A Primer on Mapping Class Groups


Author: Benson Farb,Dan Margalit
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 0691147949
Category: MATHEMATICS
Page: 472
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The study of the mapping class group Mod(S) is a classical topic that is experiencing a renaissance. It lies at the juncture of geometry, topology, and group theory. This book explains as many important theorems, examples, and techniques as possible, quickly and directly, while at the same time giving full details and keeping the text nearly self-contained. The book is suitable for graduate students. A Primer on Mapping Class Groups begins by explaining the main group-theoretical properties of Mod(S), from finite generation by Dehn twists and low-dimensional homology to the Dehn-Nielsen-Baer theorem. Along the way, central objects and tools are introduced, such as the Birman exact sequence, the complex of curves, the braid group, the symplectic representation, and the Torelli group. The book then introduces Teichmüller space and its geometry, and uses the action of Mod(S) on it to prove the Nielsen-Thurston classification of surface homeomorphisms. Topics include the topology of the moduli space of Riemann surfaces, the connection with surface bundles, pseudo-Anosov theory, and Thurston's approach to the classification.

Automorphisms of Surfaces After Nielsen and Thurston


Author: Andrew J. Casson,Steven A. Bleiler
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521349857
Category: Mathematics
Page: 104
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A comprehensive introduction to selected aspects of modern low-dimensional topology for readers with a knowledge of basic algebra.

Foundations of Hyperbolic Manifolds


Author: John Ratcliffe
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1475740131
Category: Mathematics
Page: 750
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This book is an exposition of the theoretical foundations of hyperbolic manifolds. It is intended to be used both as a textbook and as a reference. Particular emphasis has been placed on readability and completeness of ar gument. The treatment of the material is for the most part elementary and self-contained. The reader is assumed to have a basic knowledge of algebra and topology at the first-year graduate level of an American university. The book is divided into three parts. The first part, consisting of Chap ters 1-7, is concerned with hyperbolic geometry and basic properties of discrete groups of isometries of hyperbolic space. The main results are the existence theorem for discrete reflection groups, the Bieberbach theorems, and Selberg's lemma. The second part, consisting of Chapters 8-12, is de voted to the theory of hyperbolic manifolds. The main results are Mostow's rigidity theorem and the determination of the structure of geometrically finite hyperbolic manifolds. The third part, consisting of Chapter 13, in tegrates the first two parts in a development of the theory of hyperbolic orbifolds. The main results are the construction of the universal orbifold covering space and Poincare's fundamental polyhedron theorem.

Thurston's Work on Surfaces (MN-48)


Author: Albert Fathi,François Laudenbach,Valentin Poénaru
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 0691147353
Category: MATHEMATICS
Page: 255
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This book provides a detailed exposition of William Thurston's work on surface homeomorphisms, available here for the first time in English. Based on material of Thurston presented at a seminar in Orsay from 1976 to 1977, it covers topics such as the space of measured foliations on a surface, the Thurston compactification of Teichmüller space, the Nielsen-Thurston classification of surface homeomorphisms, and dynamical properties of pseudo-Anosov diffeomorphisms. Thurston never published the complete proofs, so this text is the only resource for many aspects of the theory. Thurston was awarded the prestigious Fields Medal in 1982 as well as many other prizes and honors, and is widely regarded to be one of the major mathematical figures of our time. Today, his important and influential work on surface homeomorphisms is enjoying continued interest in areas ranging from the Poincaré conjecture to topological dynamics and low-dimensional topology. Conveying the extraordinary richness of Thurston's mathematical insight, this elegant and faithful translation from the original French will be an invaluable resource for the next generation of researchers and students.

An Introduction to Contact Topology


Author: Hansjörg Geiges
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139467956
Category: Mathematics
Page: N.A
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This text on contact topology is a comprehensive introduction to the subject, including recent striking applications in geometric and differential topology: Eliashberg's proof of Cerf's theorem via the classification of tight contact structures on the 3-sphere, and the Kronheimer-Mrowka proof of property P for knots via symplectic fillings of contact 3-manifolds. Starting with the basic differential topology of contact manifolds, all aspects of 3-dimensional contact manifolds are treated in this book. One notable feature is a detailed exposition of Eliashberg's classification of overtwisted contact structures. Later chapters also deal with higher-dimensional contact topology. Here the focus is on contact surgery, but other constructions of contact manifolds are described, such as open books or fibre connected sums. This book serves both as a self-contained introduction to the subject for advanced graduate students and as a reference for researchers.

