Algal Toxins: Nature, Occurrence, Effect and Detection


Author: Valtere Evangelista,Laura Barsanti,Anna Maria Frassanito,Vincenzo Passarelli,Paolo Gualtieri
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402084803
Category: Science
Page: 399
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This volume contains the lectures and seminars given at the NATO Advanced Study Institute on “Sensor Systems for Biological Threads: The Algal Toxins Case”, held in Pisa, Italy in October, 2007. The Institute was sponsored and funded by the Scientific Affairs Division of NATO. It is my pleasant duty to thank this institution. This ASI offered updated information on how far the research on algal toxins has gone in the exploration of structures, biosynthesis and regulation of toxins, and the development of technology for bio-monitoring these c- pounds. Algae can form heavy growths in ponds, lakes, reservoirs and sl- moving rivers throughout the world; algae can house toxins which are - ually released into water when the cells rupture or die. Hundreds of toxins have been identified so far. Detection methods, including rapid screening, have been developed to help us learning more about them, especially to find out which toxins are a real threat for people and what conditions encourage their production and accumulation. Early detection of algal toxins is an - portant aspect for public safety and natural environment, and significant efforts are underway to develop effective and reliable tools that can be used for this purpose.

Food Quality: Balancing Health and Disease


Author: Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu,Alina Maria Holban
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128114940
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 530
View: 4936

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Food Quality: Balancing Health and Disease, Volume Thirteen in the Handbook of Food Bioengineering series, provides essential information for researchers, scientists and students on the relationship between the quality of foods and disease at the biological level. It presents different technological approaches to detect food properties and their capabilities for balancing health and disease to deliver high-quality products to consumers. This volume explores the dynamic potential of how food bioengineering can improve traditional foods through modern methods to make a positive impact on human health and foster innovation. Provides information on how bioavailability of nutrients and food formulation can be used to prevent or improve disease Includes the most recent research methods of metabolomics and genomics to detect best outcomes Includes innovative applications for anti-aging effects and curative properties in foods Presents research examples on how both human gut microbiota and food components control the way certain organisms develop and react in different environmental conditions

Animal Models for the Study of Human Disease

Chapter 3. The Advent of the Golden Era of Animal Alternatives
Author: Daniel Butzke,Barbara Grune,Josephine Kugler,Michael Oelgeschläger,Andrea Seiler,Dana Sittner,Manfred Liebsch,Andreas Luch
Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
ISBN: 0128071931
Category: Medical
Page: 1108
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The first years of the 21st century have seen an unparalleled progress in biomedical sciences. Several dogmata that haunted scientific debate for decades were easily abandoned, and there is a fundamental shift away from eminence-based toward evidence-based assessment of preclinical models, probing their true value in predicting clinical outcomes of human diseases. Likewise, several new approaches, e.g., stem cell-based, diseases-in-a-dish and organs-on-a-chip and lab-on-a-chip technologies have revitalized the domain of alternatives to animal experimentation. In our review, we portray these and other efforts to bring forth relevant and ethically inoffensive models of human diseases.

Animal Models for the Study of Human Disease


Author: P. Michael Conn
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0124159125
Category: Science
Page: 1108
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Animal Models for the Study of Human Disease identifies important animal models and assesses the advantages and disadvantages of each model for the study of human disease. The first section addresses how to locate resources, animal alternatives, animal ethics and related issues, much needed information for researchers across the biological sciences and biomedicine.The next sections of the work offers models for disease-oriented topics, including cardiac and pulmonary diseases, aging, infectious diseases, obesity, diabetes, neurological diseases, joint diseases, visual disorders, cancer, hypertension, genetic diseases, and diseases of abuse. Organized by disease orientation for ease of searchability Provides information on locating resources, animal alternatives and animal ethics Covers a broad range of animal models used in research for human disease

Algae

Anatomy, Biochemistry, and Biotechnology, Second Edition
Author: Laura Barsanti,Paolo Gualtieri
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 143986733X
Category: Science
Page: 361
View: 3552

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A single-source reference on the biology of algae, Algae: Anatomy, Biochemistry, and Biotechnology, Second Edition examines the most important taxa and structures for freshwater, marine, and terrestrial forms of algae. Its comprehensive coverage goes from algae's historical role through its taxonomy and ecology to its natural product possibilities. The authors have gathered a significant amount of new material since the publication of the first edition. This completely revised second edition contains many changes and additions including the following: All revised and rewritten tables, plus new figures, many in color A fascinating new chapter: Oddities and Curiosities in the Algal World Expanded information on algal anatomy Absorption spectra from all algal divisions, chlorophylls, and accessory pigments Additional information on collection, storage, and preservation of algae Updated section on algal toxins and algal bioactive molecules The book's unifying theme is on the important role of algae in the earth's self-regulating life support system and its function within restorative models of planetary health. It also discusses algae's biotechnological applications, including potential nutritional and pharmaceutical products. Written for students as well as researchers, teachers, and professionals in the field of phycology and applied phycology, this new full-color edition is both illuminating and inspiring.

