Brain-Grounded Theory of Temporal and Spatial Design

In Architecture and the Environment
Author: Yoichi Ando
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 4431558918
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 185
View: 9918

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In this book, brain-grounded theory of temporal and spatial design in architecture and the environment is discussed. The author believes that it is a key to solving such global problems as environmental disorders and severe climate change as well as conflicts that are caused by the ill-conceived notion of “time is money”. There are three phases or aspects of a person’s life: the physical life, the spiritual or mental life, and the third stage of life, when a person moves from middle age into old age and can choose what he or she wishes to do instead of simply what must be done. This book describes the temporal design of the environment based on the theory of subjective preference, which could make it possible for an individual to realize a healthy life in all three phases. In his previously published work, the present author wrote that the theory of subjective preference has been established for the sound and visual fields based on neural evidence, and that subjective preference is an overall response of cooperating temporal and spatial factors, associated with the brain’s left and right hemispheres, respectively. In this book, based on that theory, some examples are shown for the temporal design of architecture and the environment, which may play important roles in the development of personality, thus inducing creativity. Also discussed is how all individuals may find their own personality and develop it according to the preferred direction of their individual lives.

Signal Processing in Auditory Neuroscience

Temporal and Spatial Features of Sound and Speech
Author: Yoichi Ando
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128159391
Category: Medical
Page: 120
View: 9746

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Signal Processing in Auditory Neuroscience: Temporal and Spatial Features of Sound and Speech discusses how the physical attributes of different sounds manifest in neural signals and how to tease-apart their different influences. It includes EEG/MEG as additional variables to be considered when studying neural mechanisms of auditory processing in general, specifically in speech. Focuses on signal processing in human auditory-neuroscience Contains information that will be useful to researchers using a MEG/EEG recording of brain activity to study neural mechanisms of auditory processing and speech Gives an important overview and methodological background for techniques that are useful in human auditory-neuroscience

Auditory and Visual Sensations


Author: Yoichi Ando
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441901729
Category: Science
Page: 344
View: 6381

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Ando establishes a theory of subjective preference of the sound field in a concert hall, based on preference theory with a model of human auditory- brain system. The model uses the autocorrelation function and the interaural crosscorrelation function for signals arriving at two ear entrances and considers the specialization of human cerebral hemispheres. The theory may be applied to describe primary sensations such as pitch or missing fundamental, loudness, timbre, and duration. The theory may also be applied to visual sensations as well as subjective preference of visual environments. Remarkable findings in activities in both auditory-brain and visual-brain systems in relation to subjective preference as a primitive response are described.

Embodied and grounded cognition


Author: Anna Borghi,Diane Pecher
Publisher: Frontiers E-books
ISBN: 2889190137
Category:
Page: N.A
View: 6454

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In the last 10-15 years, the "embodied" and "grounded" cognition approach has become widespread in all fields related to cognitive science, such as cognitive and social psychology, neuroscience, philosophy, anthropology, computational modelling and robotics. According to this approach, our cognitive activity is grounded in sensory-motor processes and situated in specific contexts and situations. Therefore, in this view, concepts consist of the reactivation of the same neural pattern that is present when we perceive and/or interact with the objects they refer to. In the same way, understanding language would imply forming a mental simulation of what is linguistically described. This simulation would entail the recruitment of the same neurons that are activated when actually acting or perceiving the situation, action, emotion, object or entity described by language. In the last years a lot of evidence has been collected in favour of EC and GC view. The aim of this Research Topic is twofold. First, it intends to give an idea of the field of embodied and grounded cognition in its broadness. We therefore intend to invite scientists of different disciplines (anthropology, philosophy, linguistics, cognitive and social psychology, neuroscience, computer science) to submit their proposals. The second aim of this Research Topicis to focus on some challenges that in our opinion embodied and grounded theories of cognition need to face. First, we believe that one important challenge for EC and GC views is to account for the way the so-called "abstract concepts" and abstract words are represented. Evidence on the representation of concrete concepts and words is compelling, whereas evidence on abstract concepts representation is still too scarce and limited to restricted domains. We therefore welcome proposals dealing with this complex issue. Second, we think that embodied and grounded theories of cognition would need to formulate more precise hypotheses, and that in general within the field a larger theoretical effort should be made. It is striking that, even if a lot of work in the field of computational modelling and robotics starts from an embodied approach, experimental and modelling work on embodied cognition remain somehow separate. We therefore invite researchers to submit papers proposing models which might help to explain phenomena as well as to constrain and specify in more detail the predictions and the claims advanced within the framework of EC and GC theories.

