Andean Archaeology I

Variations in sociopolitical organization. 1
Author: William H. Isbell,Helaine Silverman
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780306467721
Category: History
Page: 390
View: 4409

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The origins and development of civilization are vital components to the understanding of the cultural processes that create human societies. Comparing and contrasting the evolutionary sequences from different civilizations is one approach to discovering their unique development. One area for comparison is in the Central Andes where several societies remained in isolation without a written language. As a direct result, the only resource for understanding these societies is in their material artefacts. In this work, the focus is on what the material remains reveal about the sociopolitical structures of the Central Andes region. This focus on ancient identity politics adopts a perspective that explicitly interrogates the processes and strategies by which higher social groups acted as self-interested agents in the achievement and maintenance of differential status, including: symbols of power and their role in the construction of an elite identity; social legitimization and achievement of economic or material power; design of architecture for the display of power and exercise of social control; and promotion of labor-intensive agriculture for the purpose of surplus production and extraction.

Andean Archaeology I

Variations in Sociopolitical Organization
Author: William H. Isbell,Helaine Silverman
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461506395
Category: Social Science
Page: 390
View: 5429

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Study of the origin and development of civilization is of unequaled importance for understanding the cultural processes that create human societies. Is cultural evolution directional and regular across human societies and history, or is it opportunistic and capricious? Do apparent regularities come from the way inves tigators construct and manage knowledge, or are they the result of real constraints on and variations in the actual processes? Can such questions even be answered? We believe so, but not easily. By comparing evolutionary sequences from different world civilizations scholars can judge degrees of similarity and difference and then attempt explanation. Of course, we must be careful to assess the influence that societies of the ancient world had on one another (the issue of pristine versus non-pristine cultural devel opment: see discussion in Fried 1967; Price 1978). The Central Andes were the locus of the only societies to achieve pristine civilization in the southern hemi sphere and only in the Central Andes did non-literate (non-written language) civ ilization develop. It seems clear that Central Andean civilization was independent on any graph of archaic culture change. Scholars have often expressed appreciation of the research opportunities offered by the Central Andes as a testing ground for the study of cultural evolu tion (see, e. g. , Carneiro 1970; Ford and Willey 1949: 5; Kosok 1965: 1-14; Lanning 1967: 2-5).

Andean Archaeology III

North and South
Author: William Isbell,Helaine Silverman
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387757308
Category: Social Science
Page: 523
View: 407

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The third volume in the Andean Archaeology series, this book focuses on the marked cultural differences between the northern and southern regions of the Central Andes, and considers the conditions under which these differences evolved, grew pronounced, and diminished. This book continues the dynamic, current problem-oriented approach to the field of Andean Archaeology that began with Andean Archaeology I and Andean Archaeology II. Combines up-to-date research, diverse theoretical platforms, and far-reaching interpretations to draw provocative and thoughtful conclusions.

Handbook of South American Archaeology


Author: Helaine Silverman,William Isbell
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387749075
Category: Social Science
Page: 1192
View: 949

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Perhaps the contributions of South American archaeology to the larger field of world archaeology have been inadequately recognized. If so, this is probably because there have been relatively few archaeologists working in South America outside of Peru and recent advances in knowledge in other parts of the continent are only beginning to enter larger archaeological discourse. Many ideas of and about South American archaeology held by scholars from outside the area are going to change irrevocably with the appearance of the present volume. Not only does the Handbook of South American Archaeology (HSAA) provide immense and broad information about ancient South America, the volume also showcases the contributions made by South Americans to social theory. Moreover, one of the merits of this volume is that about half the authors (30) are South Americans, and the bibliographies in their chapters will be especially useful guides to Spanish and Portuguese literature as well as to the latest research. It is inevitable that the HSAA will be compared with the multi-volume Handbook of South American Indians (HSAI), with its detailed descriptions of indigenous peoples of South America, that was organized and edited by Julian Steward. Although there are heroic archaeological essays in the HSAI, by the likes of Junius Bird, Gordon Willey, John Rowe, and John Murra, Steward states frankly in his introduction to Volume Two that “arch- ology is included by way of background” to the ethnographic chapters.

Andean Archaeology II

Art, Landscape, and Society
Author: William H. Isbell,Helaine Silverman
Publisher: Taylor & Francis US
ISBN: 9780306472503
Category: History
Page: 376
View: 2939

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The origins and development of civilization are vital components to the understanding of the cultural processes that create human societies. Comparing and contrasting the evolutionary sequences from different civilizations is one approach to discovering their unique development. One area for comparison is in the Central Andes where several societies remained in isolation without a written language. As a direct result, the only resource to understand these societies is their material artifacts. In this second volume, the focus is on the art and landscape remains and what they uncover about societies of the Central Andes region. The ancient art and landscape, revealing the range and richness of the societies of the area significantly shaped the development of Andean archaeology. This work includes discussions on: - pottery and textiles; - iconography and symbols; - ideology; - geoglyphs and rock art. This volume will be of interest to Andean archaeologists, cultural and historical anthropologists, material archaeologists and Latin American historians.