Marine Biotoxins


Author: Hans P. Egmond,M. E. van Apeldoorn,G. J. A. Speijers,Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org.
ISBN: 9789251051290
Category: Medical
Page: 278
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This paper provides an extensive review of different aspects of five shellfish-poisoning syndromes (paralytic, diarrhoeic, amnesic, neurologic and azapiracid), as well as one fish-poisoning syndrome (ciguatera fish poisoning), and discusses in detail the causative toxins produced by marine organisms, chemical structures and analytical methods of the toxins, habitat and occurrence of the toxin-producing organisms, case studies and existing regulations. Based on this analysis, risk assessments are carried out for each of the toxins, and recommendations are elaborated to improve the management of these risks in order to reduce the harmful effect of these toxins on public health.

Toxins in Food


Author: Waldemar M. Dabrowski,Zdzislaw E. Sikorski
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780203502358
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 376
View: 5733

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While systems such as GMP and HACCP assure a high standard of food quality, foodborne poisonings still pose a serious hazard to the consumer's health. The lack of knowledge among some producers and consumers regarding the risks and benefits related to food makes it imperative to provide updated information in order to improve food safety. Toxins in Food presents the current state of knowledge on the content, chemical properties, mode of action, and biological effects of toxins occurring in food. Chapters are based on the research of highly qualified specialists from the US and Europe and on the critical evaluation of recent world literature. Following an introduction to the current toxicological hazards related to food, the text describes the toxins that occur naturally in raw materials, as well as those found in food due to defects during processing and as a result of environmental and raw material contamination. It discusses toxic substances that may be generated in food during processing, packaging, and storage, and includes information on food allergies and the medical consequences of toxins in food. This comprehensive volume updates our knowledge and increases our awareness of the toxins found in food. It is a valuable source of information for anyone interested in improving the safety and nutritional quality of the food supply.

Algal and Fungal Toxins

A Comprehensive Treatise
Author: Solomon Kadis,Alex Ciegler,Samuel J. Ajl
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 148325948X
Category: Health & Fitness
Page: 430
View: 6740

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Microbial Toxins, Volume VII: Algal and Fungal Toxins reviews research and investigations on algal and fungal toxins. This book discusses the distribution of poisonous dinoflagellates; pharmacology of blue-green algal toxins; control of Prymnesium and detection of toxin in nature; and F-2 (zearalenone) estrogenic mycotoxin from Fusarium. The effect of Fusarium toxins in animals; mycotoxins produced by Fusarium tricinctum NRRL 3249; and mold growth and production and isolation of trichothecenes are also elaborated. This publication likewise covers the chemistry of scirpene toxic substances of Fusarium nivale; isolation of salivation factor; and mammalian toxicity of epidithiadioxopiperazines. This volume is a useful reference for scientists and graduate students in various disciplines —microbiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, epidemiology, oncology, and related fields.

Microbial Toxins and Related Contamination in the Food Industry


Author: Gabriella Caruso,Giorgia Caruso,Pasqualina Laganà,Antonino Santi Delia,Salvatore Parisi,Caterina Barone,Lucia Melcame,Francesco Mazzù
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319205595
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 101
View: 9742

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This Brief concerns the chemical risk in food products from the viewpoint of microbiology. The “Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point” (HACCP) approach, which is applied for this purpose, is dedicated to the study and the analysis of all possible dangers by food consumptions and the related countermeasures with the aim of protecting the health of consumers. This difficult objective is highly multidisciplinary and requires a plethora of different competencies. This book thus addresses chemists, microbiologists, food technologists, medical professionals and veterinarians. The chemical risks described in this book are related to food additives, contaminants by food packaging materials, chemicals from cleaning systems and microbial toxins. The present book gives an introduction and overview of these various topics.

From Monsoons to Microbes

Understanding the Ocean's Role in Human Health
Author: National Research Council,Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources,Ocean Studies Board,Committee on the Ocean's Role in Human Health
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309173421
Category: Science
Page: 144
View: 7817

