Causal Inference for Statistics, Social, and Biomedical Sciences

An Introduction
Author: Guido W. Imbens,Donald B. Rubin
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1316094391
Category: Mathematics
Page: N.A
View: 665

Continue Reading →

Most questions in social and biomedical sciences are causal in nature: what would happen to individuals, or to groups, if part of their environment were changed? In this groundbreaking text, two world-renowned experts present statistical methods for studying such questions. This book starts with the notion of potential outcomes, each corresponding to the outcome that would be realized if a subject were exposed to a particular treatment or regime. In this approach, causal effects are comparisons of such potential outcomes. The fundamental problem of causal inference is that we can only observe one of the potential outcomes for a particular subject. The authors discuss how randomized experiments allow us to assess causal effects and then turn to observational studies. They lay out the assumptions needed for causal inference and describe the leading analysis methods, including matching, propensity-score methods, and instrumental variables. Many detailed applications are included, with special focus on practical aspects for the empirical researcher.

Matched Sampling for Causal Effects


Author: Donald B. Rubin
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139458507
Category: Mathematics
Page: N.A
View: 8490

Continue Reading →

Matched sampling is often used to help assess the causal effect of some exposure or intervention, typically when randomized experiments are not available or cannot be conducted. This book presents a selection of Donald B. Rubin's research articles on matched sampling, from the early 1970s, when the author was one of the major researchers involved in establishing the field, to recent contributions to this now extremely active area. The articles include fundamental theoretical studies that have become classics, important extensions, and real applications that range from breast cancer treatments to tobacco litigation to studies of criminal tendencies. They are organized into seven parts, each with an introduction by the author that provides historical and personal context and discusses the relevance of the work today. A concluding essay offers advice to investigators designing observational studies. The book provides an accessible introduction to the study of matched sampling and will be an indispensable reference for students and researchers.

Statistical Models and Causal Inference

A Dialogue with the Social Sciences
Author: David A. Freedman,David Collier,Jasjeet S. Sekhon
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521195004
Category: Mathematics
Page: 399
View: 6171

Continue Reading →

David A. Freedman presents a definitive synthesis of his approach to statistical modeling and causal inference in the social sciences.

Propensity Score Analysis


Author: Shenyang Guo,Mark W. Fraser
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 1452235007
Category: Mathematics
Page: 421
View: 1900

Continue Reading →

Fully updated to reflect the most recent changes in the field, the Second Edition of Propensity Score Analysis provides an accessible, systematic review of the origins, history, and statistical foundations of propensity score analysis, illustrating how it can be used for solving evaluation and causal-inference problems. With a strong focus on practical applications, the authors explore various strategies for employing PSA, discuss the use of PSA with alternative types of data, and delineate the limitations of PSA under a variety of constraints. Unlike existing textbooks on program evaluation and causal inference, this book delves into statistical concepts, formulas, and models within the context of a robust and engaging focus on application.

Quantitative Social Science

An Introduction
Author: Kosuke Imai
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400885256
Category: Social Science
Page: 432
View: 3296

Continue Reading →

Quantitative analysis is an increasingly essential skill for social science research, yet students in the social sciences and related areas typically receive little training in it—or if they do, they usually end up in statistics classes that offer few insights into their field. This textbook is a practical introduction to data analysis and statistics written especially for undergraduates and beginning graduate students in the social sciences and allied fields, such as economics, sociology, public policy, and data science. Quantitative Social Science engages directly with empirical analysis, showing students how to analyze data using the R programming language and to interpret the results—it encourages hands-on learning, not paper-and-pencil statistics. More than forty data sets taken directly from leading quantitative social science research illustrate how data analysis can be used to answer important questions about society and human behavior. Proven in the classroom, this one-of-a-kind textbook features numerous additional data analysis exercises and interactive R programming exercises, and also comes with supplementary teaching materials for instructors. Written especially for students in the social sciences and allied fields, including economics, sociology, public policy, and data science Provides hands-on instruction using R programming, not paper-and-pencil statistics Includes more than forty data sets from actual research for students to test their skills on Covers data analysis concepts such as causality, measurement, and prediction, as well as probability and statistical tools Features a wealth of supplementary exercises, including additional data analysis exercises and interactive programming exercises Offers a solid foundation for further study Comes with additional course materials online, including notes, sample code, exercises and problem sets with solutions, and lecture slides

Explanation in Causal Inference

Methods for Mediation and Interaction
Author: Tyler VanderWeele,Tyler J.. VanderWeele
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0199325871
Category: Psychology
Page: 706
View: 6077

Continue Reading →

"A comprehensive book on methods for mediation and interaction. The only book to approach this topic from the perspective of causal inference. Numerous software tools provided. Easy-to-read and accessible. Examples drawn from diverse fields. An essential reference for anyone conducting empirical research in the biomedical or social sciences"--

Counterfactuals and Causal Inference


Author: Stephen L. Morgan,Christopher Winship
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107065070
Category: Mathematics
Page: 524
View: 2722

Continue Reading →

This new edition aims to convince social scientists to take a counterfactual approach to the core questions of their fields.

