Automata Theory and its Applications


Author: Bakhadyr Khoussainov,Anil Nerode
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461201713
Category: Mathematics
Page: 432
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The theory of finite automata on finite stings, infinite strings, and trees has had a dis tinguished history. First, automata were introduced to represent idealized switching circuits augmented by unit delays. This was the period of Shannon, McCullouch and Pitts, and Howard Aiken, ending about 1950. Then in the 1950s there was the work of Kleene on representable events, of Myhill and Nerode on finite coset congruence relations on strings, of Rabin and Scott on power set automata. In the 1960s, there was the work of Btichi on automata on infinite strings and the second order theory of one successor, then Rabin's 1968 result on automata on infinite trees and the second order theory of two successors. The latter was a mystery until the introduction of forgetful determinacy games by Gurevich and Harrington in 1982. Each of these developments has successful and prospective applications in computer science. They should all be part of every computer scientist's toolbox. Suppose that we take a computer scientist's point of view. One can think of finite automata as the mathematical representation of programs that run us ing fixed finite resources. Then Btichi's SIS can be thought of as a theory of programs which run forever (like operating systems or banking systems) and are deterministic. Finally, Rabin's S2S is a theory of programs which run forever and are nondeterministic. Indeed many questions of verification can be decided in the decidable theories of these automata.

Automata, Logics, and Infinite Games

A Guide to Current Research
Author: Erich Grädel,Wolfgang Thomas,Thomas Wilke
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3540363874
Category: Computers
Page: 392
View: 4031

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A central aim and ever-lasting dream of computer science is to put the development of hardware and software systems on a mathematical basis which is both firm and practical. Such a scientific foundation is needed especially for the construction of reactive programs, like communication protocols or control systems. For the construction and analysis of reactive systems an elegant and powerful theory has been developed based on automata theory, logical systems for the specification of nonterminating behavior, and infinite two-person games. The 19 chapters presented in this multi-author monograph give a consolidated overview of the research results achieved in the theory of automata, logics, and infinite games during the past 10 years. Special emphasis is placed on coherent style, complete coverage of all relevant topics, motivation, examples, justification of constructions, and exercises.

Cryptographic Applications of Analytic Number Theory

Complexity Lower Bounds and Pseudorandomness
Author: Igor Shparlinski
Publisher: Birkhäuser
ISBN: 3034880375
Category: Mathematics
Page: 414
View: 2008

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The book introduces new techniques that imply rigorous lower bounds on the com plexity of some number-theoretic and cryptographic problems. It also establishes certain attractive pseudorandom properties of various cryptographic primitives. These methods and techniques are based on bounds of character sums and num bers of solutions of some polynomial equations over finite fields and residue rings. Other number theoretic techniques such as sieve methods and lattice reduction algorithms are used as well. The book also contains a number of open problems and proposals for further research. The emphasis is on obtaining unconditional rigorously proved statements. The bright side of this approach is that the results do not depend on any assumptions or conjectures. On the downside, the results are much weaker than those which are widely believed to be true. We obtain several lower bounds, exponential in terms of logp, on the degrees and orders of o polynomials; o algebraic functions; o Boolean functions; o linear recurrence sequences; coinciding with values of the discrete logarithm modulo a prime p at sufficiently many points (the number of points can be as small as pI/2+O:). These functions are considered over the residue ring modulo p and over the residue ring modulo an arbitrary divisor d of p - 1. The case of d = 2 is of special interest since it corresponds to the representation of the rightmost bit of the discrete logarithm and defines whether the argument is a quadratic residue.

Formal Languages, Automata and Numeration Systems


Author: Michel Rigo
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119042860
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 246
View: 3127

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The interplay between words, computability, algebra and arithmetic has now proved its relevance and fruitfulness. Indeed, the cross-fertilization between formal logic and finite automata (such as that initiated by J.R. Büchi) or between combinatorics on words and number theory has paved the way to recent dramatic developments, for example, the transcendence results for the real numbers having a “simple” binary expansion, by B. Adamczewski and Y. Bugeaud. This book is at the heart of this interplay through a unified exposition. Objects are considered with a perspective that comes both from theoretical computer science and mathematics. Theoretical computer science offers here topics such as decision problems and recognizability issues, whereas mathematics offers concepts such as discrete dynamical systems. The main goal is to give a quick access, for students and researchers in mathematics or computer science, to actual research topics at the intersection between automata and formal language theory, number theory and combinatorics on words. The second of two volumes on this subject, this book covers regular languages, numeration systems, formal methods applied to decidability issues about infinite words and sets of numbers.

