Animals' Influence on the Landscape and Ecological Importance

Natives, Newcomers, Homecomers
Author: Friedrich-Karl Holtmeier
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9401792941
Category: Science
Page: 522
View: 3209

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In its first English-language edition, this book introduces the many-faceted interactions of animal populations with their habitats. From soil fauna, ants and termites to small and large herbivores, burrowing mammals and birds, the author presents a comprehensive analysis of animals and ecosystems that is as broad and varied as all nature. Chapter 2 addresses the functional role of animals in landscape ecosystems, emphasizing fluxes of energy and matter within and between ecosystems, and the effects of animals on qualitative and structural habitat change. Discussion includes chapters on the role of animal population density and the impacts of native herbivores on vegetation and habitats from the tropics to the polar regions. Cyclic mass outbreaks of species such as the larch bud moth in Switzerland, the mountain pine beetle and the African red-billed weaver bird are described and analyzed. Other chapters discuss Zoochory – the dispersal of seeds by ants, mammals and birds – and the influence of burrowing animals on soil development and geomorphology. Consideration extends to the impact of feral domestic animals. Chapter 5 focuses on problems resulting from introduction of alien animals and from re-introduction of animal species to their original habitats, discusses the effects on ecosystems of burrowing, digging and trampling by animals. The author also addresses keystone species such as kangaroo rats, termites and beavers. Chapter 6 addresses the role of animals in landscape management and nature conservation, with chapters on the impact of newcomer species such as animals introduced into Australia, New Zealand and Europe, and the consequences of reintroduction of species to original habitat. It also discusses the carrying capacity of natural habit, public attitudes toward conversation and more. The final section ponders the effects of climate on interactions between animals and their habitats.

A Biogeoscience Approach to Ecosystems


Author: Edward A. Johnson
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 110704670X
Category: Nature
Page: 496
View: 8415

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Integrates geoscience and ecology, focusing on connections in ecological, geospheric, hydrospheric and atmospheric processes in ecosystems.

The Evolution Underground: Burrows, Bunkers, and the Marvelous Subterranean World Beneath our Feet


Author: Anthony J. Martin
Publisher: Pegasus Books
ISBN: 1681773759
Category: Science
Page: 400
View: 2872

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What is the best way to survive when the going gets tough? Hiding underground. From penguins to dinosaurs, trilobites, and humans, Anthony Martin reveals the subterranean secret of survival. Humans have “gone underground” for survival for thousands of years, from underground cities in Turkey to Cold War–era bunkers. But our burrowing roots go back to the very beginnings of animal life on earth. Without burrowing, the planet would be very different today. Many animal lineages alive now—including our own—only survived a cataclysmic meteorite strike 65 million years ago because they went underground. On a grander scale, the chemistry of the planet itself had already been transformed many millions of years earlier by the first animal burrows, which altered whole ecosystems. Every day we walk on an earth filled with an under-ground wilderness teeming with life. Most of this life stays hidden, yet these animals and their subterranean homes are ubiquitous, ranging from the deep sea to mountains, from the equator to the poles. Burrows are a refuge from predators, a safe home for raising young, or a tool to ambush prey. Burrows also protect animals against all types of natural disasters: fires, droughts, storms, meteorites, global warmings—and coolings. In a book filled with spectacularly diverse fauna, acclaimed paleontologist and ichnologist Anthony Martin reveals this fascinating, hidden world that will continue to influence and transform life on this planet.

Cloud Optics


Author: Alexander A. Kokhanovsky
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402039553
Category: Science
Page: 276
View: 2431

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Clouds affect the climate of the Earth, and they are an important factor in the weather. Therefore, their radiative properties must be understood in great detail. This book summarizes current knowledge on cloud optical properties, for example their ability to absorb, transmit, and reflect light, which depends on the clouds’ geometrical and microphysical characteristics such as sizes of droplets and crystals, their shapes, and structures. In addition, problems related to the image transfer through clouds and cloud remote sensing are addressed in this book in great detail. This book can be an important source of information on theoretical cloud optics for cloud physicists, meteorologists and optical engineers. All basic ideas of optics as related to scattering of light in clouds (e.g. Mie theory and radiative transfer) are considered in a self consistent way. Consequently, the book can also be a useful textbook to newcomers to the field.

