Berber Government

The Kabyle Polity in Pre-colonial Algeria
Author: Hugh Roberts
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 1845112512
Category: History
Page: 224
View: 7502

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The Berber identity movement in North Africa was pioneered by the Kabyles of Algeria. But a preoccupation with identity and language has obscured the fact that Kabyle dissidence has been rooted in democratic aspirations inspired by the political traditions of Kabylia itself, a Berber-speaking region in the north of Algeria. The political organisation of pre-colonial Kabylia, from which these traditions originate, was well-described by nineteenth-century French ethnographers. But their inability to explain it led to a trend amongst later theorists of Berber society, such as Ernest Gellner and Pierre Bourdieu, to dismiss Kabylia's political institutions, notably the jema'a (assembly or council), and to reduce Berber politics to a function of social structure and shared religion. In Berber Government, Hugh Roberts, a renowned expert on North Africa, uncovers and explores the remarkable logics of Kabyle political organisation. Combining political anthropology and political and social history in an interdisciplinary analysis, Roberts challenges the excessive emphasis on kinship and religion in the study of the Maghreb.

Berber Government

The Kabyle Polity in Pre-colonial Algeria
Author: Hugh Roberts
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 0857736892
Category: Social Science
Page: 352
View: 3112

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The Berber identity movement in North Africa was pioneered by the Kabyles of Algeria. But a preoccupation with identity and language has obscured the fact that Kabyle dissidence has been rooted in democratic aspirations inspired by the political traditions of Kabylia itself, a Berber-speaking region in the north of Algeria. The political organisation of pre-colonial Kabylia, from which these traditions originate, was well described by nineteenth-century French authors. But their inability to explain it encouraged later theorists of Berber society, such as Ernest Gellner and Pierre Bourdieu, to dismiss Kabylia’s political institutions, notably the jema‘a (assembly or council), and to reduce Berber politics to a function of social structure and shared religion. In Berber Government, Hugh Roberts, a renowned expert on North Africa, explores the remarkable logics of Kabyle political organisation and the unusual degree of autonomy it possessed in relation to both kinship divisions and the religious field. This book further offers a pioneering account of the social and political history of Kabylia during the Ottoman period and establishes a radically new way to understand the complex place of the Kabyles in Algerian politics.

Berber Government

The Kabyle Polity in Pre-colonial Algeria
Author: Hugh Roberts
Publisher: I.B. Tauris
ISBN: 9781784537661
Category:
Page: 352
View: 2666

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The Berber identity movement in North Africa was pioneered by the Kabyles of Algeria. But a preoccupation with identity and language has obscured the fact that Kabyle dissidence has been rooted in democratic aspirations inspired by the political traditions of Kabylia itself, a Berber-speaking region in the north of Algeria. The political organisation of pre-colonial Kabylia, from which these traditions originate, was well described by nineteenth-century French authors. But their inability to explain it encouraged later theorists of Berber society, such as Ernest Gellner and Pierre Bourdieu, to dismiss Kabylia's political institutions, notably the jema'a (assembly or council), and to reduce Berber politics to a function of social structure and shared religion. In Berber Government, Hugh Roberts, a renowned expert on North Africa, explores the remarkable logics of Kabyle political organisation and the unusual degree of autonomy it possessed in relation to both kinship divisions and the religious field. This book further offers a pioneering account of the social and political history of Kabylia during the Ottoman period and establishes a radically new way to understand the complex place of the Kabyles in Algerian politics.

Imperial Identities

Stereotyping, Prejudice, and Race in Colonial Algeria, New Edition
Author: Patricia M. E. Lorcin
Publisher: U of Nebraska Press
ISBN: 0803249713
Category: History
Page: 363
View: 1033

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Imperial Identities is a groundbreaking book that addresses identity formation in colonial Algeria of two predominant ethnicities and analyzes French attitudes in the context of nineteenth-century ideologies. Patricia M. E. Lorcin explores the process through which ethnic categories and cultural distinctions were developed and used as instruments of social control in colonial society. She examines the circumstances that gave rise to and the influences that shaped the colonial images of “good” Kabyle and “bad” Arab (usually referred to as the Kabyle myth) in Algeria. In this new edition of Imperial Identities, Lorcin addresses the related scholarship that has appeared since the book’s original publication, looks at postindependence issues relevant to the Arab/Berber question, and discusses the developments in Algeria and France connected to Arab/Berber politics, including the 1980 Berber Spring and the 1992–2002 civil war. The new edition also contains a full and updated bibliography.

