Causation: A Very Short Introduction


Author: Stephen Mumford,Rani Lill Anjum
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019968443X
Category: Philosophy
Page: 128
View: 4157

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Without cause and effect, there would be no science or technology, no moral responsibility, and no system of law. Causation is therefore the most fundamental connection in the universe and a core topic of philosophical thought. This Very Short Introduction introduces all of the main theories of causation and its key debates.

Metaphysics: A Very Short Introduction


Author: Stephen Mumford
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199657122
Category: Philosophy
Page: 113
View: 8959

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An introduction to metaphysics offers questions and answers covering such issues as properties, changes, time, personal identity, nothingness, and consciousness.

السببية: مقدمة شديدة الاختصار

Causation: A Very Short Introduction (Very Short Introductions)
Author: Stephen Mumford,Rani Lil Anjum
Publisher: العبيكان للنشر
ISBN: 6035038808
Category: Philosophy
Page: 160
View: 2325

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قد تثير السَّببيَّة قلق المُبتدِئ؛ بسبب طبيعتها النظريَّة والفنيَّة، شأنها في ذلك شأن العديد من مجالات الفلسفة، ومع أنّ الكثير من الأفكار الأساسيَّة، والمفاهيم، والأسئلة المتعلقة بالسَّببيَّة تمتاز بالبساطة، فإننا نرمي إلى شرح المسائل الرئيسة المرتبطة بها، وإذا لم نتبنَّ إحدى النظريَّات المرتبطة بالسَّببيَّة، فلن نتمكن من البحث أوالخوض في ماهيَّتها، وعليه، إذا تمكَّن أحدنا من تطوير نظريَّته السَّببيَّة وتحديثها فسيكون قادرًا على اكتشاف الأسباب، وقد يكون هذا الأمر حيويًّا، وضروريًّا؛ فعلى سبيل المثال: لا بدَّ من تحديد أسباب أمراض مُعيَّنة، لنتمكَّن من توفير الأدوية التي تسهم في الشفاء من تلك الأمراض؛ ولن يكون بمقدورنا السَّيطرة على التغيُّر المناخيِّ إلا عندما نفهم مُسبِّباته، وينبغي لنا أن نُحدِّد الأسباب جميعَها التي تؤدِّي إلى نشوب الحروب، وولادة الفقر والمعاناة، والألم، ونتجنَّبها بتوفير أسباب الاستقرار، والسَّلام، والازدهار. ولكن كيف من المُمْكن أنْ نجعل هذه الآمال، والطُموحات حقيقة على أرض الواقع إذا لم نَعِ طبيعة العَلاقة السَّببيَّة بين الأشياء؟ من يريد الحصول على الإجابة، فلا شكَّ أنَّ هذا هو الكتاب الأنسب لذلك ، ولا شكَّ في أنَّ الجميع معنيٌّ ومهتم بتلك التسؤلات. العبيكان 2016

Ursachen


Author: Andreas Hüttemann
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
ISBN: 3110592924
Category: Science
Page: 241
View: 2311

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Ursachen spielen im Alltag und in der Wissenschaft eine zentrale Rolle. Wir stützen uns auf Ursachenwissen wenn wir Vorhersagen machen, wenn wir Phänomene erklären, wenn wir in die Natur eingreifen und wenn wir Verantwortung zuschreiben. Aber was heißt es, dass etwas die Ursache eines Ereignisses ist? Dieses Buch gibt einen kurzen Überblick über historische Positionen, die auch für heutige Debatten noch relevant sind. Im Hauptteil wird ein systematischer Überblick über die wesentlichen Theorien von Ursachen gegeben: die Regularitätstheorie, die kontrafaktische Theorie, die Prozesstheorie und neuere Formen des Interventionismus. Zwei Fragestellungen spielen bei der Bewertung der verschiedenen Ansätze eine zentrale Rolle: Wie wird erklärt, dass Ursachen ihre Wirkungen ,erzwingen‘? Wie wird verständlich gemacht, dass Ursachen Teil einer Welt sein können, die durch die Physik beschrieben wird? Schließlich entwickelt der Verfasser eine neue Variante einer Prozesstheorie, die darauf verzichtet Prozesse physikalisch auszuzeichnen. Die Neuauflage enthält eine deutliche Weiterentwicklung der Position des Verfassers. Zudem wurde der gesamte Text durchgesehen sowie neu erschienene Literatur berücksichtigt.