Risks and Reconstruction

Experiences of Resettlers and Refugees
Author: Michael M. Cernea,Chris McDowell
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 9780821344446
Category: Social Science
Page: 487
View: 1846

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This book offers a multidimensional comparative analysis of two large groups of the world's displaced populations : resettlers uprooted by development and refugees fleeing military conflicts or natural calamities. The authors explore common central issues: the condition of being "displaced," the risks of impoverishment and destitu-tion, the rights and entitlements of those uprooted, and, most important, the means of reconstruction of their livelihoods. (Adapté de l'Introduction).

Bioindicators and Biomarkers of Environmental Pollution and Risk Assessment


Author: Jamil Kaiser
Publisher: Science Pub Incorporated
ISBN: N.A
Category: Science
Page: 204
View: 2155

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Provides the reader with an overview of the variety of animal and plants that are available for use as environmental monitors. The author emphasizes that the use of a single species of target bioindicator is not appropriate or scientifically sound for the monitoring of several toxic pollutants.

Globalisation and the Roman World

Archaeological and Theoretical Perspectives
Author: Martin Pitts
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107043743
Category: History
Page: 308
View: 1790

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This book applies modern theories of globalisation to the ancient Roman world, creating new understandings of Roman archaeology and history. This is the first book to intensely scrutinize the subject through a team of international specialists studying a wide range of topics, including imperialism, economics, migration, urbanism and art.

Hitler's Priestess

Savitri Devi, the Hindu-Aryan Myth, and Neo-Nazism
Author: Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 0814731112
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Page: 278
View: 3464

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Each year, thousands of Chinese children, primarily abandoned infant girls, are adopted by Americans. Yet we know very little about the local and transnational processes that characterize this new migration. Transnational Adoption is a unique ethnographic study of China/U.S. adoption, the largest contemporary intercountry adoption program. Sara K. Dorow begins by situating the popularity of the China/U.S. adoption process within a broader history of immigration and adoption. She then follows the path of the adoption process: the institutions and bureaucracies in both China and the United States that prepare children and parents for each other; the stories and practices that legitimate them coming together as transnational families; the strains placed upon our common notions of what motherhood means; and ways in which parents then construct the cultural and racial identities of adopted children. Based on rich ethnographic evidence, including interviews with and observation of people on both sides of the Pacific—from orphanages, government officials, and adoption agencies to advocacy groups and adoptive families themselves—this is a fascinating look at the latest chapter in Chinese-American migration.

Mosaic

The Training Kit for Euro-mediterranean Youth Work
Author: Council of Europe,Council of Europe Staff
Publisher: Council of Europe
ISBN: 9789287165770
Category: Political Science
Page: 423
View: 2413

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In 1998, the Council of Europe and the European Commission decided to take common action in the field of youth. Both institutions initiated a partnership agreement with the aim "to promote active European citizenship and civil society by giving impetus to the training of youth leaders and youth workers working within a European dimension". In 2003, additional agreements were signed in the fields of "youth research" and "Euro-Mediterranean youth co-operation". Since 2005, the partnership between the European Commission and the Council of Europe in the field of Youth activities have been focusing on the following topics: European Citizenship, human rights education and intercultural dialogue, quality and recognition of youth work and training, better understanding and knowledge of youth and youth policy development. The partnership between the Council of Europe and the European Commission in the field of Youth brings together the two institutions' experience in non formal education, youth policy, youth research and youth work practice. The co-operation between the two institutions covers a wide spectrum of activities such as training, seminars, workshops, networking and dialogue design. Results and other material are made available on the partnership website (http://youth-partnership.coe.int) and in various publications, including the Training Kits (T-Kits). T-Kits are thematic publications written by experienced youth trainers and experts and constitute easy to use handbooks for educational activities. All activities and publications enhance the exchange of experience and good practice between the actors involved and contribute to the implementation of the political objectives of both partners.

