Biology of Root Formation and Development

Author: Arie Altman,Yoav Waisel
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461554039
Category: Science
Page: 376
View: 2011

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This book contains the majority of the presentations of the Second International Symposium on the Biology of Root Formation and Development that was hcld in Jerusa lem, Israel, June 23---28, 1996. Following the First Symposium on the Biology of Adventi tious Root Formation, held in Dallas. USA, 1993, we perceived the need to include all kinds of roots, not only the shoot-borne ones. The endogenous signals that control root formation. and the subsequent growth and development processes, are very much alike, re gardless of the sites and sources of origin of the roots. Therefore, we included in the Sec ond Symposium contributions on both shoot-borne (i.e., adventitious) roots and root-borne (i.e., lateral) roots. Plant roots have remained an exciting and an intriguing field of sciencc. During thc years that followed the first symposium, an exceptional proliferation of interest in root biology has developed, associated with the intensive research activity in this field and the contemporary developments in the understanding of root function and development. New methods have been applied, and old ideas and interprctations werc rccxamined. Alto gether, it became necessary to update our viewpoints and to expand them.

The Supporting Roots of Trees and Woody Plants: Form, Function and Physiology

Author: A. Stokes
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401734690
Category: Science
Page: 431
View: 3339

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This publication comprises the proceedings of the first International Conference devoted to the structural roots of trees and woody plants. 'The Supporting Roots - Structure and Function,' 20-24 July 1998, Bordeaux, France. The meeting was held under the auspices ofIUFRO WPS 2. 01. 13 'Root Physiology and Symbiosis,' and its aim was to bring together scientific researchers, foresters and arboriculturalists, to discuss current problems in structural root research and disseminate knowledge to an audience from a wide disciplinary background. For the first time in an international conference, emphasis was placed on presenting recent reseach in the field of tree anchorage mechanics and root biomechanics. The way in which tree stability can be affected by root system symmetry and architecture was addressed, as well as how movement during wind sway can influence the development and shape of woody roots. The role of different nursery and planting techniques was discussed, in relation to effects on root system form and development. Root response to different environmental stresses, including water, temperature, nutrient and mechanical stress was addressed in detail. The structure and function of woody roots was also considered at different levels, from coarse to fine roots, with several papers discussing the interaction between roots and the rhizosphere. One of the conference highlights was the presentation of new methods in root research, by a series of workshops held at LRBB-INRA, Pierroton, on the northern border of the Gascony forest.

Biology of Adventitious Root Formation

Author: Tim D. Davis,Bruce E. Haissig
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1475794924
Category: Science
Page: 344
View: 5690

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Charles E. Hess Department of Environmental Horticulture University of California Davis, CA 95616 Research in the biology of adventitious root formation has a special place in science. It provides an excellent forum in which to pursue fundamental research on the regulation of plant growth and development. At the same time the results of the research have been quickly applied by commercial plant propagators, agronomists, foresters and horticulturists (see the chapter by Kovar and Kuchenbuch, by Ritchie, and by Davies and coworkers in this volume). In an era when there is great interest in speeding technology transfer, the experiences gained in research in adventitious root formation may provide useful examples for other areas of science. Interaction between the fundamental and the applied have been and continue to be facilitated by the establishment, in 1951, of the Plant Propagators' Society, which has evolved into the International Plant Propagators' Society, with active programs in six regions around the world. It is a unique organization which brings together researchers in universities, botanical gardens and arboreta, and commercial plant propagators. In this synergistic environment new knowledge is rapidly transferred and new ideas for fundamental research evolve from the presentations and discussions by experienced plant propagators. In the past 50 years, based on research related to the biology of adventitious root formation, advances in plant propagation have been made on two major fronts.

The Olive Tree Genome

Author: Eddo Rugini,Luciana Baldoni,Rosario Muleo,Luca Sebastiani
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319488872
Category: Science
Page: 193
View: 7538

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This book provides an introduction to the genetics, genomics, and breeding of the olive tree, a multi-functional long-lived crop plant that is relevant not only for culinary olive and oil production, but also for shaping the landscape and history of many rural areas for centuries. Today, the recognized health benefits of extra-virgin olive oil provide new impulses for introducing innovation in olive crop management and olive breeding for a deeper understanding of the biological processes underlying fruit quality, adaptation to crop environment and response to threatening epidemics due to biological agents such as Xylella fastidiosa. The individual chapters discuss genetic resources; classic and modern breeding methods for providing new olive cultivars; the genotype x environment interactions determining the response to biotic and abiotic stresses; fruit metabolism related to oil production and the synthesis of health beneficial molecules; the mapping of genes and quantitative trait locus; and genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic strategies pertinent to the development of a molecular platform and template amenable to precise and rapid genetic modifications using recently developed genome editing tools.