Hume: A Very Short Introduction


Author: Alfred Ayer
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191606537
Category: Philosophy
Page: 144
View: 5059

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Hume is one of the greatest of all British philosophers, and even in his own lifetime was celebrated as one of the pivotal figures of the Enlightenment. A central theme of his philosophy is the conviction that questions traditionally thought of as completely independent of the scientific realm–questions about the mind, about morality, and about God, for example–are actually best explained using the experimental methods characteristic of the natural sciences. Hume's 'naturalist' approach to a wide variety of philosophical topics resulted in highly original theories about perception, self-identity, causation, morality, politics, and religion, all of which are discussed in this stimulating introduction by A J Ayer, himself one of the twentieth century's most important philosophers. Ayer also gives an account of Hume's fascinating life and character, and includes generous quotations from Hume's lucid and often witty writings. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Modern War: A Very Short Introduction


Author: Richard English
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199607893
Category: History
Page: 132
View: 9428

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In this accessible and authoritative Very Short Introduction, Richard English considers what modern warfare is and what it achieves. Addressing our assumptions about war in the modern period, and drawing upon direct accounts of warfare, he considers its impact on society, culture, economics, as well its future.

Free Will: A Very Short Introduction


Author: Thomas Pink
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0192853589
Category: Philosophy
Page: 132
View: 9149

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Every day we seem to make and act upon all kinds of free choices - but are these choices really free? Or are we compelled to act the way we do by factors beyond our control? This book looks at free will.

Thought: A Very Short Introduction


Author: Tim Bayne
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199601720
Category: Philosophy
Page: 126
View: 3564

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"In this lively Very Short Introduction, Tim Bayne explores the nature of thought. Drawing on research from philosophy, psychology, neuroscience, and anthropology, he examines what we know--and what we don't know--about one of the defining features of human nature: our capacity for thought."--Page 2 of cover.

Philosophy of Science

A Very Short Introduction
Author: Samir Okasha
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198745583
Category: Philosophy
Page: 140
View: 5408

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How much faith should we place in what scientists tell us? Is it possible for scientific knowledge to be fully "objective?" What, really, can be defined as science? In the second edition of this Very Short Introduction, Samir Okasha explores the main themes and theories of contemporary philosophy of science, and investigates fascinating, challenging questions such as these. Starting at the very beginning, with a concise overview of the history of science, Okasha examines the nature of fundamental practices such as reasoning, causation, and explanation. Looking at scientific revolutions and the issue of scientific change, he asks whether there is a discernible pattern to the way scientific ideas change over time, and discusses realist versus anti-realist attitudes towards science. He finishes by considering science today, and the social and ethical philosophical questions surrounding modern science. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Philosophy of Science: A Very Short Introduction


Author: Samir Okasha
Publisher: Oxford Paperbacks
ISBN: 9780192802835
Category: Philosophy
Page: 144
View: 5509

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This Very Short Introduction provides a concise overview of the main themes of contemporary philosophy of science. Beginning with a short history of science to set the scene, Samir Okasha goes on to investigate the nature of scientific reasoning, scientific explanation, revolutions in science, and theories such as realism and anti-realism. He also looks at philosophical issues in particular sciences.