Logos of Phenomenology and Phenomenology of The Logos. Book Three

Logos of History - Logos of Life, Historicity, Time, Nature, Communication, Consciousness, Alterity, Culture
Author: Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 140203718X
Category: Philosophy
Page: 556
View: 1720

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Situated at the crossroads of nature and culture, physics and consciousness, cosmos and life, history – intimately conjoined with time – continues to puzzle the philosopher as well as the scientist. Does brute nature unfold a history? Does human history have a telos? Does human existence have a purpose? Phenomenology of life projects a new interrogative system for reexamining these questions. We are invited to follow the logos of life as it spins in innumerable ways the interplay of natural factors, human passions, social forces, science and experience – through interruptions and kairic moments of accomplishment – in the human creative imagination and intellective reasoning. There then run a cohesive thread of reality.

The Comfort of Kin

Samaritan Community, Kinship, and Marriage
Author: Monika Schreiber
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9004274251
Category: Religion
Page: 432
View: 6504

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In The Comfort of Kin Monika Schreiber presents a study of the social and religious life of the modern Samaritans, with an emphasis on the kinship system and marriage patterns of the community.

Childhood and Migration

From Experience to Agency
Author: Jacqueline Knörr
Publisher: Transcript Verlag
ISBN: 9783899423846
Category: Social Science
Page: 228
View: 6601

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This volume explores the question of how children themselves experience and manage migration and by what means they construct their own identity. It considers experiences from both their places of origin and their host societies. What role does the cultural background of the society of origin and the strategies of integration found in the host society play in the creation of identity and of a concept of home, origin, and belonging? How do children express processes of cultural orientation and integration (music, media, fashion, style) and what role do peer groups and social milieus play? How do migrant children experience xenophobia and a lack of acceptance on the side of the host society and how do they counterbalance such experiences? The approach of this work is both comparative and interdisciplinary. Contributors have different theoretical and methodological backgrounds, and the contributions address different social and cultural settings both with regard to place of origin and host society. Jacqueline Kn÷rr, is an anthropologist and head of the Research Group, Integration and Conflict as Dimensions of Cultural Tradition, Social Dynamics and Historical Experience in the Upper Guinea Coast (West Africa) at the Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology in Halle/Saale, Germany. Her main areas of research are West Africa and Indonesia.

Adaptation to Climate Change and Sea Level Rise

The Case Study of Coastal Communities in New Brunswick, Canada
Author: Sebastian Weissenberger,Omer Chouinard
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9401798885
Category: Science
Page: 100
View: 1300

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The book provides a concise and interdisciplinary outlook on the impacts of climate change on coastal areas and how coastal communities adapt to them. The first chapter analyses how sea level rise, changing ocean conditions, or increased climate variability and the socio-environmental context of the coastal zone leads to vulnerable communities. The second chapter addresses adaptation strategies and tools, and gives some examples of their application around the world. The third chapter describes participative action research projects undertaken in New Brunswick and how this community based approach has enabled communities to increase their climate resilience.

The Multicultural Challenge in Israel


Author: Ohad Nachtomy
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9781934843499
Category: Social Science
Page: 343
View: 3426

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In the last three decades, Israel has been undergoing a dramatic revolution: the hegemonic secular Zionist ethos that founded it is cracking, and various sub-groups seek to realize their specific identity in the public sphere. This text is one of the first attempts to examine various aspects of the current multicultural transformation of Israeli society.

Critical Loads and Dynamic Risk Assessments

Nitrogen, Acidity and Metals in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems
Author: Wim de Vries,Jean-Paul Hettelingh,Maximilian Posch
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9401795088
Category: Science
Page: 662
View: 2019

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This book provides a unique overview of research methods over the past 25 years assessing critical loads and temporal effects of the deposition of air pollutants. It includes critical load methods and applications addressing acidification, eutrophication and heavy metal pollution of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Applications include examples for each air pollution threat, both at local and regional scale, including Europe, Asia, Canada and the US. The book starts with background information on the effects of the deposition of sulphur, nitrogen and heavy metals and geochemical and biological indicators for risk assessments. The use of those indicators is then illustrated in the assessment of critical loads and their exceedances and in the temporal assessment of air pollution risks. It also includes the most recent developments of assessing critical loads and current and future risks of soil and water chemistry and biodiversity under climate change, with a special focus on nitrogen. The book thus provides a complete overview of the knowledge that is currently used for the scientific support of policies in the field of air pollution control to protect ecosystem services.

