances and studies the effect on reinforcement to all classes. The book further explores the thermal stability when nano particles are added and summarizes the latest studies and application relevant results. This book offers a valuable reference source to graduate and post graduate students, engineering students, research scholars and polymer engineers from industry.

Polymer Solutions, Blends, and Interfaces


Author: I. Noda,D.N. Rubingh
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444600612
Category: Science
Page: 498
View: 4792

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The behaviour of polymers in multi-component and multiphase systems such as solutions, blends and interfaces derived from both natural and synthetic sources and the subsequent influence of this on their physical properties is the theme of this book. Important new material on multiphase polymer systems such as block copolymers and liquid crystalline polymers is provided, and the solution and surface properties of enzymes and surface active polymers is described both theoretically and experimentally. The application of theory to the development of new cellulosic materials is particularly noteworthy. The relationship between end-use properties, such as adhesion, wetting, and colloidal stability, and molecular structure at the interface is addressed. Examples include the capillary pressure of nylon microporous membranes, a new technique for characterizing the adhesion between incompatible polymers, and the influence of the glass transition temperature at the fiber/matrix interface on interfacial shear strength. Characterization of polymer films, both electrochemically and via optical techniques is covered and the interactions of amphiphilic ions with polyacrylate polymer are described. The final two chapters introduce the topic of enzyme mobility at an interface and show how this may affect their role as biological catalysts.

Polymer Blends


Author: Donald R Paul
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0323138896
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 501
View: 7244

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Polymer Blends, Volume 1 highlights the importance of polymer blends as a major new branch of macromolecular science. Topics range from polymer-polymer compatibility and the statistical thermodynamics of polymer blends to the phase separation behavior of polymer-polymer mixtures, transport phenomena in polymer blends, and mechanical properties of multiphase polymer blends. The optical behavior, solid state transition behavior, and rheology of polymer blends are also discussed. This book is organized into 10 chapters and begins with an overview of polymer blends, with emphasis on terminology and the effect of molecular weight on the thermodynamics of polymer blends as well as phase equilibria and transitions. The discussion then turns to the miscibility of homopolymers and copolymers, in bulk and in solution, from the experimental and theoretical viewpoints. The chapters that follow explore the statistical thermodynamics of polymer blends, paying particular attention to the Flory and lattice fluid theories, along with the phase relationship in polymer mixtures. The interfacial energy, structure, and adhesion between polymers in relation to the properties of polymer blends are considered. The final chapter examines the phenomena of low molecular weight penetrant transport. Currently accepted models for unsteady-state and steady-state permeation of polymeric materials are presented. A discussion of unsteady-state absorption and desorption behavior observed in a variety of polymer blends complements the treatment of permeation behavior. This book is intended to provide academic and industrial research scientists and technologists with a broad background in current principles and practice concerning mixed polymer systems.

Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate) Based Blends, Composites and Nanocomposites


Author: P. M. Visakh,Mong Liang
Publisher: William Andrew
ISBN: 0128012749
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 252
View: 1346

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Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate) (PET) is an industrially important material which is not treated specifically in any other book. Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate) Based Blends, Composites and Nanocomposites fills this gap and systematically guides the reader through all aspects of PET and its blends, composites and nanocomposites. It covers theoretical fundamentals, nanocomposites preparation, modification techniques, structure-property relationships, characterisation of the different blends and composites, and material choice for specific applications. Consisting of contributions from experts in the field this book is a useful reference for the researchers and engineers working on the development and characterization of PET materials as well as on implementing them in real-world products. It can also be used as a standard reference for deeper insight in the mechanical, thermal, thermo-mechanical and visco-elastic aspects in product design decisions. Provides a systematic overview on all types of poly(ethylene) terephthalate (PET) based blends, composites and nanocomposites Informs about characterization, structure-property relationships and types of modifications Links material properties to specific applications, enabling engineers to make the best material choice to increase product performance and cost efficiency, in industries ranging from aerospace to energy

Nanostructured Polymer Blends

Chapter 1. Polymer Blends
Author: Chandran C. Sarath,Robert A. Shanks,S. Thomas
Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
ISBN: 0128090782
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 576
View: 6736

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Miscibility and compatibility in polymer blends is a topic of great academic and industrial importance. This is because miscibility and compatibility contribute to morphology, properties, and performance. Miscibility results in one phase; compatibility creates a disperse phase with size and stability determined by interfacial interactions. Miscible polymer properties are averaged similar to a plasticizer polymer, and compatible polymers retain properties of each component, such as toughening or reinforcement. With miscible polymer blends the continuous phase dominates properties; the disperse phase contributes via stress transfer. This chapter revisits the criteria for miscibility or compatibility in polymer blends and the contributors of compatibility compared with miscibility and incompatibility. Development of copolymers and their blending with thermosets and thermoplastics result in complex two-phase morphologies. The dynamics of phase separation observed in polymer blends leading to different morphologies and the criteria for phase separation is explained. A nanometer-dispersed phase requires strong interfacial interactions to stabilize the large interfacial area, and this is favored by rapid spinodal phase separation compared with size diminution by high shear. Nanoblends open up a new arena for polymer blends, and research shows that nanoblends have outstanding optical and mechanical properties.