Handbook of Causal Analysis for Social Research


Author: Stephen L. Morgan
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400760949
Category: Social Science
Page: 424
View: 9545

Continue Reading →

What constitutes a causal explanation, and must an explanation be causal? What warrants a causal inference, as opposed to a descriptive regularity? What techniques are available to detect when causal effects are present, and when can these techniques be used to identify the relative importance of these effects? What complications do the interactions of individuals create for these techniques? When can mixed methods of analysis be used to deepen causal accounts? Must causal claims include generative mechanisms, and how effective are empirical methods designed to discover them? The Handbook of Causal Analysis for Social Research tackles these questions with nineteen chapters from leading scholars in sociology, statistics, public health, computer science, and human development.

Observation and Experiment

An Introduction to Causal Inference
Author: Paul R. Rosenbaum
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 067497557X
Category: Mathematics
Page: 400
View: 1142

Continue Reading →

In the face of conflicting claims about some treatments, behaviors, and policies, the question arises: What is the most scientifically rigorous way to draw conclusions about cause and effect in the study of humans? In this introduction to causal inference, Paul Rosenbaum explains key concepts and methods through real-world examples.

Statistical Methods for Dynamic Treatment Regimes

Reinforcement Learning, Causal Inference, and Personalized Medicine
Author: Bibhas Chakraborty,Erica E.M. Moodie
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461474280
Category: Medical
Page: 204
View: 7246

Continue Reading →

Statistical Methods for Dynamic Treatment Regimes shares state of the art of statistical methods developed to address questions of estimation and inference for dynamic treatment regimes, a branch of personalized medicine. This volume demonstrates these methods with their conceptual underpinnings and illustration through analysis of real and simulated data. These methods are immediately applicable to the practice of personalized medicine, which is a medical paradigm that emphasizes the systematic use of individual patient information to optimize patient health care. This is the first single source to provide an overview of methodology and results gathered from journals, proceedings, and technical reports with the goal of orienting researchers to the field. The first chapter establishes context for the statistical reader in the landscape of personalized medicine. Readers need only have familiarity with elementary calculus, linear algebra, and basic large-sample theory to use this text. Throughout the text, authors direct readers to available code or packages in different statistical languages to facilitate implementation. In cases where code does not already exist, the authors provide analytic approaches in sufficient detail that any researcher with knowledge of statistical programming could implement the methods from scratch. This will be an important volume for a wide range of researchers, including statisticians, epidemiologists, medical researchers, and machine learning researchers interested in medical applications. Advanced graduate students in statistics and biostatistics will also find material in Statistical Methods for Dynamic Treatment Regimes to be a critical part of their studies.

Targeted Learning

Causal Inference for Observational and Experimental Data
Author: Mark J. van der Laan,Sherri Rose
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441997821
Category: Mathematics
Page: 628
View: 3711

Continue Reading →

The statistics profession is at a unique point in history. The need for valid statistical tools is greater than ever; data sets are massive, often measuring hundreds of thousands of measurements for a single subject. The field is ready to move towards clear objective benchmarks under which tools can be evaluated. Targeted learning allows (1) the full generalization and utilization of cross-validation as an estimator selection tool so that the subjective choices made by humans are now made by the machine, and (2) targeting the fitting of the probability distribution of the data toward the target parameter representing the scientific question of interest. This book is aimed at both statisticians and applied researchers interested in causal inference and general effect estimation for observational and experimental data. Part I is an accessible introduction to super learning and the targeted maximum likelihood estimator, including related concepts necessary to understand and apply these methods. Parts II-IX handle complex data structures and topics applied researchers will immediately recognize from their own research, including time-to-event outcomes, direct and indirect effects, positivity violations, case-control studies, censored data, longitudinal data, and genomic studies.