Failed Alliances of the Cold War

Britain's Strategy and Ambitions in Asia and the Middle East
Author: Panagiotis Dimitrakis
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 1848859740
Category: History
Page: 240
View: 9476

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The Cold War was a period of intense geopolitical rivalry, in which diplomacy and international relations in Asia and the Middle East acquired huge global significance. In this study, Panagiotis Dimitrakis explores British policy towards SEATO (South East Asia Treaty Organization) and CENTO (Central Treaty Organization). Designed in the 1950s to counter the Soviet Union’s attempts to expand its global influence, these alliances with Asian and Middle Eastern powers were the focus of Western efforts to maintain their regional presence. Yet they failed to bring together the differing aims and ambitions of their regional members, and were dissolved in 1977 and 1979 respectively. This study, based on recently declassified documents, examines the Cold War policies of the United States, Iran, and Turkey as well as Pakistan’s relations with India and the effects of British diplomacy on the war in Vietnam. Charting the repeated failures of Britain and the United States to come to the defence of their allies in Asia and the Middle East, Failed Alliances of the Cold War will be a crucial point of reference for scholars of the Cold War.

A Revolutionary Year

The Middle East in 1958
Author: William Roger Louis,Roger Owen
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 9781860644023
Category: History
Page: 340
View: 3386

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In 1958 the Middle East and the Arab World were in historic crises. Lebanon was in civil turmoil. Iraq underwent a revolution. The Arab world seemed to be splitting from the West and re-aligning itself with the communist world. This collection of essays address the issues raised by the events of that year and their consequences.

Ottoman Haifa

A History of Four Centuries under Turkish Rule
Author: Alex Carmel
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 085773119X
Category: History
Page: 224
View: 4352

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Under Ottoman rule, the city of Haifa, located at the southern point of the largest bay on the coast of Israel, was transformed from a scarcely-inhabited fortress town to a major modern city. Today the city is the third-largest in Israel and has over 250,000 inhabitants. This book details the history of Haifa under the Ottomans during the period 1516-1918. Alex Carmel uses a variety of original sources, including travel literature from the time, to uncover the realities of life in Haifa under Ottoman rule and paints a vivid picture of the development of the city in this era. He shows that it experienced its first significant boom as early as 1761 under Dahar el Omar and that after the establishment of the Württemberg Templer Haifa Colony in 1868, the city began to flourish. The final chapter of the book shows how the city coped with the devastating effects of the Great War and the subsequent fall of the Ottoman Empire and establishment of the British Mandate. Carmel's work has become the benchmark of the historiography of Israel's third largest city and remains to this day, the best-known and most highly-regarded survey of Haifa under Ottoman rule. This, the first English edition of 'Ottoman Haifa', will be essential reading for all historians of the Ottoman Empire and the Middle East.

Religion and Politics in Modern Iran

A Reader
Author: Lloyd Ridgeon
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 9781845110734
Category: Political Science
Page: 279
View: 7156

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Covering the last century of Iranian history, this book introduces students to some of the most crucial political and religious texts of the period. Each chapter is preceded by an introduction discussing the significance of the piece and placing each writer in their historical context.

Adventures with Britannia

Personalities, Politics, and Culture in Britain
Author: William Roger Louis
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 9781860641152
Category: Great Britain
Page: 342
View: 5609

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Assembling the reflections of prominent writers on the political and intellectual history of modern Britain, this book deals with a rich variety of themes, taking the reader on an excursion through British life and manners. The scope includes the personalities, politics and culture of England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland.