Formal Languages, Automata and Numeration Systems


Author: Michel Rigo
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119008220
Category: Computers
Page: 338
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Formal Languages, Automaton and Numeration Systems presents readers with a review of research related to formal language theory, combinatorics on words or numeration systems, such as Words, DLT (Developments in Language Theory), ICALP, MFCS (Mathematical Foundation of Computer Science), Mons Theoretical Computer Science Days, Numeration, CANT (Combinatorics, Automata and Number Theory). Combinatorics on words deals with problems that can be stated in a non-commutative monoid, such as subword complexity of finite or infinite words, construction and properties of infinite words, unavoidable regularities or patterns. When considering some numeration systems, any integer can be represented as a finite word over an alphabet of digits. This simple observation leads to the study of the relationship between the arithmetical properties of the integers and the syntactical properties of the corresponding representations. One of the most profound results in this direction is given by the celebrated theorem by Cobham. Surprisingly, a recent extension of this result to complex numbers led to the famous Four Exponentials Conjecture. This is just one example of the fruitful relationship between formal language theory (including the theory of automata) and number theory. Contents to include: • algebraic structures, homomorphisms, relations, free monoid • finite words, prefixes, suffixes, factors, palindromes • periodicity and Fine–Wilf theorem • infinite words are sequences over a finite alphabet • properties of an ultrametric distance, example of the p-adic norm • topology of the set of infinite words • converging sequences of infinite and finite words, compactness argument • iterated morphism, coding, substitutive or morphic words • the typical example of the Thue–Morse word • the Fibonacci word, the Mex operator, the n-bonacci words • wordscomingfromnumbertheory(baseexpansions,continuedfractions,...) • the taxonomy of Lindenmayer systems • S-adic sequences, Kolakoski word • repetition in words, avoiding repetition, repetition threshold • (complete) de Bruijn graphs • concepts from computability theory and decidability issues • Post correspondence problem and application to mortality of matrices • origins of combinatorics on words • bibliographic notes • languages of finite words, regular languages • factorial, prefix/suffix closed languages, trees and codes • unambiguous and deterministic automata, Kleene’s theorem • growth function of regular languages • non-deterministic automata and determinization • radix order, first word of each length and decimation of a regular language • the theory of the minimal automata • an introduction to algebraic automata theory, the syntactic monoid and the syntactic complexity • star-free languages and a theorem of Schu ̈tzenberger • rational formal series and weighted automata • context-free languages, pushdown automata and grammars • growth function of context-free languages, Parikh’s theorem • some decidable and undecidable problems in formal language theory • bibliographic notes • factor complexity, Morse–Hedlund theorem • arithmetic complexity, Van Der Waerden theorem, pattern complexity • recurrence, uniform recurrence, return words • Sturmian words, coding of rotations, Kronecker’s theorem • frequencies of letters, factors and primitive morphism • critical exponent • factor complexity of automatic sequences • factor complexity of purely morphic sequences • primitive words, conjugacy, Lyndon word • abelianisation and abelian complexity • bibliographic notes • automatic sequences, equivalent definitions • a theorem of Cobham, equivalence of automatic sequences with constant length morphic sequences • a few examples of well-known automatic sequences • about Derksen’s theorem • some morphic sequences are not automatic • abstract numeration system and S-automatic sequences • k − ∞-automatic sequences • bibliographic notes • numeration systems, greedy algorithm • positional numeration systems, recognizable sets of integers • divisibility criterion and recognizability of N • properties of k-recognizable sets of integers, ratio and difference of consec- utive elements: syndeticity • integer base and Cobham’s theorem on the base dependence of the recog- nizability • non-standard numeration systems based on sequence of integers • linear recurrent sequences, Loraud and Hollander results • Frougny’s normalization result and addition • morphic numeration systems/sets of integers whose characteristic sequence is morphic • towards a generalization of Cobham’s theorem • a few words on the representation of real numbers, β-integers, finiteness properties • automata associated with Parry numbers and numeration systems • bibliographic notes First order logic • Presburger arithmetic and decidable theory • Muchnik’s characterization of semi-linear sets • Bu ̈chi’s theorem: k-recognizable sets are k-definable • extension to Pisot numeration systems • extension to real numbers • decidability issues for numeration systems • applications in combinatorics on words

Handbook of Logic and Language


Author: Johan F.A.K. van Benthem,Alice ter Meulen
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780444537270
Category: Mathematics
Page: 1168
View: 6344