A Companion to Latin American History


Author: Thomas H. Holloway
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781444391640
Category: History
Page: 544
View: 9300

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The Companion to Latin American History collects the work of leading experts in the field to create a single-source overview of the diverse history and current trends in the study of Latin America. Presents a state-of-the-art overview of the history of Latin America Written by the top international experts in the field 28 chapters come together as a superlative single source of information for scholars and students Recognizes the breadth and diversity of Latin American history by providing systematic chronological and geographical coverage Covers both historical trends and new areas of interest

Foundations of power in the prehispanic Andes


Author: Kevin J. Vaughn,Dennis Edward Ogburn,Christina A. Conlee,American Anthropological Association. Meeting,Mark S. Aldenderfer
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9781931303200
Category: History
Page: 276
View: 4151

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Death in the Bolivian High Plateau

burials and Tiwanaku society
Author: Antti Korpisaari
Publisher: British Archaeological Reports
ISBN: N.A
Category: Social Science
Page: 189
View: 8383

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This study presents a multi-disciplinary analysis of the mortuary practices of the Tiwanaku culture of the Bolivian high plateau, situated between the two Andean cordilleras, at an altitude of c. 3800-4000 metres above sea level. The Tiwanaku State (Tiwanaku IV and V, c. AD 500- 50) - the heartland of which was situated in the southern Lake Titicaca Basin - was one of the most important pre-Inca civilisations of the South Central Andes. Since the late 1950s - and especially since the mid- 1980s - understanding of the Tiwanaku culture has increased rapidly. However, no systematic study of Tiwanaku burial practices - combining older and newer archaeological data with information from historical and ethnographic sources - has been available. This study fills this gap and furthers advances the general understanding of the Tiwanaku culture.

Social Pluralism and Lithic Economy at Cerro Baúl, Peru


Author: Benjamin R. Vining
Publisher: British Archaeological Reports Limited
ISBN: N.A
Category: Social Science
Page: 119
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A study of the pluralistic community at Cerro Baul, Peru, offers the opportunity to explore the complex factors that effect the composition of social groups. The observations contribute to understanding of the socio-economic dynamics between the Wari and Tiwanaku cultural groups in the Middle Horizon (c.600 - 1000 AD)."

From Foraging to Farming in the Andes

New Perspectives on Food Production and Social Organization
Author: Tom D. Dillehay
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139495631
Category: Social Science
Page: N.A
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Archeologists have always considered the beginnings of Andean civilization from c.13,000 to 6,000 years ago to be important in terms of the appearance of domesticated plants and animals, social differentiation, and a sedentary lifestyle, but there is more to this period than just these developments. During this period, the spread of crop production and other technologies, kinship-based labor projects, mound-building, and population aggregation formed ever-changing conditions across the Andes. From Foraging to Farming in the Andes proposes a new and more complex model for understanding the transition from hunting and gathering to cultivation. It argues that such developments evolved regionally, were fluid and uneven, and were subject to reversal. This book develops these arguments from a large body of archaeological evidence, collected over 30 years in two valleys in northern Peru, and then places the valleys in the context of recent scholarship studying similar developments around the world.

Mining and Quarrying in the Ancient Andes

Sociopolitical, Economic, and Symbolic Dimensions
Author: Nicholas Tripcevich,Kevin J. Vaughn
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461452007
Category: Social Science
Page: 354
View: 6588

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​Over the millennia, from stone tools among early foragers to clays to prized metals and mineral pigments used by later groups, mineral resources have had a pronounced role in the Andean world. Archaeologists have used a variety of analytical techniques on the materials that ancient peoples procured from the earth. What these materials all have in common is that they originated in a mine or quarry. Despite their importance, comparative analysis between these archaeological sites and features has been exceptionally rare, and even more so for the Andes. Mining and Quarrying in the Ancient Andes focuses on archaeological research at primary deposits of minerals extracted through mining or quarrying in the Andean region. While mining often begins with an economic need, it has important social, political, and ritual dimensions as well. The contributions in this volume place evidence of primary extraction activities within the larger cultural context in which they occurred. This important contribution to the interdisciplinary literature presents research and analysis on the mining and quarrying of various materials throughout the region and through time. Thus, rather than focusing on one material type or one specific site, Mining and Quarrying in the Ancient Andes incorporates a variety of all the aspects of mining, by focusing on the physical, social, and ritual aspects of procuring materials from the earth in the Andean past.

Domestic Architecture, Ethnicity, and Complementarity in the South-Central Andes


Author: Mark S. Aldenderfer
Publisher: University of Iowa Press
ISBN: 1587290014
Category: History
Page: 188
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Domestic Architecture, Ethnicity, and Complementarity in the South-Central Andes is a comprehensive and challenging look at the burgeoning field of Andean domestic architecture. Aldenderfer and fourteen contributors use domestic architecture to explore two major topics in the prehistory of the south-central Andes: the development of different forms of complementary relationships between highland and lowland peoples and the definition of the ethnic affiliations of these peoples.