Knowledge

A Very Short Introduction
Author: Jennifer Nagel
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 019966126X
Category: Philosophy
Page: 133
View: 692

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What is knowledge? Is it the same as opinion or truth? Do you need to be able to justify a claim in order to count as knowing it? How can we know that the outer world is real and not a dream? Questions like these have existed since ancient times, and the branch of philosophy dedicated to answering them - epistemology - has been active for thousands of years. In this thought-provoking Very Short Introduction, Jennifer Nagel considers the central problems and paradoxes in the theory of knowledge and draws attention to the ways in which philosophers and theorists have responded to them. By exploring the relationship between knowledge and truth, and considering the problem of scepticism, Nagel introduces a series of influential historical and contemporary theories of knowledge, incorporating methods from logic, linguistics, and psychology, using a number of everyday examples to demonstrate the key issues and debates. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Traktat über die menschliche Natur / Über den Verstand


Author: David Hume
Publisher: Meiner, F
ISBN: 9783787309214
Category: Philosophy
Page: 386
View: 5383

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Die drei Bücher des Traktats (Über den Verstand; Über die Affekte; Über Moral), 1739 bzw. 1740 anonym publiziert, fielen "als Totgeburt aus der Presse" (so Hume über die Nichtbeachtung seines Erstlings durch die Zeitgenossen). Heute gilt das Jugendwerk, da es im Kern bereits die ganze Philosophie des kritischen Empirikers enthält, als Humes theoretisches Hauptwerk. Humes Wissenschaft von der menschlichen Natur vollzieht sich in einer doppelten Bewegung: sie zerstört der Intention nach die traditionelle Metaphysik und etabliert deren ihr selbst verborgene Wahrheit in einer neuartigen Geisteswissenschaft oder Anthropologie, der "science of man".

Foucault

A Very Short Introduction
Author: Gary Gutting
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0192805576
Category: Literary Criticism
Page: 124
View: 851

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From aesthetics to the penal system; from madness and civilisation to avant-garde literature, Foucault strove to understand the deep concepts of identity, knowledge, and power. He rejected old models of thinking and replaced them with versions that are still widely debated today. A major influence on Queer Theory and gender studies, he also wrote on architecture, history, law, medicine, literature, politics and of course philosophy. Gutting presents a comprehensive but non-systematic treatment of some highlights of Foucault's life and thought. Beginning with a brief biography to set the social and political stage, he then tackles Foucault's thoughts on literature, in particular the avant-garde scene; his philosophical and historical work; his treatment of knowledge and power in modern society; and his thoughts on sexuality.

Philosophy of Science: Very Short Introduction


Author: Samir Okasha
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0191062790
Category: Science
Page: 160
View: 3906

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How much faith should we place in what scientists tell us? Is it possible for scientific knowledge to be fully 'objective'? What, really, can be defined as science? In the second edition of this Very Short Introduction, Samir Okasha explores the main themes and theories of contemporary philosophy of science, and investigates fascinating, challenging questions such as these. Starting at the very beginning, with a concise overview of the history of science, Okasha examines the nature of fundamental practices such as reasoning, causation, and explanation. Looking at scientific revolutions and the issue of scientific change, he asks whether there is a discernible pattern to the way scientific ideas change over time, and discusses realist versus anti-realist attitudes towards science. He finishes by considering science today, and the social and ethical philosophical questions surrounding modern science. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Continental Philosophy: A Very Short Introduction


Author: Simon Critchley
Publisher: Oxford Paperbacks
ISBN: 0192853597
Category: History
Page: 149
View: 4198

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Simon Critchley's Very Short Introduction shows that Continental philosophy encompasses a distinct set of philosophical traditions and practices, with a compelling range of problems all too often ignored by the analytic tradition. He discusses the ideas and approaches of philosophers such as Kant, Hegel, Nietzsche, Husserl, Heidegger, Sartre, Habermas, Foucault, and Derrida, and introduces key concepts such as existentialism, nihilism, and phenomenology by explaining their place in the Continental tradition. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Schopenhauer: A Very Short Introduction


Author: Christopher Janaway
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191604496
Category: Philosophy
Page: 160
View: 9183

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Schopenhauer is the most readable of German philosophers. This book gives a succinct explanation of his metaphysical system, concentrating on the original aspects of his thought, which inspired many artists and thinkers including Nietzsche, Wagner, Freud, and Wittgenstein. Schopenhauer's central notion is that of the will - a blind, irrational force that he uses to interpret both the human mind and the whole of nature. Seeing human behaviour as that of a natural organism governed by the will to life, Schopenhauer developed radical insights concerning the unconscious and sexuality which influenced both psychologists and philosophers. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