Elements of Causal Inference

Foundations and Learning Algorithms
Author: Jonas Peters,Dominik Janzing,Bernhard Schölkopf
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262037319
Category: Computers
Page: 288
View: 7456

Continue Reading →

The mathematization of causality is a relatively recent development, and has become increasingly important in data science and machine learning. This book offers a self-contained and concise introduction to causal models and how to learn them from data. After explaining the need for causal models and discussing some of the principles underlying causal inference, the book teaches readers how to use causal models: how to compute intervention distributions, how to infer causal models from observational and interventional data, and how causal ideas could be exploited for classical machine learning problems. All of these topics are discussed first in terms of two variables and then in the more general multivariate case. The bivariate case turns out to be a particularly hard problem for causal learning because there are no conditional independences as used by classical methods for solving multivariate cases. The authors consider analyzing statistical asymmetries between cause and effect to be highly instructive, and they report on their decade of intensive research into this problem. The book is accessible to readers with a background in machine learning or statistics, and can be used in graduate courses or as a reference for researchers. The text includes code snippets that can be copied and pasted, exercises, and an appendix with a summary of the most important technical concepts.

The SAGE Handbook of Regression Analysis and Causal Inference


Author: Henning Best,Christof Wolf
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 1473908353
Category: Social Science
Page: 424
View: 8689

Continue Reading →

'The editors of the new SAGE Handbook of Regression Analysis and Causal Inference have assembled a wide-ranging, high-quality, and timely collection of articles on topics of central importance to quantitative social research, many written by leaders in the field. Everyone engaged in statistical analysis of social-science data will find something of interest in this book.' - John Fox, Professor, Department of Sociology, McMaster University 'The authors do a great job in explaining the various statistical methods in a clear and simple way - focussing on fundamental understanding, interpretation of results, and practical application - yet being precise in their exposition.' - Ben Jann, Executive Director, Institute of Sociology, University of Bern 'Best and Wolf have put together a powerful collection, especially valuable in its separate discussions of uses for both cross-sectional and panel data analysis.' -Tom Smith, Senior Fellow, NORC, University of Chicago Edited and written by a team of leading international social scientists, this Handbook provides a comprehensive introduction to multivariate methods. The Handbook focuses on regression analysis of cross-sectional and longitudinal data with an emphasis on causal analysis, thereby covering a large number of different techniques including selection models, complex samples, and regression discontinuities. Each Part starts with a non-mathematical introduction to the method covered in that section, giving readers a basic knowledge of the method’s logic, scope and unique features. Next, the mathematical and statistical basis of each method is presented along with advanced aspects. Using real-world data from the European Social Survey (ESS) and the Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP), the book provides a comprehensive discussion of each method’s application, making this an ideal text for PhD students and researchers embarking on their own data analysis.

Causality


Author: Judea Pearl
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139643983
Category: Science
Page: N.A
View: 6027

Continue Reading →

Written by one of the preeminent researchers in the field, this book provides a comprehensive exposition of modern analysis of causation. It shows how causality has grown from a nebulous concept into a mathematical theory with significant applications in the fields of statistics, artificial intelligence, economics, philosophy, cognitive science, and the health and social sciences. Judea Pearl presents and unifies the probabilistic, manipulative, counterfactual, and structural approaches to causation and devises simple mathematical tools for studying the relationships between causal connections and statistical associations. Cited in more than 2,100 scientific publications, it continues to liberate scientists from the traditional molds of statistical thinking. In this revised edition, Judea Pearl elucidates thorny issues, answers readers' questions, and offers a panoramic view of recent advances in this field of research. Causality will be of interest to students and professionals in a wide variety of fields. Dr Judea Pearl has received the 2011 Rumelhart Prize for his leading research in Artificial Intelligence (AI) and systems from The Cognitive Science Society.

Applied Bayesian Modeling and Causal Inference from Incomplete-Data Perspectives


Author: Donald B. Rubin,Andrew Gelman,Xiao-Li Meng
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780470090435
Category: Mathematics
Page: 407
View: 5504

Continue Reading →

This book brings together a collection of articles onstatistical methods relating to missing data analysis, includingmultiple imputation, propensity scores, instrumental variables, andBayesian inference. Covering new research topicsand real-world examples which do not feature in manystandard texts. The book is dedicated to Professor Don Rubin(Harvard). Don Rubin has made fundamental contributions tothe study of missing data. Key features of the book include: Comprehensive coverage of an imporant area for both researchand applications. Adopts a pragmatic approach to describing a wide range ofintermediate and advanced statistical techniques. Covers key topics such as multiple imputation, propensityscores, instrumental variables and Bayesian inference. Includes a number of applications from the social and healthsciences. Edited and authored by highly respected researchers in thearea.

