Carbon Fibers


Author: Soo-Jin Park
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9811305382
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 358
View: 9560

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The updated and expanded second edition of this book explores the physical and mechanical properties of carbon fibers and their composites, their manufacture and processing, and their current and emerging applications. Over 10 chapters, the book describes manufacturing methods, surface treatment, composite interfaces, and microstructure-property relationships with underlying fundamental physical and mechanical principles. It discusses the application of carbon materials in delivering improved performance across a diverse range of fields including sports, wind energy, oil and gas, infrastructure, defence, and the aerospace, automotive and semiconductor industries. This new edition introduces chapters related to the manufacturing of carbon/carbon composites (C/C composites), antioxidation characteristics of C/C composites, and their applications. Furthermore, it addresses the effect of graphene and carbon nanotubes on the physical and chemical properties of carbon fibers. A final chapter looks at the emerging and future prospects for carbon fiber technology.

Carbon Fibers and Their Composites


Author: Peter Morgan
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 142002874X
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 1200
View: 8344

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Most literature pertaining to carbon fibers is of a theoretical nature. Carbon Fibers and their Composites offers a comprehensive look at the specific manufacturing of carbon fibers and graphite fibers into the growing surge of diverse applications that include flameproof materials, protective coatings, biomedical and prosthetics applications, textiles, batteries and fuel cells, automotive applications, construction, and even musical instruments. This useful guide provides a hands-on approach to the fabrication of carbon fibers. The book begins with a blueprint of the international history and development of carbon fiber, clearly defined terminology for all forms of solid carbon products, and the properties for elemental carbon and its allotropic forms. It then elaborates upon precursor materials, relevant surface treatment, and sizing for each carbon fiber type available in the world market. Several chapters also examine the types of matrices, their properties, and fracture mechanics of thermoset and thermoplastic polymers, carbon, glass, metal, and ceramics matrices. Carbon Fibers and their Composites reveals straightforward guidelines for the day-to-day operations of a carbon fiber plant, such as safety testing, quality control, design of equipment, packaging, air flow/dust control, maintenance, and environmental policies. Based on over 30 years of experience in the field, the author offers insight and possible solutions to the problems associated with production and testing of carbon fibers and their related composites. He details the use of analytical chemistry techniques, instrumentation requirements, and statistics to evaluate the results. Carbon Fibers and their Composites offers an excellent clarification of how carbon fibers yield reinforced composites, their physical and chemical characteristics, the diverse manufacturing techniques for each type, and the advantages they offer to a variety of applications.

Modeling of Carbon Nanotubes, Graphene and their Composites


Author: Konstantinos I. Tserpes,Nuno Silvestre
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3319012010
Category: Science
Page: 332
View: 3165

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A large part of the research currently being conducted in the fields of materials science and engineering mechanics is devoted to carbon nanotubes and their applications. In this process, modeling is a very attractive investigation tool due to the difficulties in manufacturing and testing of nanomaterials. Continuum modeling offers significant advantages over atomistic modeling. Furthermore, the lack of accuracy in continuum methods can be overtaken by incorporating input data either from experiments or atomistic methods. This book reviews the recent progress in continuum modeling of carbon nanotubes and their composites. The advantages and disadvantages of continuum methods over atomistic methods are comprehensively discussed. Numerical models, mainly based on the finite element method, as well as analytical models are presented in a comparative way starting from the simulation of isolated pristine and defected nanotubes and proceeding to nanotube-based composites. The ability of continuum methods to bridge different scales is emphasized. Recommendations for future research are given by focusing on what still continuum methods have to learn from the nano-scale. The scope of the book is to provide current knowledge aiming to support researchers entering the scientific area of carbon nanotubes to choose the appropriate modeling tool for accomplishing their study and place their efforts to further improve continuum methods.