Architecture and Modern Literature


Author: David Spurr
Publisher: University of Michigan Press
ISBN: 0472051717
Category: Architecture
Page: 285
View: 8522

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Exploring the related cultural forms of architecture and literature in the modern era

Human Brain Function


Author: Karl J. Friston,Christopher D. Frith,Raymond J. Dolan,Cathy J. Price,Semir Zeki,John T. Ashburner,William D. Penny
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080472959
Category: Medical
Page: 1144
View: 5254

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This updated second edition provides the state of the art perspective of the theory, practice and application of modern non-invasive imaging methods employed in exploring the structural and functional architecture of the normal and diseased human brain. Like the successful first edition, it is written by members of the Functional Imaging Laboratory - the Wellcome Trust funded London lab that has contributed much to the development of brain imaging methods and their application in the last decade. This book should excite and intrigue anyone interested in the new facts about the brain gained from neuroimaging and also those who wish to participate in this area of brain science. * Represents an almost entirely new book from 1st edition, covering the rapid advances in methods and in understanding of how human brains are organized * Reviews major advances in cognition, perception, emotion and action * Introduces novel experimental designs and analytical techniques made possible with fMRI, including event-related designs and non-linear analysis

Architecture and Empathy


Author: Juhani Pallasmaa,Harry Francis Mallgrave,Sarah Robinson,Vittorio Gallese
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9780692539194
Category:
Page: 90
View: 9664

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Neurally Based Measurement and Evaluation of Environmental Noise


Author: Yoshiharu Soeta,Yoichi Ando
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 4431554327
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 264
View: 6252

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This book deals with methods of measurement and evaluation of environmental noise based on an auditory neural and brain-oriented model. The model consists of the autocorrelation function (ACF) and the interaural cross-correlation function (IACF) mechanisms for signals arriving at the two ear entrances. Even when the sound pressure level of a noise is only about 35 dBA, people may feel annoyed due to the aspects of sound quality. These aspects can be formulated by the factors extracted from the ACF and IACF. Several examples of measuring environmental noise—from outdoor noise such as that of aircraft, traffic, and trains, and indoor noise such as caused by floor impact, toilets, and air-conditioning—are demonstrated. According to the noise measurement and evaluation, applications for sound design are discussed. This book provides an excellent resource for students, researchers, and practitioners in a wide range of fields, such as the automotive, railway, and electronics industries, and soundscape, architecture, and acoustics.

Principles of Synthetic Intelligence

Psi: An Architecture of Motivated Cognition
Author: Joscha Bach
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199708109
Category: Psychology
Page: 400
View: 6870