The Wild World of 4-manifolds


Author: Alexandru Scorpan
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 0821837494
Category: Mathematics
Page: 609
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What a wonderful book! I strongly recommend this book to anyone, especially graduate students, interested in getting a sense of 4-manifolds. --MAA Reviews The book gives an excellent overview of 4-manifolds, with many figures and historical notes. Graduate students, nonexperts, and experts alike will enjoy browsing through it. -- Robion C. Kirby, University of California, Berkeley This book offers a panorama of the topology of simply connected smooth manifolds of dimension four. Dimension four is unlike any other dimension; it is large enough to have room for wild things to happen, but small enough so that there is no room to undo the wildness. For example, only manifolds of dimension four can exhibit infinitely many distinct smooth structures. Indeed, their topology remains the least understood today. To put things in context, the book starts with a survey of higher dimensions and of topological 4-manifolds. In the second part, the main invariant of a 4-manifold--the intersection form--and its interaction with the topology of the manifold are investigated. In the third part, as an important source of examples, complex surfaces are reviewed. In the final fourth part of the book, gauge theory is presented; this differential-geometric method has brought to light how unwieldy smooth 4-manifolds truly are, and while bringing new insights, has raised more questions than answers. The structure of the book is modular, organized into a main track of about two hundred pages, augmented by extensive notes at the end of each chapter, where many extra details, proofs and developments are presented. To help the reader, the text is peppered with over 250 illustrations and has an extensive index.

4-manifolds and Kirby Calculus


Author: Robert E. Gompf,András Stipsicz
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 0821809946
Category: Mathematics
Page: 558
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Since the early 1980s, there has been an explosive growth in 4-manifold theory, particularly due to the influx of interest and ideas from gauge theory and algebraic geometry. This book offers an exposition of the subject from the topological point of view. It bridges the gap to other disciplines and presents classical but important topological techniques that have not previously appeared in the literature. Part I of the text presents the basics of the theory at the second-year graduate level and offers an overview of current research. Part II is devoted to an exposition of Kirby calculus, or handlebody theory on 4-manifolds. It is both elementary and comprehensive. Part III offers in-depth treatments of a broad range of topics from current 4-manifold research. Topics include branched coverings and the geography of complex surfaces, elliptic and Lefschetz fibrations, $h$-cobordisms, symplectic 4-manifolds, and Stein surfaces. The authors present many important applications. The text is supplemented with over 300 illustrations and numerous exercises, with solutions given in the book. I greatly recommend this wonderful book to any researcher in 4-manifold topology for the novel ideas, techniques, constructions, and computations on the topic, presented in a very fascinating way. I think really that every student, mathematician, and researcher interested in 4-manifold topology, should own a copy of this beautiful book. --Zentralblatt MATH This book gives an excellent introduction into the theory of 4-manifolds and can be strongly recommended to beginners in this field ... carefully and clearly written; the authors have evidently paid great attention to the presentation of the material ... contains many really pretty and interesting examples and a great number of exercises; the final chapter is then devoted to solutions of some of these ... this type of presentation makes the subject more attractive and its study easier. --European Mathematical Society Newsletter

Fuchsian Groups


Author: Svetlana Katok
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226425825
Category: Mathematics
Page: 175
View: 901

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This introductory text provides a thoroughly modern treatment of Fuchsian groups that addresses both the classical material and recent developments in the field. A basic example of lattices in semisimple groups, Fuchsian groups have extensive connections to the theory of a single complex variable, number theory, algebraic and differential geometry, topology, Lie theory, representation theory, and group theory.

Knots and Links


Author: Dale Rolfsen
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 0821834363
Category: Mathematics
Page: 439
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Rolfsen's beautiful book on knots and links can be read by anyone, from beginner to expert, who wants to learn about knot theory. Beginners find an inviting introduction to the elements of topology, emphasizing the tools needed for understanding knots, the fundamental group and van Kampen's theorem, for example, which are then applied to concrete problems, such as computing knot groups. For experts, Rolfsen explains advanced topics, such as the connections between knot theory and surgery and how they are useful to understanding three-manifolds. Besides providing a guide to understanding knot theory, the book offers 'practical' training. After reading it, you will be able to do many things: compute presentations of knot groups, Alexander polynomials, and other invariants; perform surgery on three-manifolds; and visualize knots and their complements.It is characterized by its hands-on approach and emphasis on a visual, geometric understanding. Rolfsen offers invaluable insight and strikes a perfect balance between giving technical details and offering informal explanations. The illustrations are superb, and a wealth of examples are included. Now back in print by the AMS, the book is still a standard reference in knot theory. It is written in a remarkable style that makes it useful for both beginners and researchers. Particularly noteworthy is the table of knots and links at the end. This volume is an excellent introduction to the topic and is suitable as a textbook for a course in knot theory or 3-manifolds. Other key books of interest on this topic available from the AMS are ""The Shoelace Book: A Mathematical Guide to the Best (and Worst) Ways to Lace your Shoes"" and ""The Knot Book"".