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What can sharks teach us about our immune system? What can horseshoe crabs show us about eyesight? The more we learn about the ocean, the more we realize how critical these vast bodies of water are to our health and well-being. Sometimes the ocean helps us, as when a marine organism yields a new medical treatment. At other times, the ocean poses the threat of coastal storm surges or toxic algal blooms. From Monsoons to Microbes offers a deeper look into the oceans that surround us, often nurturing yet sometimes harming humankind. This book explores the links among physical oceanography, public health, epidemiology, marine biology, and medicine in understanding what the ocean has to offer. It will help readers grasp such important points as: How the ocean's sweeping physical processes create long-term phenomena such as El Nino and short-term disastrous events such as tsunamis--including what communities can do to prepare. What medicines and nutritional products have come from the ocean and what the prospects are for more such discoveries. How estuaries work--where salt and fresh water meet--and what can go wrong, as in the 7,000 square mile "dead zone" at the out-flow of the Mississippi River. How the growing demand for seafood and the expansion of ocean-going transport has increased our exposure to infectious agents--and how these agents can be tracked down and fought. Why "red tides" of toxic algae suddenly appear in previously unaffected coastal areas, and what happens when algal toxins find their way into our food supply or the air we breathe. The book recommends ways we can implement exciting new technologies to monitor the physics, chemistry, and biology of the ocean to recognize change as it happens. From the impact of worldwide atmospheric warming to the significance of exotic bacteria from submarine hydrothermal vents, the ocean has many depths left to explore.

Toxic Cyanobacteria in Water

A Guide to their Public Health Consequences, Monitoring and Management
Author: Jamie Bartram,Ingrid Chorus
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1482295067
Category: Architecture
Page: 432
View: 4112

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Cyanobacteria and their toxins are an increasing global public health menace. Most recently, problems have been experienced in Australia, the United States and, due to drought and increasing water scarcity, pose a severe threat in the U.K. With an international range of contributors, all leading experts in their fields, Toxic Cyanobacteria in Water examines the increasing need to protect drinking water and water resources from the hazards of Cyanobacteria and their impact on health. Written and edited by a World Health Organization working group, Toxic Cyanobacteria in Water is an operational handbook in a practical, assessible style. Toxic Cyanobacteria in Water will be invaluable to environmental health officers, professionals in the fields of water supply, public health, fresh water ecology and education, national and international organizations, special interest groups, post-graduate students and utilities responsible for managing drinking water supplies.

Harmful Algal Blooms

A Compendium Desk Reference
Author: Sandra E. Shumway,JoAnn M. Burkholder,Steven L. Morton
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 111899468X
Category: Science
Page: 696
View: 3633

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Harmful Algal Blooms: A Compendium Desk Reference provides basic information on harmful algal blooms (HAB) and references for individuals in need of technical information when faced with unexpected or unknown harmful algal events. Chapters in this volume will provide readers with information on causes of HAB, successful management and monitoring programs, control, prevention, and mitigation strategies, economic consequences of HAB, associated risks to human health, impacts of HAB on food webs and ecosystems, and detailed information on the most common HAB species. Harmful Algal Blooms: A Compendium Desk Reference will be an invaluable resource to managers, newcomers to the field, those who do not have easy or affordable access to scientific literature, and individuals who simply do not know where to begin searching for the information needed, especially when faced with novel and unexpected HAB events. Edited by three of the world's leading harmful algal bloom researchers and with contributions from leading experts, Harmful Algal Blooms: A Compendium Desk Reference will be a key source of information for this increasingly important topic.

The Water Environment

Algal Toxins and Health
Author: Wayne Carmichael
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461332672
Category: Science
Page: 491
View: 1489

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The conference on The Water Environment: Algal Toxins and Health was held at Wright State University in Dayton, Ohio, on June 29, 30, July 1, 2, 1980. Its principal objectives were to bring together, for the first time, researchers, public officials and interested parties in order to present and discuss what is known about algal toxins. The conference concentrated almost exclusively on toxins and toxic blooms of blue-green algae (Cyanobacteria). Since the most common Cyanobacteria bloom forming species are also the ones most likely to produce toxins, they are a problem in the maintenance of safe animal and human water supplies. While poison ings by Cyanobacteria involve mainly domestic and wild animals, they may also be responsible for cases of human gastroenteritis and con tact poisoning. Even though human poisonings by Cyanobacteria have historically not been a widespread problem, continued deterioration of our recreational and municipal water supplies suggests that blooms of non-toxic and toxic Cyanobacteria blooms will increase. In addi tion to studies on their role as disease agents, there is basic research being done on their pharmacological properties to determine their mode of action and usefulness as tools in the study of basic neuromuscular mechanisms. These papers were centrally typed for reproduction as camera ready copy. Each paper was reviewed and edited by at least two per sons of the editorial committee. This volume is organized into five major sections: 1.

Perspectives on Integrated Coastal Zone Management


Author: Wim Salomons,Kerry Turner,Luiz D. de Lacerda,S. Ramachandran
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642601030
Category: Science
Page: 386
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All coastal areas are facing a growing range of stresses and shocks, the scale of which now poses threats to the resilience of both human and environmental coastal systems. Responsible agencies are seeking better ways of managing the causes and consequences of the environmental change process in coastal zones. This volume discusses the basic principles underpinning a more integrated approach to coastal management and highlights the obstacles that may be met in practice in both developed and developing countries. Successful strategies will have to encompass all the elements of management, from planning and design through financing and implementation, as highlighted in this book.