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From the Foreword: "In this book Joscha Bach introduces Dietrich Dörner's PSI architecture and Joscha's implementation of the MicroPSI architecture. These architectures and their implementation have several lessons for other architectures and models. Most notably, the PSI architecture includes drives and thus directly addresses questions of emotional behavior. An architecture including drives helps clarify how emotions could arise. It also changes the way that the architecture works on a fundamental level, providing an architecture more suited for behaving autonomously in a simulated world. PSI includes three types of drives, physiological (e.g., hunger), social (i.e., affiliation needs), and cognitive (i.e., reduction of uncertainty and expression of competency). These drives routinely influence goal formation and knowledge selection and application. The resulting architecture generates new kinds of behaviors, including context dependent memories, socially motivated behavior, and internally motivated task switching. This architecture illustrates how emotions and physical drives can be included in an embodied cognitive architecture. The PSI architecture, while including perceptual, motor, learning, and cognitive processing components, also includes several novel knowledge representations: temporal structures, spatial memories, and several new information processing mechanisms and behaviors, including progress through types of knowledge sources when problem solving (the Rasmussen ladder), and knowledge-based hierarchical active vision. These mechanisms and representations suggest ways for making other architectures more realistic, more accurate, and easier to use. The architecture is demonstrated in the Island simulated environment. While it may look like a simple game, it was carefully designed to allow multiple tasks to be pursued and provides ways to satisfy the multiple drives. It would be useful in its own right for developing other architectures interested in multi-tasking, long-term learning, social interaction, embodied architectures, and related aspects of behavior that arise in a complex but tractable real-time environment. The resulting models are not presented as validated cognitive models, but as theoretical explorations in the space of architectures for generating behavior. The sweep of the architecture can thus be larger-it presents a new cognitive architecture attempting to provide a unified theory of cognition. It attempts to cover perhaps the largest number of phenomena to date. This is not a typical cognitive modeling work, but one that I believe that we can learn much from." --Frank E. Ritter, Series Editor Although computational models of cognition have become very popular, these models are relatively limited in their coverage of cognition-- they usually only emphasize problem solving and reasoning, or treat perception and motivation as isolated modules. The first architecture to cover cognition more broadly is PSI theory, developed by Dietrich Dorner. By integrating motivation and emotion with perception and reasoning, and including grounded neuro-symbolic representations, PSI contributes significantly to an integrated understanding of the mind. It provides a conceptual framework that highlights the relationships between perception and memory, language and mental representation, reasoning and motivation, emotion and cognition, autonomy and social behavior. It is, however, unfortunate that PSI's origin in psychology, its methodology, and its lack of documentation have limited its impact. The proposed book adapts Psi theory to cognitive science and artificial intelligence, by elucidating both its theoretical and technical frameworks, and clarifying its contribution to how we have come to understand cognition.

Being and Time

A Translation of Sein und Zeit
Author: Martin Heidegger
Publisher: SUNY Press
ISBN: 9780791426777
Category: Philosophy
Page: 487
View: 1850

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A new, definitive translation of Heidegger's most important work.

Rethinking Architecture

A Reader in Cultural Theory
Author: Neil Leach
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134796285
Category: Architecture
Page: 432
View: 8362

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Brought together for the first time - the seminal writing on architecture by key philosophers and cultural theorist of the twentieth century. Issues around the built environment are increasingly central to the study of the social sciences and humanities. The essays offer a refreshing take on the question of architecture and provocatively rethink many of the accepted tenets of architecture theory from a broader cultural perspective. The book represents a careful selection of the very best theoretical writings on the ideas which have shaped our cities and our experiences of architecture. As such, Rethinking Architecture provides invaluable core source material for students on a range of courses.

A Theory of Architecture


Author: Nikos A. Salingaros,Michael W. Mehaffy
Publisher: UMBAU-VERLAG Harald Püschel
ISBN: 3937954074
Category: Architecture
Page: 278
View: 1441

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More than a decade in the making, this is a textbook of architecture rich with design techniques and useful for every architect whether a first-year students or experienced practicing architects. The book teaches the reader how to design by adapting to human needs and sensibilities, yet independently of any particular style. It explains much of what people instinctively know about architecture, and puts that knowledge for the first time in a concise, understandable form. There has not been such a book treating the very essence of architecture. Preface by the Prince of Wales

Advances for Prosthetic Technology

From Historical Perspective to Current Status to Future Application
Author: Robert LeMoyne
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 4431558160
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 135
View: 2724

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This book focuses on the advances in transtibial prosthetic technology and targets research in the evolution of the powered prosthesis such as the BiOM, which was derived from considerable research and development at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The concept of the book spans the historical evolution of prosthetic applications from passive to new and futuristic robotic prosthetic technologies. The author describes the reasons for amputation, surgical procedures, and an historical perspective of the prosthesis for the lower limb. He also addresses the phases and sub-phases of gait and compensatory mechanisms arising for a transtibial prosthesis and links the compensatory mechanisms to long-term morbidities. The general technologies for gait analysis central to prosthetic design and the inherent biomechanics foundations for analysis are also explored. The book reports on recent-past to current-term applications with passive elastic prostheses. The core of the book deals with futuristic robotic prostheses including their function and major subsystems, such as actuator technology, state machine control, and machine learning applications. Finally, the envisioned future trends in the prosthetic technology space are presented.