Thermal Transport in Carbon-Based Nanomaterials


Author: Gang Zhang
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0323473466
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 384
View: 2357

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Thermal Transport in Carbon-Based Nanomaterials describes the thermal properties of various carbon nanomaterials and then examines their applications in thermal management and renewable energy. Carbon nanomaterials include: one-dimensional (1D) structures, like nanotubes; two-dimensional (2D) crystal lattice with only one-atom-thick planar sheets, like graphenes; composites based on carbon nanotube or graphene, and diamond nanowires and thin films. In the past two decades, rapid developments in the synthesis and processing of carbon-based nanomaterials have created a great desire among scientists to gain a greater understanding of thermal transport in these materials. Thermal properties in nanomaterials differ significantly from those in bulk materials because the characteristic length scales associated with the heat carriers, phonons, are comparable to the characteristic length. Carbon nanomaterials with high thermal conductivity can be applied in heat dissipation. This looks set to make a significant impact on human life and, with numerous commercial developments emerging, will become a major academic topic over the coming years. This authoritative and comprehensive book will be of great use to both the existing scientific community in this field, as well as for those who wish to enter it. Includes coverage of the most important and commonly adopted computational and experimental methods to analyze thermal properties in carbon nanomaterials Contains information about the growth of carbon nanomaterials, their thermal properties, and strategies to control thermal properties and applications, allowing readers to assess how to use each material most efficiently Offers a comprehensive overview of the theoretical background behind thermal transport in carbon nanomaterials

Composite Materials

Science and Engineering
Author: Krishan K. Chawla
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1475729669
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 483
View: 1967

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Focusing on the relationship between structure and properties, this is a well-balanced treatment of the mechanics and the materials science of composites, while not neglecting the importance of processing. This updated second edition contains new chapters on fatigue and creep of composites, and describes in detail how the various reinforcements, the materials in which they are embedded, and of the interfaces between them, control the properties of the composite materials at both the micro- and macro-levels. Extensive use is made of micrographs and line drawings, and examples of practical applications in various fields are given throughout the book, together with extensive references to the literature. Intended for use in graduate and upper-division undergraduate courses, this book will also prove a useful reference for practising engineers and researchers in industry and academia.

Carbon Fibers Filaments and Composites


Author: J.L. Figueiredo,Carlos A. Bernardo,R.T.K. Baker,K.J. Hüttinger
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401568472
Category: Science
Page: 582
View: 8844

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Conventional synthetic materials, like metals, ceramics or glass, are usually isotropic substances, and their suitability for structural applications is achieved by morphological design and combination in the macroscopic scale. However, in modem engineering this is often not acceptable. As an alternative, the use of non-homogeneous, anisotropic materials, with significant stiffness and strength only in the directions these mechanical properties are really needed, can lead to enormous material (and weight) savings. This is the case of multiphase systems called composite materials. In these composites, different material parts are added and arranged geometrically, under clearly designed and controlled conditions. Usually, a structure of fibers provides strength and stiffness and a matrix helds them together, whilst providing the geometric form. Carbon fibers are among the high-performance fibers employed in these advanced structural composites, which are profoundly changing many of today's high technology industries. New research and development challenges in this area include upgrading the manufacturing process of fibers and composites, in order to improve characteristics and reduce costs, and modifying the interfacial properties between fibers and matrix, to guarantee better mechanical properties. The interdisciplinary nature of this "new frontier" is obvious, involving chemistry, materials science, chemical and mechanical engineering. Other topics, which more often are treated separately, are also important for the understanding of the processes of fiber production. Carbon filaments is one such topic, as the study of their mechanisms of nucleation and growth is clearly quite relevant to the production of vapour-grown carbon fibers.

Hydrogen Materials Science and Chemistry of Carbon Nanomaterials


Author: T. Nejat Veziroglu,Svetlana Yu. Zaginaichenko,Dmitry V. Schur,Bogdan Baranowski,Anatoliy P. Shpak,Valeriy V. Skorokhod,Ayfer Kale
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402055145
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 831
View: 9942

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This book considers the various advanced hydrogen materials and technologies of their synthesis. It presents the consideration of the physics, chemistry, thermodynamics and kinetics of processes of energy conversion, which occur at hydrogen production, storage, transportation and with its use. It also discusses the pioneering attempts to transform motor transport, airplanes, domestic technics, illumination and industrial manufacture of hydrogen fuel.

Carbon Fibre from Lignin


Author: Pratima Bajpai
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9811042292
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 77
View: 8194

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This book presents detailed information on the production and properties of carbon fibers derived from lignin precursors. Focusing on future directions in the carbon fiber industry, it also introduces a novel process for obtaining high-purity lignin, a key aspect in the manufacture of high-quality carbon fiber. Carbon fiber is currently the most preferred lightweight manufacturing material and is rapidly becoming the material of choice for manufacturers around the world. Although more than 80% of commercial carbon fiber is estimated to use PAN (polyacrylonitrile) as a precursor, carbon fiber manufactured from PAN is expensive and therefore its application is limited to high-performance structural materials. Lignin is the second most abundant biopolymer in nature after cellulose and offers a carbon-rich, renewable resource. As a byproduct of the pulp and paper industry and the production of cellulosic ethanol, lignin is also available at low cost, making it an economically attractive alternative to PAN for the production of carbon fibers, as highlighted in this book. The information presented will be of interest to all those involved in the investigation of carbon fiber materials, carbon fiber manufacturers and carbon fiber users.