Conspiracy Theory in Turkey

Democracy, Protest and the Modern State
Author: Julian de Medeiros
Publisher: I. B. Tauris
ISBN: 9781788311670
Category: History
Page: 320
View: 7446

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Turkey is witnessing an era of political upheaval. From the Gezi protests in 2013 to the attempted military coup of 2016, the concept of "post-truth" plays a significant role in Turkish politics today. In the chaos of conspiracy theories, hidden enemies and post-coup purges, the unreal merges with the real, fueling political repression and anti-government sentiment alike. Julian de Medeiros here analyzes the many unfolding challenges of Erdogan's New Turkey, and shows how a fixedly Turkish-style of "post-truth" has taken root. Examining the relationship between conspiracy theory and 'post-truth', this book sheds light on the strategies of political paranoia that threaten to undermine the success of Turkey's democratic model. De Medeiros argues that both the Gezi protests and the failed coup attempt need to be considered alongside the emerging anti-democratic and conspiratorial tendencies of an increasingly authoritarian Turkish government. As Turkish democracy continues to evolve with breath-taking speed and unpredictable outcomes, de Medeiros shows how the rise of paranoid politics in Turkey constitutes part of a global trend towards post-truth narratives. He situates Turkish democracy as subject to a global resurgence of strongman leadership and antagonistic populism. Conspiracy Theory in Turkey presents the very first critical account of the Turkish model of a "post-truth politics." Through a counter-intuitive analysis of conspiracy theory and paranoid politics, this book disentangles the real from the unreal and chronicles the emergence of post-truth in Turkey today.

Early Islamic Institutions

Administration and Taxation from the Caliphate to the Umayyads and Abbasids
Author: Abd Al-Aziz Duri
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 0857720198
Category: Political Science
Page: 232
View: 1303

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The rapid expansion of the early Islamic world is conventionally ascribed to a combination of brilliant military leadership and religious fervour. In this book, Abd al-Aziz Duri demonstrates how the growth, development and durability of early Islamic governance derived from highly sophisticated systems of administration (in which the idea of a Muslim ummah was the central feature) as well as efficient mechanisms for taxation and tax collection. Drawing on in-depth research into the fiscal policies of this period, especially land tax and the tax on non-Muslim populations, Duri shows how different models evolved and renewed themselves. He examines the political systems that accompanied these fiscal regimes, and attitudes towards them. He also scrutinizes the institutions which supported this remarkably coherent mode of governance, offering a new perspective on the relationship between politics and Islam in this formative period.The fact that in such a dynamic period of Islamic history a seamless system of administration could endure for several centuries, from the early Muslim conquests and the later Umayyad era to the end of 'Abbasid rule, is testimony to the political and organisational skills of these early Muslim leaders. Duri’s work makes a major contribution to our understanding of how Islam established itself and flourished as a lasting major force in the development of world history.

The Seljuks of Anatolia

Court and Society in the Medieval Middle East
Author: Andrew Peacock,Sara Nur Yildiz
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 1848858876
Category: History
Page: 308
View: 8727

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One of the most powerful dynasties to rule in the medieval Middle East, the Seljuks played a critical role in the development of Anatolia's multi-ethnic, multi-confessional identity. Under Seljuk rule (c. 1081-1308) the formerly Christian Byzantine territories of Anatolia were transformed by the development of Muslim culture, society and politics, and it was then - well before the arrival of the Ottomans - that a Turkish population became firmly established in these lands. Here, Andrew Peacock and Sara Nur Yildiz explore the history of Anatolia under Seljuk rule in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, examining developments in culture, politics, religion and society and shedding new light on the influence of the dynasty within Anatolia and throughout Western Asia. The Seljuks of Anatolia will therefore be of great interest to researchers with interests in Byzantium as well as the material culture and society of the medieval Islamic world.

Arab Spring in Egypt

Revolution and Beyond
Author: Bahgat Korany,Rabab El-Mahdi
Publisher: American University in Cairo Press
ISBN: 1617973556
Category: Political Science
Page: 384
View: 8880

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Beginning in Tunisia, and spreading to as many as seventeen Arab countries, the street protests of the 'Arab Spring' in 2011 empowered citizens and banished their fear of speaking out against governments. The Arab Spring belied Arab exceptionalism, widely assumed to be the natural state of stagnation in the Arab world amid global change and progress. The collapse in February 2011 of the regime in the region's most populous country, Egypt, led to key questions of why, how, and with what consequences did this occur? Inspired by the "contentious politics" school and Social Movement Theory, Arab Spring in Egypt addresses these issues, examining the reasons behind the collapse of Egypt's authoritarian regime; analyzing the group dynamics in Tahrir Square of various factions: labor, youth, Islamists, and women; describing economic and external issues and comparing Egypt's transition with that of Indonesia; and reflecting on the challenges of transition.

