State of the World's Cities 2010/2011

Bridging the Urban Divide
Author: Un-habitat
Publisher: Earthscan
ISBN: 1849711755
Category: Political Science
Page: 220
View: 1346

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One billion people worldwide live in slums and that figure is predicted to reach 2 billion by 2030. This new volume from UN-HABITAT unpacks the complex social and economic issues using the novel conceptual framework of the urban divide.

State of the World's Cities 2010/2011

Bridging the Urban Divide
Author: United Nations Human Settlements Programme
Publisher: Earthscan / James & James
ISBN: 9781849711760
Category: Architecture
Page: 220
View: 9490

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Cities are constantly changing. They are built, rebuilt, destroyed, transformed, occupied by different groups, and used for different functions. In the search for higher returns through better spatial structures, more efficient economies of scale and other benefits, cities generate a diversity of residential patterns. In this process, they are more often than not divided by visible and invisible borders, splitting "off-center" and "central" areas, or the "higher" and the "lower" districts, as the Urban Divide is colloquially symbolized in many developing countries. The Urban Divide can be characterized by various forms of inclusion/exclusion, integration/marginalization, wealth/poverty, equality/inequality, formality and informality. Those on the wrong side of the divide are excluded of the benefits of urban expansion and prosperity. They are denied the urban advantage. The most visible and measurable form of inclusion or exclusion is economic, and this Report reviews urban economic inequality based on new data. Other social, political and cultural factors are shown to be at work, too, from the latest research, policy analysis and available statistics. The urban poor and underprivileged-women and young people in particular-are exposed to various types of inequality, from planning and land policies (or their absence) to a lack of basic services, decent employment, education, nutrition, health care as well as civic and political freedoms and opportunities. As this new edition of State of the World's Cities demonstrates, the "Urban Divide" concept provides a theoretical framework that makes it possible to understand today's urban realities, particularly in the developing world. From a more practical perspective, the concept highlights the four critical dimensions of the divide-social, economic, political and cultural-at work in many cities of the world today. The findings suggest that economic growth cannot, on its own, bring the redistributive change required to address urban exclusion. This Report advocates rights-based policies as the best way of "Bridging the Urban Divide". These basic rights capture the four dimensions of exclusion/inclusion and are already endorsed, if only formally, in most national constitutions. Expert opinion from 27 representative cities pinpoints how the dynamics of inclusion can work in three major developing regions, as well as the predictable and less predictable interconnections between economic, social, political and cultural factors. Public authorities must tackle the four dimensions of inequality simultaneously; and this will not be feasible short of close institutional, policymaking and financial coordination between municipal, intermediary and central tiers of government. This Report maps out five major policy steps across the urban divide and suggests how better to integrate the poor and marginalized into mainstream urban life. It shows with compelling evidence that determined governments are in a position to eliminate the divisions, and pave the way for more tolerance, diversity and social justice in the towns and cities of this world.

State of the World's Cities 2012/2013

Prosperity of Cities
Author: Un Habitat,
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135015589
Category: Political Science
Page: 208
View: 4142

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The city is the home of prosperity. It is the place where human beings find satisfaction of basic needs and access to essential public goods. The city is also where ambitions, aspirations and other material and immaterial aspects of life are realized, providing contentment and happiness. It is a locus at which the prospects of prosperity and individual and collective well-being can be increased. However, when prosperity is restricted to some groups, when it is used to pursue specific interests, or when it is a justification for financial gains for the few to the detriment of the majority, the city becomes the arena where the right to shared prosperity is claimed and fought for. As people in the latter part of 2011 gathered in Cairo’s Tahrir Square, in Madrid’s Puerta del Sol, in front of London’s St Paul’s cathedral, or in New York’s Zuccotti Park, they were not only demanding more equality and inclusion; they were also expressing the need for prosperity to be shared across all segments of society. What this new edition of State of the World’s Cities shows is that prosperity for all has been compromised by a narrow focus on economic growth. UN-Habitat suggests a fresh approach to prosperity beyond the solely economic emphasis, including other vital dimensions such as quality of life, adequate infrastructures, equity and environmental sustainability. The Report proposes a new tool – the City Prosperity Index – together with a conceptual matrix, the Wheel of Prosperity, both of which are meant to assist decision makers to design clear policy interventions. The Report advocates for the need of cities to enhance the public realm, expand public goods and consolidate rights to the 'commons' for all as a way to expand prosperity. This comes in response to the observed trend of enclosing or restricting these goods and commons in enclaves of prosperity, or depleting them through unsustainable use. The Report maps out major policy steps to promote a new type of city – the city of the twenty-first century – that is a 'good', people-centred city. One that is capable of integrating the tangible and more intangible aspects of prosperity, and in the process shedding off the inefficient, unsustainable forms and functionalities of the city of the previous century. By doing this, UN-Habitat plays a pivotal role in ensuring that urban planning, legal, regulatory and institutional frameworks become instruments of prosperity and well-being.