Sustainable Horticulture

Today and Tomorrow
Author: Raymond P. Poincelot
Publisher: Pearson College Division
ISBN: 9780136185543
Category: Gardening
Page: 870
View: 1999

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This comprehensive introduction to the emerging discipline of sustainable horticulture provides readers with the foundations of horticultural science that underlie all forms of horticulture from conventional through sustainable to organic. The book leads readers through practices and production, and provides the necessary information to support a more sustainable and environmentally friendly horticulture.The volume explains moving to sustainability, provides an introduction to horticultural science and horticultural practices including plant propagation, crop breeding, biotechnology, energy sustainability and sustaining soil, water and environment, home horticulture basics, integrated pest management and an introduction to horticultural crops.For horticultural professionals, policy makers, consumers and future farmers.

Stem Cells in Craniofacial Development and Regeneration

Author: George T.J. Huang,Irma Thesleff
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118498119
Category: Science
Page: 584
View: 3818

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Stem Cells, Craniofacial Development and Regeneration is anintroduction to stem cells with an emphasis on their role incraniofacial development. Divided into five sections, chaptersbuild from basic introductory information on the definition andcharacteristics of stem cells to more indepth explorations oftheir role in craniofacial development. Section I covers embryonicand adult stem cells with a focus on the craniofacial region, whilesections II-IV cover the development and regeneration ofcraniofacial bone, tooth, temporomandibular joint, salivary glandsand muscle. Concluding chapters describe the current, cutting-edgeresearch utilizing stem cells for craniofacial tissuebioengineering to treat lost or damaged tissue. The authoritative resource for dentistry students as well ascraniofacial researchers at the graduate and post-graduate level,Stem Cells, Craniofacial Development and Regenerationexplores the rapidly expanding field of stem cells and regenerationfrom the perspective of the dentistry and craniofacial community,and points the way forward in areas of tissue bioengineering andcraniofacial stem cell therapies.

Plant Tissue Culture, Development, and Biotechnology

Author: Robert N. Trigiano,Dennis J. Gray
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439896143
Category: Medical
Page: 608
View: 7820

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Under the vast umbrella of Plant Sciences resides a plethora of highly specialized fields. Botanists, agronomists, horticulturists, geneticists, and physiologists each employ a different approach to the study of plants and each for a different end goal. Yet all will find themselves in the laboratory engaging in what can broadly be termed biotechnology. Addressing a wide variety of related topics, Plant Tissue Culture, Development, and Biotechnology gives the practical and technical knowledge needed to train the next generation of plant scientists regardless of their ultimate specialization. With the detailed perspectives and hands-on training signature to the authors’ previous bestselling books, Plant Development and Biotechnology and Plant Tissue Culture Concepts and Laboratory Exercises, this book discusses relevant concepts supported by demonstrative laboratory experiments. It provides critical thinking questions, concept boxes highlighting important ideas, and procedure boxes giving precise instruction for experiments, including step-by-step procedures, such as the proper microscope use with digital photography, along with anticipated results, and a list of materials needed to perform them. Integrating traditional plant sciences with recent advances in plant tissue culture, development, and biotechnology, chapters address germplasm preservation, plant growth regulators, embryo rescue, micropropagation of roses, haploid cultures, and transformation of meristems. Going beyond the scope of a simple laboratory manual, this book also considers special topics such as copyrights, patents, legalities, trade secrets, and the business of biotechnology. Focusing on plant culture development and its applications in biotechnology across a myriad of plant science specialties, this text uses a broad range of species and practical laboratory exercises to make it useful for anyone engaged in the plant sciences.

Root Engineering

Basic and Applied Concepts
Author: Asunción Morte,Ajit Varma
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 364254276X
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 493
View: 879

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This volume illustrates the complex root system, including the various essential roles of roots as well as their interaction with diverse microorganisms localized in or near the root system. Following initial chapters describing the anatomy and architecture as well as the growth and development of root systems, subsequent chapters focus on the various types of root symbiosis with bacteria and fungi in the rhizosphere. A third section covers the physiological strategies of roots, such as nitrate assimilation, aquaporins, the role of roots in plant defense responses and in response to droughts and salinity changes. The book’s final chapters discuss the prospects of applied engineering of roots, i.e., inventing new root structures or functions through genetic modification, but also with conventional breeding and manipulation of root symbionts. The budding field of root engineering is expected to promote a second green revolution.

Detoxification of Heavy Metals

Author: Irena Sherameti,Ajit Varma
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642214080
Category: Science
Page: 448
View: 3936

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Heavy metals are severe environmental pollutants, and many of them are toxic even at very low concentrations. With industrial development, soil pollution with heavy metal elements have dramatically increased. The uptake of heavy metals via plants that are exposed to contaminated soils is a risk for human health and a major hazard for the ecosystem as a whole, including soil microorganisms. On the other hand, plants may be used in the decontamination of soils. The topics presented in this book include: sources of heavy metals contaminants in soils; plant species that can grow on contaminated soils; the phytoremediation of contaminated soils; tolerance, accumulation and detoxification mechanisms of zinc, copper, arsenic, cadmium and vanadium in plants; the critical role of sulfur metabolism in heavy metal tolerance; the role of aquatic macrophytes, plant growth-promoting bacteria, sugar crops and earthworms in detoxification; and heavy metal stabilization by promoting zeolite synthesis in soils.