Non-Thermal Plasma Technology for Polymeric Materials

Applications in Composites, Nanostructured Materials, and Biomedical Fields
Author: Sabu Thomas,Miran Mozetic,Uros Cvelbar,Petr Spatenka,K.M. Praveen
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0128131535
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 494
View: 6197

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Non-Thermal Plasma Technology for Polymeric Materials: Applications in Composites, Nanostructured Materials and Biomedical Fields provides both an introduction and practical guide to plasma synthesis, modification and processing of polymers, their composites, nancomposites, blends, IPNs and gels. It examines the current state-of-the-art and new challenges in the field, including the use of plasma treatment to enhance adhesion, characterization techniques, and the environmental aspects of the process. Particular attention is paid to the effects on the final properties of composites and the characterization of fiber/polymer surface interactions. This book helps demystify the process of plasma polymerization, providing a thorough grounding in the fundamentals of plasma technology as they relate to polymers. It is ideal for materials scientists, polymer chemists, and engineers, acting as a guide to further research into new applications of this technology in the real world. Enables materials scientists and engineers to deploy plasma technology for surface treatment, characterization and analysis of polymeric materials Reviews the state-of-the-art in plasma technology for polymer synthesis and processing Presents detailed coverage of the most advanced applications for plasma polymerization, particularly in medicine and biomedical engineering, areas such as implants, biosensors and tissue engineering

Self-healing Materials


Author: Martin D. Hager,Sybrand van der Zwaag,Ulrich S. Schubert
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 331932778X
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 413
View: 5652

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The series Advances in Polymer Science presents critical reviews of the present and future trends in polymer and biopolymer science. It covers all areas of research in polymer and biopolymer science including chemistry, physical chemistry, physics, material science. The thematic volumes are addressed to scientists, whether at universities or in industry, who wish to keep abreast of the important advances in the covered topics. Advances in Polymer Science enjoys a longstanding tradition and good reputation in its community. Each volume is dedicated to a current topic, and each review critically surveys one aspect of that topic, to place it within the context of the volume. The volumes typically summarize the significant developments of the last 5 to 10 years and discuss them critically, presenting selected examples, explaining and illustrating the important principles, and bringing together many important references of primary literature. On that basis, future research directions in the area can be discussed. Advances in Polymer Science volumes thus are important references for every polymer scientist, as well as for other scientists interested in polymer science - as an introduction to a neighboring field, or as a compilation of detailed information for the specialist. Review articles for the individual volumes are invited by the volume editors. Single contributions can be specially commissioned. Readership: Polymer scientists, or scientists in related fields interested in polymer and biopolymer science, at universities or in industry, graduate students

Lasers in Materials Science


Author: Marta Castillejo,Paolo M. Ossi,Leonid Zhigilei
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3319028987
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 387
View: 8734

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This book covers various aspects of lasers in materials science, including a comprehensive overview on basic principles of laser-materials interactions and applications enabled by pulsed laser systems. The material is organized in a coherent way, providing the reader with a harmonic architecture. While systematically covering the major current and emerging areas of lasers processing applications, the Volume provides examples of targeted modification of material properties achieved through careful control of the processing conditions and laser irradiation parameters. Special emphasis is placed on specific strategies aimed at nanoscale control of material structure and properties to match the stringent requirements of modern applications. Laser fabrication of novel nanomaterials, which expands to the domains of photonics, photovoltaics, sensing, and biomedical applications, is also discussed in the Volume. This book assembles chapters based on lectures delivered at the Venice International School on Lasers in Materials Science which was held in Isola di San Servolo, Venice, Italy, in July, 2012.