Bridging the Medieval-Modern Divide

Medieval Themes in the World of the Reformation
Author: Professor James Muldoon
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
ISBN: 1409472213
Category: History
Page: 256
View: 2452

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The debate about when the middle ages ended and the modern era began, has long been a staple of the historical literature. In order to further this debate, and illuminate the implications of a longue durée approach to the history of the Reformation, this collection offers a selection of essays that address the medieval-modern divide. Covering a broad range of topics - encompassing legal, social, cultural, theological and political history - the volume asks fundamental questions about how we regard history, and what historians can learn from colleagues working in other fields that may not at first glance appear to offer any obvious links. By focussing on the concept of the medieval-modern divide - in particular the relation between the Middle Ages and the Reformation - each essay examines how a medievalist deals with a specific topic or issue that is also attracting the attention of Reformation scholars. In so doing it underlines the fact that both medievalists and modernists are often involved in bridging the medieval-modern divide, but are inclined to construct parallel bridges that end between the two starting points but do not necessarily meet. As a result, the volume challenges assumptions about the strict periodization of history, and suggest that a more flexible approach will yield interesting historical insights.

Bridging the Digital Divide

Technology, Community and Public Policy
Author: Lisa J. Servon
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0470775289
Category: Social Science
Page: 320
View: 4052

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Bridging the Digital Divide investigates problems of unequal access to information technology. The author redefines this problem, examines its severity, and lays out what the future implications might be if the digital divide continues to exist. Examines unequal access to information technology in the United States. Analyses the success or failure of policies designed to address the digital divide. Draws on extensive fieldwork in several US cities. Makes recommendations for future public policy. Series editor: Manuel Castells.

Without a Net: Librarians Bridging the Digital Divide

Librarians Bridging the Digital Divide
Author: Jessamyn C. West
Publisher: ABC-CLIO
ISBN: 1598844547
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 258
View: 3826

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An easy-to-read and understand guide to the complexities surrounding technology access and adoption that focuses on the ways libraries can help close the digital divide.

Human Rights and Conflict Resolution

Bridging the Theoretical and Practical Divide
Author: Claudia Fuentes Julio,Paula Drumond
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1315409356
Category: Political Science
Page: 282
View: 5344

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Human rights and conflict resolution have been traditionally perceived as two separate fields, sometimes in competition or in tension and occasionally with contradictory approaches towards achieving a lasting peace. Although human rights norms have been incorporated and institutionalized by various national, regional, and international organizations that deal with conflict resolution, negotiators and mediators are often pressured in practice to overlook international human rights principles in favor of compliance and more immediate outcomes. The chapters in this volume navigate the relationship between human rights and conflict resolution by fleshing out practical, conceptual, and institutional encounters of the two agendas and engaging with lessons learned and windows of opportunities for mutual learning. Recognizing the increasing relevance of this debate and important gaps in the current research on the topic, this book addresses the following questions: How can we improve our practical and theoretical understanding of the complementarity between human rights and conflict resolution? How would a human rights-based approach to conflict resolution look like? How are international, regional, and national organizations promoting, implementing, and/or adapting to better coordinate between human rights and conflict resolution? Building on empirical evidence from contemporary conflict resolution processes, how have human rights been integrated in different efforts on the ground? What are the main lessons learned in this regard? Examining a wide range of countries and issues, this work is essential reading for human rights, conflict resolution, and security experts including scholars, diplomats, policy-makers, civil society representatives, and students of international politics.

Bridging Divides

The Channel Tunnel and English Legal Identity in the New Europe
Author: Eve Darian-Smith
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 9780520921832
Category: Social Science
Page: 273
View: 6622

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In a study that is original and timely, Eve Darian-Smith uses the Channel Tunnel between England and France to explore the shifting geographies of nationalism, postcolonialism, and legal autonomy in the formation of the European Union. Conducting ethnographic research in Kent, the county at the English mouth of the Tunnel, she looks at regional differences in feelings about Europe and at the vocabulary used in discussing the Tunnel. Visual representations—political cartoons, photographs, etchings—regarding the Tunnel are also examined. Two hundred years after Napoleon planned to invade England via a tunnel, the completion in 1994 of a fast rail link between Great Britain and the European mainland symbolizes the disintegration of conventional state borders. While the Tunnel precariously affirms the ideal of a united Europe, it also brings to the fore questions of boundaries between the first and third worlds, colonizers and colonized, and the "East" and the "West." Bridging Divides is about much more than an engineering feat. By exploring historical narratives, tunnel stories, and legal myths, Darian-Smith's study shows the interconnections between people's memories of the past and current history.

The State of the World's Cities 2004/2005

Globalization and Urban Culture
Author: N.A
Publisher: UN-HABITAT
ISBN: 9211317053
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 198
View: 6602

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As towns and cities expand at unprecedented rates, sustainable urban development is one of the most pressing challenges facing the international community in the 21st century. This publication examines the realities faced by urban populations around the world, focusing on the impact of globalisation and the way cities are governed and planned, on the make-up and density of their population, and on their cultures and economies. Issues considered include: the impact of globalisation on urban culture; urban renewal and cultural strategies; the concept of metropolitanization; socio-economic and cultural impacts of international migration; urban poverty and homelessness, social inequality and exclusion; urban governance, safety and crime trends; contemporary planning strategies and the role of civil society; progress towards attainment of the Millennium Development Goals targets for sanitation and housing. The report highlights the need for a new culture of planning to establish multicultural and inclusive cities, involving civil society as well as public authorities.