Bioengineering and Molecular Biology of Plant Pathways

Author: N.A
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080556963
Category: Science
Page: 504
View: 1044

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The increased knowledge about the structure of genomes in a number of species, about the complexity of transcriptomes, and the rapid growth in knowledge about mutant phenotypes have set off the large scale use of transgenes to answer basic biological questions, and to generate new crops and novel products. Bioengineering and Molecular Biology of Plant Pathways includes twelve chapters, which to variable degrees describe the use of transgenic plants to explore possibilities and approaches for the modification of plant metabolism, adaptation or development. The interests of the authors range from tool development, to basic biochemical know-how about the engineering of enzymes, to exploring avenues for the modification of complex multigenic pathways, and include several examples for the engineering of specific pathways in different organs and developmental stages. Prologue by Paul K. Stumpf and Eric E. Conn Incorporates new concepts and insights in plant biochemistry and biology Provides a conceptual framework regarding the challenges faced in engineering pathways Discusses potential in engineering of metabolic end-products that are of vast economical importance, including genetic engineering of cellulose, seed storage proteins, and edible and industrial oils

Urban Family Medicine

Author: Richard B. Birrer
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461246245
Category: Medical
Page: 1300
View: 3065

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Now, more than ever, Family Medicine is alive and well in the United States. The base of this medical specialty has traditionally been in the smaller cities, suburban communities, and rural areas of this country. Over the past decade, however, there has been a resurgence of interest in primary care in our major metropolitan areas as a solution to the high tech subspecialty pace of the tertiary care environment. A rebirth of urban family medicine has accompanied these pioneering efforts. To date, the accomplishments are substantial and the prospects are bright. There is still a long way to go and there are a significant number of hurdles to cross. Although diseases are generally the same wherever you are, their effects as illness on the individual and the family are strongly influenced by the environment and social milieu. Urban families have distinctive and diverse problems-cultural, economic, and ethnic. Training pro grams situated in the large cities must recognize these issues and include special emphasis on the situations that the family physician is likely to encounter during and after his training. There is very little research literature on the background and nature of special urban problems and these areas are the subject of several chapters of this long overdue volume devoted specifically to urban family medicine. Dr. Birrer has persuaded true experts to share their knowledge with the reader.

The Little Book of Child and Adolescent Development

Author: Karen Gilmore,Pamela Meersand
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190213159
Category: Medical
Page: 272
View: 1636

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The Little Book of Child and Adolescent Development presents a modern, psychoanalytically-informed summary of how the mind develops from infancy through young adulthood. It is a comprehensive work that integrates analytic theories with a contemporary systems model of development, and also draws on scholarly research from neighboring fields. Key models discussed include attachment theory, intersubjective theory, cognitive development theory, and infancy research. This book's contemporary approach to development makes it relevant to such timely topics as bullying, the experience of LGBT youth, preadolescent and adolescent use of the internet, and the struggles of young (emerging) adults in modern society. Written to optimize ease of use for the busy clinician, key clinical points are summarized at the end of each chapter, and a glossary of important concepts and terminology is also included. The text will be valuable for psychiatric residents, psychoanalytic candidates and faculty, and graduate students who would benefit from a quick and concise review of the developmental trajectory.

Conifer Reproductive Biology

Author: Claire G. Williams
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402096011
Category: Science
Page: 170
View: 7462

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When it comes to reproduction, gymnosperms are deeply weird. Cycads and co- fers have drawn out reproduction: at least 13 genera take over a year from polli- tion to fertilization. Since they don’t apparently have any selection mechanism by which to discriminate among pollen tubes prior to fertilization, it is natural to w- der why such a delay in reproduction is necessary. Claire Williams’ book celebrates such oddities of conifer reproduction. She has written a book that turns the context of many of these reproductive quirks into deeper questions concerning evolution. The origins of some of these questions can be traced back Wilhelm Hofmeister’s 1851 book, which detailed the revolutionary idea of alternation of generations. This alternation between diploid and haploid generations was eventually to become one of the key unifying ideas in plant evolution. Dr. Williams points out that alter- tion of generations in conifers shows strong divergence in the evolution of male and female gametes, as well as in the synchronicity of male and female gamete development. How are these coordinated to achieve fertilization? Books on conifer reproduction are all too rare. The only major work in the last generation was Hardev Singh’s 1978 Embryology of Gymnosperms, a book that summarized the previous century’s work. Being a book primarily about embry- ogy, it stopped short of putting conifer reproduction in a genetic or evolutionary context.

Norbert Elias and Modern Sociology

Knowledge, Interdependence, Power, Process
Author: Eric Dunning,Jason Hughes
Publisher: A&C Black
ISBN: 178093226X
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Page: 239
View: 2433

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This book endeavours to bring the sociology of Elias to a new and wider audience through offering accessible explanations of some of his key ideas.