The Fall of Muammar Gaddafi

NATO's Unnecessary War in Libya
Author: Hugh Roberts
Publisher: Verso
ISBN: 9781844679485
Category: Political Science
Page: 160
View: 7224

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Widely respected North Africa expert's dissenting analysis of NATO's war against Gaddafi. The campaign against the regime of Muammar Gaddafi was the first NATO war in North Africa since Algeria’s FLN defeated France. NATO claimed that it acted on behalf of the people of Libya to prevent the indiscriminate slaughter of the civilian populace. Yet, Hugh Roberts, one of the most widely respected scholars of North Africa, reveals these justifications to be baseless. Meanwhile, the bombing campaign, combined with civil war, has caused perhaps as many as 25,000 deaths, many more injuries, and the displacement of hundreds of thousands. Hugh Roberts provides an informed and balanced account of Gaddafi’s rise to power and decades-long rule, detailing the West’s shifting policies, which isolated him, embraced him, and then bombed him. Whose interests were really at stake? What are the prospects for the National Transitional Council? Roberts’s study is the first to put the Libyan war into a context that includes Afghanistan, Iraq, and the complex balance of forces in North Africa.

The Berber Identity Movement and the Challenge to North African States


Author: Bruce Maddy-Weitzman
Publisher: University of Texas Press
ISBN: 0292745052
Category: History
Page: 304
View: 6042

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Like many indigenous groups that have endured centuries of subordination, the Berber/Amazigh peoples of North Africa are demanding linguistic and cultural recognition and the redressing of injustices. Indeed, the movement seeks nothing less than a refashioning of the identity of North African states, a rewriting of their history, and a fundamental change in the basis of collective life. In so doing, it poses a challenge to the existing political and sociocultural orders in Morocco and Algeria, while serving as an important counterpoint to the oppositionist Islamist current. This is the first book-length study to analyze the rise of the modern ethnocultural Berber/Amazigh movement in North Africa and the Berber diaspora. Bruce Maddy-Weitzman begins by tracing North African history from the perspective of its indigenous Berber inhabitants and their interactions with more powerful societies, from Hellenic and Roman times, through a millennium of Islam, to the era of Western colonialism. He then concentrates on the marginalization and eventual reemergence of the Berber question in independent Algeria and Morocco, against a background of the growing crisis of regime legitimacy in each country. His investigation illuminates many issues, including the fashioning of official national narratives and policies aimed at subordinating Berbers in an Arab nationalist and Islamic-centered universe; the emergence of a counter-movement promoting an expansive Berber "imagining" that emphasizes the rights of minority groups and indigenous peoples; and the international aspects of modern Berberism.

Algeria Revisited

History, Culture and Identity
Author: Rabah Aissaoui,Claire Eldridge
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1474221041
Category: History
Page: 280
View: 4548

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On 5 July 1962, Algeria became an independent nation, bringing to an end 132 years of French colonial rule. Algeria Revisited provides an opportunity to critically re-examine the colonial period, the iconic war of decolonisation that brought it to an end and the enduring legacies of these years. Given the apparent centrality of violence in this history, this volume asks how we might re-imagine conflict so as to better understand its forms and functions in both the colonial and postcolonial eras. It considers the constantly shifting balance of power between different groups in Algeria and how these have been used to re-fashion colonial relationships. Turning to the postcolonial period, the book explores the challenges Algerians have faced as they have sought to forge an identity as an independent postcolonial nation and how has this process been represented. The roles played by memory and forgetting are highlighted as part of the ongoing efforts by both Algeria and France to grapple with the complex legacies of their prolonged and tumultuous relationship. This interdisciplinary volume sheds light on these and other issues, offering new insights into the history, politics, society and culture of modern Algeria and its historical relationship with France.

A History of Algeria


Author: James McDougall
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1108165745
Category: History
Page: N.A
View: 2628

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Covering a period of five hundred years, from the arrival of the Ottomans to the aftermath of the Arab uprisings, James McDougall presents an expansive new account of the modern history of Africa's largest country. Drawing on substantial new scholarship and over a decade of research, McDougall places Algerian society at the centre of the story, tracing the continuities and the resilience of Algeria's people and their cultures through the dramatic changes and crises that have marked the country. Whether examining the emergence of the Ottoman viceroyalty in the early modern Mediterranean, the 130 years of French colonial rule and the revolutionary war of independence, the Third World nation-building of the 1960s and 1970s, or the terrible violence of the 1990s, this book will appeal to a wide variety of readers in African and Middle Eastern history and politics, as well as those concerned with the wider affairs of the Mediterranean.