Basic Physics of Functionalized Graphite


Author: Pablo D. Esquinazi
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319393553
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 185
View: 7214

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This book summarizes the basic physics of graphite and newly discovered phenomena in this material. The book contains the knowledge needed to understand novel properties of functionalized graphite demonstrating the occurrence of remarkable phenomena in disordered graphite and graphite-based heterostructures. It also discusses applications of thin graphitic samples in future electronics. Graphite consists of a stack of nearly decoupled two-dimensional graphene planes. Because of the low dimensionality and the presence of Dirac fermions, much of graphite physics resembles that of graphene. On the other hand, the multi-layered nature of the graphite structure together with structural and/or chemical disorder are responsible for phenomena that are not observed yet in graphene, such as ferromagnetic order and superconductivity. Each chapter was written by one or more experts in the field whose contributions were relevant in the (re)discovery of (un)known phenomena in graphite. The book is intended as reference for beginners and experts in the field, introducing them to many aspects of the new physics of graphite, with a fresh overview of recently found phenomena and the theoretical frames to understand them.

Fiber Technology for Fiber-Reinforced Composites


Author: M. Ozgur Seydibeyoglu,Amar K. Mohanty,Manjusri Misra
Publisher: Woodhead Publishing
ISBN: 0081009933
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 336
View: 1768

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Fiber Technology for Fiber-Reinforced Composites provides a detailed introduction to fiber reinforced composites, explaining the mechanics of fiber reinforced composites, along with information on the various fiber types, including manufacturing of fibers (starting from monomers and precursors), fiber spinning techniques, testing of fibers, and surface modification of fibers. As material technologies develop, composite materials are becoming more and more important in transportation, construction, electronics, sporting goods, the defense industry, and other areas of research. Many engineers working in industry and academics at universities are trying to manufacture composite materials using a limited number of fiber types with almost no information on fiber technology, fiber morphology, fiber properties, and fiber sizing agents. This book fills that gap in knowledge. Unique in that it focuses on a broad range of different fiber types used in composites manufacturing Contains contributions from leading experts working in both industry and academia Provides comprehensive coverage on both natural and nanofibers

Carbon Fibers, Third Edition,


Author: Jean-Baptiste Donnet,Roop Chand Bansal
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1482285398
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 584
View: 6718

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"Third Edition offers the latest information on the structural, surface, mechanical, electronic, thermal, and magnetic properties of carbon fibers as well as their manufacture and industrial applications from many of the world's most distinguished specialists in the field. "

Raman Scattering in Materials Science


Author: Willes H. Weber,Roberto Merlin
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3662042215
Category: Science
Page: 494
View: 3027

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Raman scattering is now being applied with increasing success to a wide range of practical problems at the cutting edge of materials science. The purpose of this book is to make Raman spectroscopy understandable to the non-specialist and thus to bring it into the mainstream of routine materials characterization. The book is pedagogical in approach and focuses on technologically important condensed-matter systems in which the specific use of Raman spectroscopy yields new and useful information. Included are chapters on instrumentation, bulk semiconductors and alloys, heterostructures, high-Tc superconductors, catalysts, carbon-based materials, wide-gap and super-hard materials, and polymers.

Carbon at High Temperatures


Author: Alexander Savvatimskiy
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319213504
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 246
View: 1187

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This book deals with the properties and behavior of carbon at high temperatures. It presents new methods and new ways to obtain the liquid phase of carbon. Melting of graphite and the properties of liquid carbon are presented under stationary heat and pulse methods. Metal like properties of molten graphite at high initial density are indicated. A new possible transition of liquid carbon from metal to nonmetal behavior much above the melting point is mentioned. Methodical questions of pulse heating, in particular the role of pinch-pressure in receiving a liquid state of carbon, are discussed. The reader finds evidence about the necessity of applying high pressure (higher than 100 bar) to melt graphite (melting temperature 4800±100 K). The reader can verify the advantage of volume pulse electrical heating before surface laser heating to study the physical properties of carbon, including enthalpy, heat capacity, electrical resistivity and temperature. The advantages of fast heating of graphite by pulsed electric current during a few microseconds are shown. The data obtained for the heat capacity of liquid carbon under constant pressure and constant volume were used to estimate the behavior at temperatures much higher 5000 K.