Ecological Biomarkers

Indicators of Ecotoxicological Effects
Author: Claude Amiard-Triquet,Jean-Claude Amiard,Philip S. Rainbow
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439880530
Category: Science
Page: 464
View: 2743

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Does a change, which affects a few biological macro-molecules, some cells, or a few individuals within a population, have any ecological significance that would allow the prediction of deleterious effects at higher levels of biological organization, namely the population, community, and ultimately the ecosystem? With contributions from experts in the field, Ecological Biomarkers: Indicators of Ecotoxicological Effects explores how biomarkers can be used to predict effects farther down the chain. It presents a synthesis of the state of the art in the methodology of biomarkers and its contribution to ecological risk assessment. This book describes the core biomarkers currently used in environmental research concerned with biological monitoring, biomarkers which correspond to the defences developed by living organisms in response to contaminants in their environment, and biomarkers that reveal biological damage resulting from contaminant stressors. It examines the efficacy of lysosomal biomarkers, immunotoxicity effects, behavioral disturbances, energy metabolism impairments, endocrine disruption measures, and genotoxicity as all indicative of probable toxic effects at higher biological levels. It is time to revisit the biological responses most ecologically relevant in the diagnosis of the health status of an aquatic environment well before it becomes unmanageable. Biomarkers provide a real possibility of delivering an easily measured marker at a simple level of biological organization that is predictably linked to a potentially ecologically significant effect at higher levels of biological organization. The text explores the latest knowledge and thinking on how to use biomarkers as tools for the assessment of environmental health and management.

Principles of Animal Biometeorology


Author: Roberto Gomes da Silva,Alex Sandro Campos Maia
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400757336
Category: Nature
Page: 264
View: 4606

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The book begins by describing in detail the mechanisms of energy exchange – radiative, convective, conductive and evaporative – together with techniques for their determination. The discussion extends to the importance of CO2, ozone and methane, together with that of aerosol pollutants and the evolution of atmospheric CO2. Subsequent chapters apply the results of the biophysical methods to mammals, birds and aquatic animals. Discussion includes problems of shelter and shade for animals in tropical environments and techniques for the thermal evaluation for shelters and for several tree types. The details of heat exchange between animals and the environment are presented, in separate chapters covering Mammals and Birds and Aquatic Mammals. A chapter on Shade and Shelter describes the importance of shade for animals, factors of shade efficiency, the protections offered by shelter and methods of calculating the protection afforded by both shade and shelter. A Special Methods chapter offers a variety of techniques for evaluating cutaneous and respiratory evaporation, and practical methods for sampling of hairs and the evaluation of hair coat characteristics.

A Companion to Qualitative Research


Author: Uwe Flick,Ernst von Kardoff,Ines Steinke
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 9780761973751
Category: Social Science
Page: 432
View: 6406

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A Companion to Qualitative Research draws on the work of an array of leading scholars from Europe, Britain and North America to present a summary of every aspect of the qualitative research process from nuts-and-bolts methods and research styles, to examinations of methodological theory and epistemology. It is one of the few surveys of qualitative research to adopt a genuinely international voice.

Wetlands and Human Health


Author: C Max Finlayson,Pierre Horwitz,Philip Weinstein
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9401796092
Category: Science
Page: 263
View: 5508

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The book addresses the interactions between wetlands and human health and well-being. A key feature is the linking of ecology-health and the targeting of practitioners and researchers. The environmental health problems of the 21st Century cannot be addressed by the traditional tools of ecologists or epidemiologists working in their respective disciplinary silos; this is clear from the emergence and re-emergence of public health and human well-being problems such as cholera pandemics, mosquito borne disease, and episodic events and disasters (e.g. hurricanes). To tackle these problems requires genuine cross-disciplinary collaboration; a key finding of the recently concluded Millennium Ecosystem Assessment when looking at human well-being and ecosystem health. This book brings the disciplines of ecology and health sciences closer to such a synthesis for researchers, teachers and policy makers interested in or needing information to manage wetlands and human health and well-being issues.