Safavid Iran

Rebirth of a Persian Empire
Author: Andrew J Newman
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 0857733664
Category: History
Page: 296
View: 1776

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Winner of the International Book Prize in Iranian Studies The Safavid dynasty, which reigned from the late fifteenth to the eighteenth century, links medieval with modern Iran. The Safavids witnessed wide-ranging developments in politics, warfare, science, philosophy, religion, art and architecture. But how did this dynasty manage to produce the longest lasting and most glorious of Iran’s Islamic-period eras? Andrew Newman offers a complete re-evaluation of the Safavid place in history as they presided over these extraordinary developments and the wondrous flowering of Iranian culture. In the process he dissects the Safavid story, from before the 1501 capture of Tabriz by Shah Ismail (1488-1524), the point at which Shi`ism became the realm's established faith; on to the sixteenth and early seventeenth century dominated by Shah Abbas (1587-1629), whose patronage of art and architecture from his capital of Isfahan embodied the Safavid spirit; and culminating with the reign of Sultan Husayn (reg. 1694-1722). Based on meticulous scholarship, Newman offers a valuable new interpretation of the rise of the Safavids and their eventual demise in the eighteenth century. Safavid Iran, with its fresh insights and new research, is the definitive single volume work on the subject. ‘There is an enormous amount of valuable material here and very wide and impressive reading.’ Charles Melville, Reader in Persian History, University of Cambridge

Transient Workspaces

Technologies of Everyday Innovation in Zimbabwe
Author: Clapperton Chakanetsa Mavhunga
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262326167
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 312
View: 5755

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In this book, Clapperton Mavhunga views technology in Africa from an African perspective. Technology in his account is not something always brought in from outside, but is also something that ordinary people understand, make, and practice through their everyday innovations or creativities -- including things that few would even consider technological. Technology does not always originate in the laboratory in a Western-style building but also in the society in the forest, in the crop field, and in other places where knowledge is made and turned into practical outcomes. African creativities are found in African mobilities. Mavhunga shows the movement of people as not merely conveyances across space but transient workspaces. Taking indigenous hunting in Zimbabwe as one example, he explores African philosophies of mobilities as spiritually guided and of the forest as a sacred space. Viewing the hunt as guided mobility, Mavhunga considers interesting questions of what constitutes technology under regimes of spirituality. He describes how African hunters extended their knowledge traditions to domesticate the gun, how European colonizers, with no remedy of their own, turned to indigenous hunters for help in combating the deadly tsetse fly, and examines how wildlife conservation regimes have criminalized African hunting rather than enlisting hunters (and their knowledge) as allies in wildlife sustainability. The hunt, Mavhunga writes, is one of many criminalized knowledges and practices to which African people turn in times of economic or political crisis. He argues that these practices need to be decriminalized and examined as technologies of everyday innovation with a view toward constructive engagement, innovating with Africans rather than for them.

The Battlefield

Algeria 1988–2002: Studies in a Broken Polity
Author: Hugh Roberts
Publisher: Verso Books
ISBN: 1786630648
Category: History
Page: 430
View: 2851

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The violence that has ravaged Algeria has often defied explanation. Regularly invoked in debates about political Islam, transitions to democracy, globalization, and the right of humanitarian interference, Algeria’s tragedy has been reduced to a clash of stereotypes: Islamists vs. a secular state, terrorists vs. innocent civilians, or generals vs. a defenseless society. The prevalence of such simplistic representations has disabled public opinion inside as well as outside the country and contributed to the intractability of the conflict. This collection of essays offers a radical corrective to Western misconceptions. Rejecting the usual tautological approaches of inherent, predetermined conflict, Hugh Roberts explores the outlook and evolution of the various internal forces as they emerged—the Islamists, the Berberists, the factions within the army, and the regime in general—and he looks at external interests and actors. He explains their strategies and the maneuvers in which they have engaged. The resulting analyses illuminate the startling dynamics of the conflict and the real issues at stake, and identify the implications not only for Algeria but also for this crucial region. Informed by a deep knowledge of Algeria and Algerian history, these accessible essays guide the reader through the extraordinary politics of the drama in all its complexity.