Against Typological Tyranny in Archaeology

A South American Perspective
Author: Cristóbal Gnecco,Carl Langebaek
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461487242
Category: Social Science
Page: 236
View: 4081

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The papers in this book question the tyranny of typological thinking in archaeology through case studies from various South American countries (Venezuela, Colombia, Bolivia, Argentina, and Brazil) and Antarctica. They aim to show that typologies are unavoidable (they are, after all, the way to create networks that give meanings to symbols) but that their tyranny can be overcome if they are used from a critical, heuristic and non-prescriptive stance: critical because the complacent attitude towards their tyranny is replaced by a militant stance against it; heuristic because they are used as means to reach alternative and suggestive interpretations but not as ultimate and definite destinies; and non-prescriptive because instead of using them as threads to follow they are rather used as constitutive parts of more complex and connective fabrics. The papers included in the book are diverse in temporal and locational terms. They cover from so called Formative societies in lowland Venezuela to Inca-related ones in Bolivia; from the coastal shell middens of Brazil to the megalithic sculptors of SW Colombia. Yet, the papers are related. They have in common their shared rejection of established, naturalized typologies that constrain the way archaeologists see, forcing their interpretations into well known and predictable conclusions. Their imaginative interpretative proposals flee from the secure comfort of venerable typologies, many suspicious because of their association with colonial political narratives. Instead, the authors propose novel ways of dealing with archaeological data.

At the Mountains’ Altar

Anthropology of Religion in an Andean Community
Author: Frank Salomon
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351711725
Category: Social Science
Page: 236
View: 4127

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In high-Andean Peru, Rapaz village maintains a temple to mountain beings who command water and weather. By examining the ritual practices and belief systems of an Andean community, this book provides students with rich understandings of unfamiliar religious experiences and delivers theories of religion from the realm of abstraction. From core field encounters, each chapter guides readers outward in a different theoretical direction, successively exploring the main paths in the anthropology of religion. As well as addressing classical approaches in the anthropology of religion to rural modernity, Salomon engages with newer currents such as cognitive-evolution models, power-oriented critiques, the ontological reworking of relativism, and the "new materialism" in the context of a deep-rooted Andean ethos. He reflects on central questions such as: Why does sacred ritualism seem almost universal? Is it seated in social power, human psychology, symbolic meanings, or cultural logics? Are varied theories compatible? Is "religion" still a tenable category in the post-colonial world? At the Mountains’ Altar is a valuable resource for students taking courses on the anthropology of religion, Andean cultures, Latin American ethnography, religious studies, and indigenous peoples of the Americas.

The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of Death and Burial


Author: Sarah Tarlow,Liv Nilsson Stutz
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191650390
Category: Social Science
Page: 872
View: 4779

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The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of Death and Burial reviews the current state of mortuary archaeology and its practice, highlighting its often contentious place in the modern socio-politics of archaeology. It contains forty-four chapters which focus on the history of the discipline and its current scientific techniques and methods. Written by leading, international scholars in the field, it derives its examples and case studies from a wide range of time periods, such as the middle palaeolithic to the twentieth century, and geographical areas which include Europe, North and South America, Africa, and Asia. Combining up-to-date knowledge of relevant archaeological research with critical assessments of the theme and an evaluation of future research trajectories, it draws attention to the social, symbolic, and theoretical aspects of interpreting mortuary archaeology. The volume is well-illustrated with maps, plans, photographs, and illustrations and is ideally suited for students and researchers.

Lukurmata

Household Archaeology in Prehispanic Bolivia
Author: Marc Bermann
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400863848
Category: Social Science
Page: 326
View: 4666

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Household archaeology, together with community and regional settlement information, forms the basis for a unique local perspective of Andean prehistory in this study of the evolution of the site of Lukurmata, a pre-Columbian community in highland Bolivia. First established nearly two thousand years ago, Lukurmata grew to be a major ceremonial center in the Tiwanaku state, a polity that dominated the south-central Andes from a.d. 400 to 1200. After the Tiwanaku state collapsed, Lukurmata rapidly declined, becoming once again a small village. In his analysis of a 1300-year-long sequence of house remains at Lukurmata, Marc Bermann traces patterns and changes in the organization of domestic life, household ritual, ties to other communities, and mortuary activities, as well as household adaptations to overarching political and economic trends. Prehistorians have long studied the processes of Andean state formation, expansion, and decline at the regional level, notes Bermann. But only now are we beginning to understand how these changes affected the lives of the residents at individual settlements. Presenting a "view from below" of Andean prehistory based on a remarkably extensive data set, Lukurmata is a rare case study of how prehispanic polities can be understood in new ways if prehistorians integrate the different lines of evidence available to them. Originally published in 1994. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.