German Philosophy: A Very Short Introduction


Author: Andrew Bowie
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191614289
Category: History
Page: 152
View: 9300

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German philosophy remains the core of modern philosophy. Without Kant, Frege, Wittgenstein, and Husserl there would be no Anglo-American 'analytical' style of philosophy. Moreover, without Kant, Hegel, Marx, Nietzsche, and Heidegger, the 'Continental Philosophy' of Derrida, Foucault, Deleuze, Badiou, and Zizek, which has had major effects on humanities subjects in recent years, is incomprehensible. Knowledge of German philosophy is, then, an indispensable prerequisite of theoretically informed study in the humanities as a whole. German Philosophy: A Very Short Introduction discusses the idea that German philosophy forms one of the most revealing responses to the problems of 'modernity'. The rise of the modern natural sciences and the related decline of religion raises a series of questions, which recur throughout German philosophy, concerning the relationships between knowledge and faith, reason and emotion, and scientific, ethical, and artistic ways of seeing the world. There are also many significant philosophers who are generally neglected in most existing English-language treatments of German philosophy, which tend to concentrate on the canonical figures. This Very Short Introduction will include reference to these thinkers and suggests how they can be used to question more familiar German philosophical thought. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Aristotle: A Very Short Introduction


Author: Jonathan Barnes
Publisher: Oxford Paperbacks
ISBN: 9780192854087
Category: Philosophy
Page: 160
View: 1669

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The influence of Aristotle, the prince of philosophers, on the intellectual history of the West is second to none. In this book Jonathan Barnes examines Aristotle's scientific researches, his discoveries in logic and his metaphysical theories, his work in psychology and in ethics and politics, and his ideas about art and poetry, placing his teachings in their historical context. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Lebenswelt und Wissenschaft


Author: Carl F Gethmann
Publisher: Felix Meiner Verlag
ISBN: 3787323996
Category: Science
Page: 1480
View: 548

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Unter dem Titel "Lebenswelt und Wissenschaft" hat der XXI. Deutsche Kongreß für Philosophie (Essen 2008) Fragen thematisiert, die an der Nahtstelle von philosophischem Denken und fachwissenschaftlichen Forschungen einerseits sowie philosophischem Denken und aktuellen gesellschaftlichen Problemlagen andererseits liegen. Das Kongreßthema spielte unübersehbar auf Husserls Krisis-Schrift an, in der das Verhältnis von Lebenswelt und Wissenschaft mit Blick auf die Fragen der theoretischen Philosophie als Begründungsverhältnis, mit Blick auf die Fragen der praktischen Philosophie als Aufklärungsverhältnis expliziert wurde. Im Verhältnis von Lebenswelt und Wissenschaft sah Husserl das Fundament des "Europäischen Menschentums", d. h. die Basis für die Selbstverständigung einer wissenschaftlich-technischen Kultur über ihre theoretischen und praktischen Grundlagen. Fragestellungen des angesprochenen Typs werden heute gemeinhin unter den Titel der "Angewandten Ethik" oder "Angewandten Philosophie " subsumiert. Dazu gehören die Themengruppen des technischen Handelns, des Umgangs mit der Natur und der medizinischen Ethik. Diese drei Bereiche haben im Kongreßprogramm eine wichtige Rolle gespielt. Unter Rückgriff auf eine von Hermann Krings eingeführte Redeweise können diese Fragen den exoterischen Aufgaben der Philosophie in Abgrenzung zu den esoterischen Aufgaben zugeordnet werden. Der Kongreß hatte somit auch das Ziel, der Gesellschaft und der Öffentlichkeit zu demonstrieren, was die professionelle Philosophie für die Gesellschaft durch ihr Denken "tut". Der Band enthält alle Beiträge zu den Kolloquien des Kongresses so wie die Texte der öffentlichen Abendvorträge von Jürgen Habermas, Wolfram Hogrebe und Julian Nida-Rümelin.