Reconceptualizing the Literacies in Adolescents' Lives


Author: Donna E. Alvermann,Kathleen A. Hinchman,David W. Moore,Stephen F. Phelps,Diane R. Waff
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317433866
Category: Education
Page: 360
View: 5511

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Reconceptualizing the Literacies in Adolescents' Lives, Second Edition focuses on exploring the impact of young people's identity-making practices in mediating their perceptions of themselves as readers and writers in an era of externally mandated reforms. What is different in the Second Edition is its emphasis on the importance of valuing adolescents' perspectives--in an era of skyrocketing interest in improving literacy instruction at the middle and high school levels driven by externally mandated reforms and accountability measures. A central concern is the degree to which this new interest takes into account adolescents’ personal, social, and cultural experiences in relation to literacy learning. In this new edition of Reconceptualizing the Literacies in Adolescents’ Lives students’ voices and perspectives are featured front and center in every chapter. Particular attention is given throughout to multiple literacies--especially how information and new communication technologies are changing learning from and with text. Nine of the 15 chapters are new; all other chapters are thoroughly updated. The volume is structured around four main themes: * Situating Adolescents’ Literacies–addressing how young people use favorite texts to perform their identities; how they counter school-based constructions of incompetence; and how they re/construct their literate identities in relation to certain kinds of gendered expectations, pedagogies, and cultural resources; * Positioning Youth as Readers and Writers–stressing the importance of classroom discourse, cultural capital, agency, and democratic citizenship in mediating adolescents’ literate identities; * Mediating Practices in Young People’s Literacies–looking at issues of language, social class, race, and culture in shaping how adolescents represent themselves and are represented by others; and * Changing Teachers, Teaching Changes–capturing the productive ambiguities associated with teaching urban adolescents to read and write in changing times, encouraging students to conduct action research on topics that are personally relevant, and using ‘enabling constraints’ as a concept to formulate policies on adolescent literacy instruction. Reconceptualizing the Literacies in Adolescents’ Lives, Second Edition is an essential volume for researchers, faculty, teacher educators, and graduate students in the field of adolescent literacy education.

Bridging Divides

Ethno-Political Leadership among the Russian Sámi
Author: Indra Overland,Mikkel Berg-Nordlie
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 0857456687
Category: Social Science
Page: 162
View: 6128

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The Sámi are a Northern indigenous people whose land, Sápmi, covers territory in Finland, Norway, Russia, and Sweden. For the Nordic Sámi, the last decades of the twentieth century saw their indigenous rights partially recognized, a cultural and linguistic revival, and the establishment of Sámi parliaments. The Russian Sámi, however, did not have the same opportunities and were isolated behind the closed border until the dissolution of the Soviet Union. This book examines the following two decades and the Russian Sámi's attempt to achieve a linguistic revival, to mend the Cold War scars, and to establish their own independent ethno-political organizations.

Market Economy and Urban Change

Impacts in the Developing World
Author: Mohammed Hamza,Roger Zetter
Publisher: Earthscan
ISBN: 1849771952
Category: Architecture
Page: 225
View: 8845

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Across the developing world the preceding decade or so has witnessed a profound reconfiguration of the political economy of urban policy. This new policy environment is driven by globalization, the neo-liberal macro-economic package of 'market enablement' and structural adjustment, which now form the dominant development paradigm. The consequences of this approach for urban development agendas and ultimately the lives and livelihoods of millions of people across the globe are profound. Market Economy and Urban Change explores and evaluates urban sector and development policies in the context of market enablement, and the associated instruments of structural adjustment, urban management reform and 'good' governance. By articulating the linkages between this neo-liberal development paradigm and the way different actors in the urban sector enact policy responses, the book provides an understanding of both the factors driving market enablement, and its impacts on urban sector policies and programmes. With case studies drawn from countries such as Egypt, Mexico, Kenya, Brazil, Colombia and transitional economies, the book focuses in particular on the implications for land, shelter and related sectoral policies for poverty alleviation. By linking policy to practice, the book seeks to inform policy-makers in governments, donor and implementing agencies of the impact of shifts in the development debate on urban sector strategies.

The Black Church and Hip Hop Culture

Toward Bridging the Generational Divide
Author: Emmett G. Price, III
Publisher: Scarecrow Press
ISBN: 081088237X
Category: Music
Page: 240
View: 1404

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In this collection of provocative essays, leading thinkers, preachers, and scholars from around the country challenge both the Black church and the hip-hop generation to realize their shared responsibilities to one another and to the greater society.

Geography and History

Bridging the Divide
Author: Alan R. H. Baker
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521288859
Category: History
Page: 279
View: 1713

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Unique examination of the relations between geography and history.