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The logical study of language is becoming more interdisciplinary, playing a role in fields such as computer science, artificial intelligence, cognitive science and game theory. This new edition, written by the leading experts in the field, presents an overview of the latest developments at the interface of logic and linguistics as well as a historical perspective. It is divided into three parts covering Frameworks, General Topics and Descriptive Themes. Completely revised and updated - includes over 25% new material Discusses the interface between logic and language Many of the authors are creators or active developers of the theories

Neural Networks and Analog Computation

Beyond the Turing Limit
Author: Hava T. Siegelmann
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 146120707X
Category: Computers
Page: 181
View: 6865

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The theoretical foundations of Neural Networks and Analog Computation conceptualize neural networks as a particular type of computer consisting of multiple assemblies of basic processors interconnected in an intricate structure. Examining these networks under various resource constraints reveals a continuum of computational devices, several of which coincide with well-known classical models. On a mathematical level, the treatment of neural computations enriches the theory of computation but also explicated the computational complexity associated with biological networks, adaptive engineering tools, and related models from the fields of control theory and nonlinear dynamics. The material in this book will be of interest to researchers in a variety of engineering and applied sciences disciplines. In addition, the work may provide the base of a graduate-level seminar in neural networks for computer science students.

Algebraic Automata Theory


Author: M. Holcombe,W. M. L. Holcombe
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521604925
Category: Mathematics
Page: 244
View: 3886

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A self-contained, modern treatment of the algebraic theory of machines based on fundamental ideas from modern algebra.

An Introduction to Data Structures and Algorithms


Author: J.A. Storer
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 146120075X
Category: Computers
Page: 599
View: 2784

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Data structures and algorithms are presented at the college level in a highly accessible format that presents material with one-page displays in a way that will appeal to both teachers and students. The thirteen chapters cover: Models of Computation, Lists, Induction and Recursion, Trees, Algorithm Design, Hashing, Heaps, Balanced Trees, Sets Over a Small Universe, Graphs, Strings, Discrete Fourier Transform, Parallel Computation. Key features: Complicated concepts are expressed clearly in a single page with minimal notation and without the "clutter" of the syntax of a particular programming language; algorithms are presented with self-explanatory "pseudo-code." * Chapters 1-4 focus on elementary concepts, the exposition unfolding at a slower pace. Sample exercises with solutions are provided. Sections that may be skipped for an introductory course are starred. Requires only some basic mathematics background and some computer programming experience. * Chapters 5-13 progress at a faster pace. The material is suitable for undergraduates or first-year graduates who need only review Chapters 1 -4. * This book may be used for a one-semester introductory course (based on Chapters 1-4 and portions of the chapters on algorithm design, hashing, and graph algorithms) and for a one-semester advanced course that starts at Chapter 5. A year-long course may be based on the entire book. * Sorting, often perceived as rather technical, is not treated as a separate chapter, but is used in many examples (including bubble sort, merge sort, tree sort, heap sort, quick sort, and several parallel algorithms). Also, lower bounds on sorting by comparisons are included with the presentation of heaps in the context of lower bounds for comparison-based structures. * Chapter 13 on parallel models of computation is something of a mini-book itself, and a good way to end a course. Although it is not clear what parallel

STACS 2000

17th Annual Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science Lille, France, February 17-19, 2000 Proceedings
Author: Horst Reichel,Sophie Tison
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3540465413
Category: Computers
Page: 670
View: 7536

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Types and Programming Languages


Author: Benjamin C. Pierce
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262162098
Category: Computers
Page: 623
View: 8343

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A comprehensive introduction to type systems and programming languages.

Methods of Mathematical Modelling

Continuous Systems and Differential Equations
Author: Thomas Witelski,Mark Bowen
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319230425
Category: Mathematics
Page: 305
View: 508

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This book presents mathematical modelling and the integrated process of formulating sets of equations to describe real-world problems. It describes methods for obtaining solutions of challenging differential equations stemming from problems in areas such as chemical reactions, population dynamics, mechanical systems, and fluid mechanics. Chapters 1 to 4 cover essential topics in ordinary differential equations, transport equations and the calculus of variations that are important for formulating models. Chapters 5 to 11 then develop more advanced techniques including similarity solutions, matched asymptotic expansions, multiple scale analysis, long-wave models, and fast/slow dynamical systems. Methods of Mathematical Modelling will be useful for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate students in applied mathematics, engineering and other applied sciences.