Monitoring of Harmful Algal Blooms


Author: Lasse H. Pettersson,Dmitry Pozdnyakov
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540682090
Category: Science
Page: 309
View: 3482

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Monitoring of Harmful Algae Blooms is a timely guide to the research techniques in use to monitor visible algae blooms and through remote sensing, including infrared techniques, predict them through mathematical modeling. Drawing on current and future satellite data, the book presents visible perspectives on a more efficient HAB monitoring system for the future. It also emphasizes practical applications, impacting on marine ecology, national economy, health, food and safety and quality assurance.

Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms: State of the Science and Research Needs


Author: H. Kenneth Hudnell
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387758658
Category: Medical
Page: 950
View: 3820

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With the ever-increasing incidence of harmful cyanobacterial algal blooms, this monograph has added urgency and will be essential reading for all sorts of researchers, from neuroscientists to cancer research specialists. The volume contains the proceedings of the 2005 International Symposium on Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms, and has been edited by H. Kenneth Hudnell, of the US Environmental Protection Agency. It contains much of the most recent research into the subject.

Opportunities for Environmental Applications of Marine Biotechnology

Proceedings of the October 5-6, 1999, Workshop
Author: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Commission on Life Sciences,Ocean Studies Board,Board on Biology
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309171465
Category: Science
Page: 187
View: 6015

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This 2-day workshop is the culmination of a study of the status and future of marine biotechnology. The overall goal of this workshop is to examine what was initially called "Opportunities for Marine Biotechnology in the United States," to consider where we are now in this field of "Environmental Marine Biotechnology," to envision the field in the future, and to discuss any impediments that might be encountered along the way. Opportunities for Environmental Applications of Marine Biotechnology: Proceedings of the October 5-6, 1999, Workshop addresses the question of where the federal government should invest its limited funds and what future initiatives should be planned.

Plants and Health

New Perspectives on the Health-Environment-Plant Nexus
Author: Elizabeth Anne Olson,John Richard Stepp
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 331948088X
Category: Science
Page: 175
View: 4229

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This volume showcases current ethnobiological accounts of the ways that people use plants to promote human health and well-being. The goal in this volume is to highlight some contemporary examples of how plants are central to various aspects of healthy environments and healthy minds and bodies. Authors employ diverse analytic frameworks, including: interpretive and constructivist, cognitive, political-ecological, systems theory, phenomenological, and critical studies of the relationship between humans, plants and the environment. The case studies represent a wide geographical range and explore the diversity in the health appeals of plants and herbs. The volume begins by considering how plants may intrinsically be ‘healthful’ and the notion that ecosystem health may be a literal concept used in contemporary efforts to increase awareness of environmental degradation. The book continues with the exploration of the ways in which medically-pluralistic societies demonstrate the entanglements between the environment, the state and its citizens. Profit driven models for the extraction and production of medicinal plant products are explored in terms of health equity and sovereignty. Some of the chapters in this volume work to explore medicinal plant knowledge and the globalization of medicinal plant knowledge. The translocal and global networks of medicinal plant knowledge are pivotal to productions of medicinal and herbal plant remedies that are used by people in all variety of societies and cultural groups. Humans produce health through various means and interact with our environments, especially plants, in order to promote health. The ethnographic accounts of people, plants, and health in this volume will be of interest to the fields of anthropology, biology and ethnobiology, as well as allied disciplines.

Cyanotoxins

Occurrence, Causes, Consequences
Author: Ingrid Chorus
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642595146
Category: Science
Page: 357
View: 8644

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Toxic cyanobacteria are increasingly recognised as a potential hazard in water for human use. The recent availability of methods for quantitative screening is leading to a surge of research on their occurrence. This book presents a novel compilation of extensive screening results showing the cyanotoxin levels that may be expected when certain taxa dominate. These results indicate cyanotoxins to be the most widespread among the chemicals of concern in water used for drinking and recreation. It further combines field data with results from laboratory culture experiments to suggest a unifying view of how environmental factors control the cyanotoxin levels in natural waters. A practical section is dedicated to the exposure of humans through drinking-water and recreation.

Molluscs

From Chemo-ecological Study to Biotechnological Application
Author: Guido Cimino,Margherita Gavagnin
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540308806
Category: Science
Page: 387
View: 7315

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This is the first book on molluscs as sources for pharmaceutical drugs. Marine molluscs are very promising candidates for a wide range of biotechnological applications. For example, they possess analgesic drugs more potent than morphine and very effective anticancer agents. International experts provide coverage of the most stimulating topics related to molluscs. This knowledge of their history and current studies opens the door to the future.