Theory of Affine Projection Algorithms for Adaptive Filtering


Author: Kazuhiko Ozeki
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 4431557385
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 223
View: 4484

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This book focuses on theoretical aspects of the affine projection algorithm (APA) for adaptive filtering. The APA is a natural generalization of the classical, normalized least-mean-squares (NLMS) algorithm. The book first explains how the APA evolved from the NLMS algorithm, where an affine projection view is emphasized. By looking at those adaptation algorithms from such a geometrical point of view, we can find many of the important properties of the APA, e.g., the improvement of the convergence rate over the NLMS algorithm especially for correlated input signals. After the birth of the APA in the mid-1980s, similar algorithms were put forward by other researchers independently from different perspectives. This book shows that they are variants of the APA, forming a family of APAs. Then it surveys research on the convergence behavior of the APA, where statistical analyses play important roles. It also reviews developments of techniques to reduce the computational complexity of the APA, which are important for real-time processing. It covers a recent study on the kernel APA, which extends the APA so that it is applicable to identification of not only linear systems but also nonlinear systems. The last chapter gives an overview of current topics on variable parameter APAs. The book is self-contained, and is suitable for graduate students and researchers who are interested in advanced theory of adaptive filtering.

Neuroeconomics

Decision Making and the Brain
Author: Paul W. Glimcher,Ernst Fehr
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0123914698
Category: Psychology
Page: 560
View: 9795

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In the years since it first published, Neuroeconomics: Decision Making and the Brain has become the standard reference and textbook in the burgeoning field of neuroeconomics. The second edition, a nearly complete revision of this landmark book, will set a new standard. This new edition features five sections designed to serve as both classroom-friendly introductions to each of the major subareas in neuroeconomics, and as advanced synopses of all that has been accomplished in the last two decades in this rapidly expanding academic discipline. The first of these sections provides useful introductions to the disciplines of microeconomics, the psychology of judgment and decision, computational neuroscience, and anthropology for scholars and students seeking interdisciplinary breadth. The second section provides an overview of how human and animal preferences are represented in the mammalian nervous systems. Chapters on risk, time preferences, social preferences, emotion, pharmacology, and common neural currencies—each written by leading experts—lay out the foundations of neuroeconomic thought. The third section contains both overview and in-depth chapters on the fundamentals of reinforcement learning, value learning, and value representation. The fourth section, “The Neural Mechanisms for Choice, integrates what is known about the decision-making architecture into state-of-the-art models of how we make choices. The final section embeds these mechanisms in a larger social context, showing how these mechanisms function during social decision-making in both humans and animals. The book provides a historically rich exposition in each of its chapters and emphasizes both the accomplishments and the controversies in the field. A clear explanatory style and a single expository voice characterize all chapters, making core issues in economics, psychology, and neuroscience accessible to scholars from all disciplines. The volume is essential reading for anyone interested in neuroeconomics in particular or decision making in general. Editors and contributing authors are among the acknowledged experts and founders in the field, making this the authoritative reference for neuroeconomics Suitable as an advanced undergraduate or graduate textbook as well as a thorough reference for active researchers Introductory chapters on economics, psychology, neuroscience, and anthropology provide students and scholars from any discipline with the keys to understanding this interdisciplinary field Detailed chapters on subjects that include reinforcement learning, risk, inter-temporal choice, drift-diffusion models, game theory, and prospect theory make this an invaluable reference Published in association with the Society for Neuroeconomics—www.neuroeconomics.org Full-color presentation throughout with numerous carefully selected illustrations to highlight key concepts

Building Ideas

An Introduction to Architectural Theory
Author: Jonathan A. Hale
Publisher: Wiley
ISBN: 9780471851943
Category: Architecture
Page: 252
View: 1379