Design and Control of Structure of Advanced Carbon Materials for Enhanced Performance


Author: Brian Rand,Stephen P. Appleyard,M. Ferhat Yardim
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401010137
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 347
View: 8586

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Carbon is unique in the range of structures and properties that are displayed by its material forms. The bonds in diamond, within the plane ofgraphite and in the fullerene molecules, C , are the strongest covalent bonds possible. This strong covalent bonding 60 leads to some exceptional intrinsic properties, examples ofwhich are: the greatest Young's modulus (in diamond, within the graphite plane and in single walled nanotubes) the highest room temperature thermal conductivity (in diamond and within the graphite plane) high hole mobility in doped diamond exceptional thermal stability ofthe structure in graphite It is because of the extreme thermal stability that such a wide range of materials is available. Atomic mobilities are low at all but the highest temperatures. Sintering, melting and casting ofcarbon are not feasible processing operations and carbon/graphite components are exclusively produced from the pyrolytic decomposition of organic precursors. The vast majority of engineering carbons have Sp2 type bonding and are related in some way to the structure of graphite. In the c-direction the bonding in graphite is of van der Waals character with the result that graphite is highly anisotropic in its properties and is probably unique in showing both the highest and lowest bond strengths in different directions in the same crystal.

Chemical Modification, Properties, and Usage of Lignin


Author: Thomas Q. Hu
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461506433
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 291
View: 3123

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One of the most significant challenges facing mankind in the twenty-first century is the development of a sustainable global economy. Within the scientific community, this calls for the development of processes and technologies that will allow the sustainable production of materials from renewable natural resources. Plant material, in particular lignin, is one such resource. During the annual production of about 100 million metric tons of chemical wood pulps worldwide, approximately 45 and 2 million metric tons/year of kraft lignin and lignosulfonates, respectively, are also generated. Although lignosulfonates have found many applications outside the pulp and paper industry, the majority of kraft lignin is being used internally as a low-grade fuel for the kraft pulping operation. A surplus of kraft lignin will become available as kraft mills increase their pulp production without expanding the capacity of their recovery boilers that utilize lignin as a fuel. There is a tremendous opportunity and an enormous economic incentive to find better uses of kraft lignin, lignosulfonates and other industriallignins. The pulp and paper industry not only produces an enormous amount of lignins as by products of chemical wood pulps, but it also utilizes about 10 million metric tons of lignin per year as a component of mechanical wood pulps and papers. Mechanical wood pulps, produced in a yield of 90-98% with the retention of lignin, are mainly used to make low-quality, non-permanent papers such as newsprint and telephone directories because of the light-induced photooxidation of lignin and the yellowing of the papers.

Wicking in Porous Materials

Traditional and Modern Modeling Approaches
Author: Reza Masoodi,Krishna M. Pillai
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439874328
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 380
View: 6895

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A comprehensive presentation of wicking models developed in academia and industry, Wicking in Porous Materials: Traditional and Modern Modeling Approaches contains some of the most important approaches and methods available, from the traditional Washburn-type models to the latest Lattice-Boltzmann approaches developed during the last few years. It provides a sound conceptual framework for learning the science behind different mathematical models while at the same time being aware of the practical issues of model validation as well as measurement of important properties and parameters associated with various models. Top experts in the field reveal the secrets of their wicking models. The chapters cover the following topics: Wetting and wettability Darcy’s law for single- and multi-phase flows Traditional capillary models, such as the Washburn-equation based approaches Unsaturated-flow based methodologies (Richard’s Equation) Sharp-front (plug-flow) type approaches using Darcy’s law Pore network models for wicking after including various micro-scale fluid-flow phenomena Studying the effect of evaporation on wicking using pore network models Fractal-based methods Modeling methods based on mixture theory Lattice-Boltzmann method for modeling wicking in small scales Modeling wicking in swelling and non-rigid porous media This extensive look at the modeling of porous media compares various methods and treats traditional topics as well as modern technologies. It emphasizes experimental validation of modeling approaches as well as experimental determination of model parameters. Matching models to particular media, the book provides guidance on what models to use and how to use them.

Carbon Fiber Composites


Author: Deborah D.L. Chung,Deborah Chung
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080500730
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 215
View: 3029

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In Carbon Fiber Composites, the reader is introduced to a wide range of carbon fiber composites, including polymer-matrix, metal matrix, carbon-matrix, ceramic-matrix and hybrid composites. The subject is examined in a tutorial fashion, so that no prior knowledge of the field is required. In contrast to other books on composites, this book emphasizes materials rather than mechanics, as the prominence of composite materials has resulted from their increased presence in applications other than structure. Provides up-to-date information on the entire spectrum of carbon fiber composites Emphasizes processing as the foundation of composite materials development Addresses the processing, properties and applications of each type of material systematically