Logic for Computer Science

Foundations of Automatic Theorem Proving, Second Edition
Author: Jean H. Gallier
Publisher: Courier Dover Publications
ISBN: 0486780821
Category: Computers
Page: 528
View: 5855

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This advanced text for undergraduate and graduate students introduces mathematical logic with an emphasis on proof theory and procedures for algorithmic construction of formal proofs. The self-contained treatment is also useful for computer scientists and mathematically inclined readers interested in the formalization of proofs and basics of automatic theorem proving. Topics include propositional logic and its resolution, first-order logic, Gentzen's cut elimination theorem and applications, and Gentzen's sharpened Hauptsatz and Herbrand's theorem. Additional subjects include resolution in first-order logic; SLD-resolution, logic programming, and the foundations of PROLOG; and many-sorted first-order logic. Numerous problems appear throughout the book, and two Appendixes provide practical background information.

Switching and Finite Automata Theory


Author: Zvi Kohavi
Publisher: Tata McGraw-Hill Education
ISBN: 9780070993877
Category: Sequential machine theory
Page: 658
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Number systems and codes; Sets, relations and lattices; Combinational logic; Switching algebra its applications; Minimization of switching functions; Logical design; Functional decomposition and symmetric functions; Threshold logic; Reliable design and fault diagnosis; Finite-state machines; Introduction to synchronous sequential circuits and iterative networks; Capabilities, minimization and transformation of sequential machines; Asynchronous sequential circuits; Structure of sequential machines; Statae-identification and fault-detection experiments; Memory, definiteness, and information losslessness of finite automata; Linear sequential machines; Finite-state recognizers; Index.

Lectures on Discrete Mathematics for Computer Science


Author: Bakhadyr Khoussainov,Nodira Khoussainova
Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company
ISBN: 9813108126
Category: Mathematics
Page: 364
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This textbook presents fundamental topics in discrete mathematics introduced from the perspectives of a pure mathematician and an applied computer scientist. The synergy between the two complementary perspectives is seen throughout the book; key concepts are motivated and explained through real-world examples, and yet are still formalized with mathematical rigor. The book is an excellent introduction to discrete mathematics for computer science, software engineering, and mathematics students. The first author is a leading mathematician in the area of logic, computability, and theoretical computer science, with more than 25 years of teaching and research experience. The second author is a computer science PhD student at the University of Washington specializing in database systems. The father-and-daughter team merges two different views to create a unified book for students interested in learning discrete mathematics, the connections between discrete mathematics and computer science, and the mathematical foundations of computer science. Readers will learn how to formally define abstract concepts, reason about objects (such as programs, graphs and numbers), investigate properties of algorithms, and prove their correctness. The textbook studies several well-known algorithmic problems including the path problem for graphs and finding the greatest common divisor, inductive definitions, proofs of correctness of algorithms via loop invariants and induction, the basics of formal methods such as propositional logic, finite state machines, counting, probability, as well as the foundations of databases such as relational calculus.

Principles of Model Checking


Author: Christel Baier,Joost-Pieter Katoen,Kim Guldstrand Larsen
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262304031
Category: Computers
Page: 984
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Our growing dependence on increasingly complex computer and software systems necessitates the development of formalisms, techniques, and tools for assessing functional properties of these systems. One such technique that has emerged in the last twenty years is model checking, which systematically (and automatically) checks whether a model of a given system satisfies a desired property such as deadlock freedom, invariants, and request-response properties. This automated technique for verification and debugging has developed into a mature and widely used approach with many applications. Principles of Model Checking offers a comprehensive introduction to model checking that is not only a text suitable for classroom use but also a valuable reference for researchers and practitioners in the field.The book begins with the basic principles for modeling concurrent and communicating systems, introduces different classes of properties (including safety and liveness), presents the notion of fairness, and provides automata-based algorithms for these properties. It introduces the temporal logics LTL and CTL, compares them, and covers algorithms for verifying these logics, discussing real-time systems as well as systems subject to random phenomena. Separate chapters treat such efficiency-improving techniques as abstraction and symbolic manipulation. The book includes an extensive set of examples (most of which run through several chapters) and a complete set of basic results accompanied by detailed proofs. Each chapter concludes with a summary, bibliographic notes, and an extensive list of exercises of both practical and theoretical nature.

Elements of the Theory of Computation


Author: Harry R. Lewis
Publisher: Prentice Hall
ISBN: 9780132624787
Category: Computers
Page: 361
View: 8016

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This the Second Edition of Lewis and Papadimtriou's best-selling theory of computation text. In this substantially modified edition, the authors have enhanced the clarity of their presentation by making the material more accessible to a broader undergraduate audience with no special mathematical experience. For example, long proofs have been simplified and/or truncated, with their more technical points delegated to exercises, advanced material is presented in an informal and friendly manner, and problems follow each section to check student comprehension. The book continues to comprise a mathematically sound introduction to the classical and contemporary theory of computation, and provide deep insights into the fundamental paradigms of computer science.