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Building Ideas An Introduction to Architectural Theory This book is an essential text for students of architecture and related disciplines, satisfying the demand for an accessible introduction to the major theoretical debates in contemporary architecture. Written in a lucid and user-friendly style, the book also acts as a guide and companion volume to the many primary theoretical texts recently made available in reprinted collections. Whilst architectural monographs, collections of building precedents and polemical manifestoes are growing more and more numerous, Building Ideas is the first book to provide an introduction to such a broad range of issues in architectural theory. This text therefore serves to fill a widening gap between the everyday practice of architecture and the often bewildering field of academic theoretical debate. Beginning with a general introduction to the field of architectural theory, covering the interface between philosophy and technology in the production and interpretation of buildings, the book presents the major theoretical positions in contemporary architecture through a series of thematically structured chapters. Each chapter deals with a specific approach to the theory and criticism of architecture by presenting a series of related buildings as illustrations of a key theoretical position, as well as setting this position in a cultural and historical context. Under the five broad headings of 'Architecture as Engineering - The Technological Revolution', 'Architecture as Art - Aesthetics in Philosophy', 'The Return of the Body - Phenomenology in Architecture', 'Systems of Communication - Structuralism and Semiotics' and 'Politics and Architecture - The Marxist Tradition', the book presents a wide but critical survey of the central questions in the current theoretical debate. Providing the theoretical tools necessary for an understanding of the history of philosophies and technologies in architecture, this book is essential reading for undergraduate architectural theory courses as well as a first point of reference for anyone wishing to understand the complex connections between architecture and related fields of cultural enquiry.

An Introduction to Fully Integrated Mixed Methods Research


Author: Elizabeth G. Creamer
Publisher: SAGE Publications
ISBN: 1483350940
Category: Social Science
Page: 296
View: 1588

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An Introduction to Fully Integrated Mixed Methods Research by Elizabeth G. Creamer provides the tools needed to design, execute, and evaluate fully integrated mixed methods research studies. A uniting metaphor of the architectural arch helps students understand the benefits of a mixed methods approach as they consider ways to integrate the qualitative and quantitative strands at all stages of design and execution. With use of examples from popular media and published research, this text also includes a detailed discussion of ways to accomplish mixing methods during data collection and analysis and a separate chapter on designing and executing a realistic mixed methods dissertation.

Trends in Spatial Analysis and Modelling

Decision-Support and Planning Strategies
Author: Martin Behnisch,Gotthard Meinel
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319525220
Category: Science
Page: 214
View: 518

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This book is a collection of original research papers that focus on recent developments in Spatial Analysis and Modelling with direct relevance to settlements and infrastructure. Topics include new types of data (such as simulation data), applications of methods to support decision-making, and investigations of human-environment data in order to recognize significance for structures, functions and processes of attributes. Research incorporated ranges from theoretical through methodological to applied work. It is subdivided into four main parts: the first focusing on the research of settlements and infrastructure, the second studies aspects of Geographic Data Mining, the third presents contributions in the field of Spatial Modelling, System Dynamics and Geosimulation, and the fourth part is dedicated to Multi-Scale Representation and Analysis. The book is valuable to those with a scholarly interest in spatial sciences, urban and spatial planning, as well as anyone interested in spatial analysis and the planning of human settlements and infrastructure. Most of the selected papers were originally presented at the “International Land Use Symposium (ILUS 2015): Trends in Spatial Analysis and Modelling of Settlements and Infrastructure” November 11-13 2015, in Dresden, Germany.

Neurobiology of Language


Author: Gregory Hickok,Steven L. Small
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0124078621
Category: Science
Page: 1188
View: 5689

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Neurobiology of Language explores the study of language, a field that has seen tremendous progress in the last two decades. Key to this progress is the accelerating trend toward integration of neurobiological approaches with the more established understanding of language within cognitive psychology, computer science, and linguistics. This volume serves as the definitive reference on the neurobiology of language, bringing these various advances together into a single volume of 100 concise entries. The organization includes sections on the field's major subfields, with each section covering both empirical data and theoretical perspectives. "Foundational" neurobiological coverage is also provided, including neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, genetics, linguistic, and psycholinguistic data, and models. Foundational reference for the current state of the field of the neurobiology of language Enables brain and language researchers and students to remain up-to-date in this fast-moving field that crosses many disciplinary and subdisciplinary boundaries Provides an accessible entry point for other scientists interested in the area, but not actively working in it – e.g., speech therapists, neurologists, and cognitive psychologists Chapters authored by world leaders in the field – the broadest, most expert coverage available