An Introduction to Causal Inference


Author: Judea Pearl
Publisher: CreateSpace
ISBN: 9781507894293
Category:
Page: 94
View: 1729

Continue Reading →

This book summarizes recent advances in causal inference and underscores the paradigmatic shifts that must be undertaken in moving from traditional statistical analysis to causal analysis of multivariate data. Special emphasis is placed on the assumptions that underlie all causal inferences, the languages used in formulating those assumptions, the conditional nature of all causal and counterfactual claims, and the methods that have been developed for the assessment of such claims. These advances are illustrated using a general theory of causation based on the Structural Causal Model (SCM), which subsumes and unifies other approaches to causation, and provides a coherent mathematical foundation for the analysis of causes and counterfactuals. In particular, the paper surveys the development of mathematical tools for inferring (from a combination of data and assumptions) answers to three types of causal queries: those about (1) the effects of potential interventions, (2) probabilities of counterfactuals, and (3) direct and indirect effects (also known as "mediation"). Finally, the paper defines the formal and conceptual relationships between the structural and potential-outcome frameworks and presents tools for a symbiotic analysis that uses the strong features of both. The tools are demonstrated in the analyses of mediation, causes of effects, and probabilities of causation.

Causal Inference in Statistics

A Primer
Author: Judea Pearl,Madelyn Glymour,Nicholas P. Jewell
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119186862
Category: Mathematics
Page: 160
View: 4908

Continue Reading →

Many of the concepts and terminology surrounding modern causal inference can be quite intimidating to the novice. Judea Pearl presents a book ideal for beginners in statistics, providing a comprehensive introduction to the field of causality. Examples from classical statistics are presented throughout to demonstrate the need for causality in resolving decision-making dilemmas posed by data. Causal methods are also compared to traditional statistical methods, whilst questions are provided at the end of each section to aid student learning.

Propensity Score Analysis

Fundamentals and Developments
Author: Wei Pan,Haiyan Bai
Publisher: Guilford Publications
ISBN: 1462519490
Category: Psychology
Page: 402
View: 2845

Continue Reading →

This book is designed to help researchers better design and analyze observational data from quasi-experimental studies and improve the validity of research on causal claims. It provides clear guidance on the use of different propensity score analysis (PSA) methods, from the fundamentals to complex, cutting-edge techniques. Experts in the field introduce underlying concepts and current issues and review relevant software programs for PSA. The book addresses the steps in propensity score estimation, including the use of generalized boosted models, how to identify which matching methods work best with specific types of data, and the evaluation of balance results on key background covariates after matching. Also covered are applications of PSA with complex data, working with missing data, controlling for unobserved confounding, and the extension of PSA to prognostic score analysis for causal inference. User-friendly features include statistical program codes and application examples. Data and software code for the examples are available at the companion website (www.guilford.com/pan-materials).

Introduction to Spatial Econometrics


Author: James LeSage,Robert Kelley Pace
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420064254
Category: Mathematics
Page: 340
View: 3556

Continue Reading →

Although interest in spatial regression models has surged in recent years, a comprehensive, up-to-date text on these approaches does not exist. Filling this void, Introduction to Spatial Econometrics presents a variety of regression methods used to analyze spatial data samples that violate the traditional assumption of independence between observations. It explores a wide range of alternative topics, including maximum likelihood and Bayesian estimation, various types of spatial regression specifications, and applied modeling situations involving different circumstances. Leaders in this field, the authors clarify the often-mystifying phenomenon of simultaneous spatial dependence. By presenting new methods, they help with the interpretation of spatial regression models, especially ones that include spatial lags of the dependent variable. The authors also examine the relationship between spatiotemporal processes and long-run equilibrium states that are characterized by simultaneous spatial dependence. MATLAB® toolboxes useful for spatial econometric estimation are available on the authors’ websites. This work covers spatial econometric modeling as well as numerous applied illustrations of the methods. It encompasses many recent advances in spatial econometric models—including some previously unpublished results.

Political Game Theory

An Introduction
Author: Nolan McCarty,Adam Meirowitz
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139461818
Category: Political Science
Page: N.A
View: 3471

Continue Reading →

Political Game Theory is a self-contained introduction to game theory and its applications to political science. The book presents choice theory, social choice theory, static and dynamic games of complete information, static and dynamic games of incomplete information, repeated games, bargaining theory, mechanism design and a mathematical appendix covering, logic, real analysis, calculus and probability theory. The methods employed have many applications in various disciplines including comparative politics, international relations and American politics. Political Game Theory is tailored to students without extensive backgrounds in mathematics, and traditional economics, however there are also many special sections that present technical material that will appeal to more advanced students. A large number of exercises are also provided to practice the skills and techniques discussed.