Knots, Links, Braids, and 3-manifolds

An Introduction to the New Invariants in Low-dimensional Topology
Author: V. V. Prasolov,A. B. Sossinsky
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 0821808982
Category: Science
Page: 239
View: 820

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This book is an introduction to the remarkable work of Vaughan Jones and Victor Vassiliev on knot and link invariants and its recent modifications and generalizations, including a mathematical treatment of Jones-Witten invariants. It emphasizes the geometric aspects of the theory and treats topics such as braids, homeomorphisms of surfaces, surgery of 3-manifolds (Kirby calculus), and branched coverings. This attractive geometric material, interesting in itself yet not previously gathered in book form, constitutes the basis of the last two chapters, where the Jones-Witten invariants are constructed via the rigorous skein algebra approach (mainly due to the Saint Petersburg school). Unlike several recent monographs, where all of these invariants are introduced by using the sophisticated abstract algebra of quantum groups and representation theory, the mathematical prerequisites are minimal in this book. Numerous figures and problems make it suitable as a course text and for self-study.

Honeybee Democracy


Author: Thomas D. Seeley
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9781400835959
Category: Science
Page: 280
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Honeybees make decisions collectively--and democratically. Every year, faced with the life-or-death problem of choosing and traveling to a new home, honeybees stake everything on a process that includes collective fact-finding, vigorous debate, and consensus building. In fact, as world-renowned animal behaviorist Thomas Seeley reveals, these incredible insects have much to teach us when it comes to collective wisdom and effective decision making. A remarkable and richly illustrated account of scientific discovery, Honeybee Democracy brings together, for the first time, decades of Seeley's pioneering research to tell the amazing story of house hunting and democratic debate among the honeybees. In the late spring and early summer, as a bee colony becomes overcrowded, a third of the hive stays behind and rears a new queen, while a swarm of thousands departs with the old queen to produce a daughter colony. Seeley describes how these bees evaluate potential nest sites, advertise their discoveries to one another, engage in open deliberation, choose a final site, and navigate together--as a swirling cloud of bees--to their new home. Seeley investigates how evolution has honed the decision-making methods of honeybees over millions of years, and he considers similarities between the ways that bee swarms and primate brains process information. He concludes that what works well for bees can also work well for people: any decision-making group should consist of individuals with shared interests and mutual respect, a leader's influence should be minimized, debate should be relied upon, diverse solutions should be sought, and the majority should be counted on for a dependable resolution. An impressive exploration of animal behavior, Honeybee Democracy shows that decision-making groups, whether honeybee or human, can be smarter than even the smartest individuals in them.

Introduction to 3-Manifolds


Author: Jennifer Schultens
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 1470410206
Category: Mathematics
Page: 286
View: 3693

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This book grew out of a graduate course on 3-manifolds and is intended for a mathematically experienced audience that is new to low-dimensional topology. The exposition begins with the definition of a manifold, explores possible additional structures on manifolds, discusses the classification of surfaces, introduces key foundational results for 3-manifolds, and provides an overview of knot theory. It then continues with more specialized topics by briefly considering triangulations of 3-manifolds, normal surface theory, and Heegaard splittings. The book finishes with a discussion of topics relevant to viewing 3-manifolds via the curve complex. With about 250 figures and more than 200 exercises, this book can serve as an excellent overview and starting point for the study of 3-manifolds.

Three-Dimensional Geometry and Topology, Volume 1


Author: William P. Thurston
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400865328
Category: Mathematics
Page: 328
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This book develops some of the extraordinary richness, beauty, and power of geometry in two and three dimensions, and the strong connection of geometry with topology. Hyperbolic geometry is the star. A strong effort has been made to convey not just denatured formal reasoning (definitions, theorems, and proofs), but a living feeling for the subject. There are many figures, examples, and exercises of varying difficulty. This book was the origin of a grand scheme developed by Thurston that is now coming to fruition. In the 1920s and 1930s the mathematics of two-dimensional spaces was formalized. It was Thurston's goal to do the same for three-dimensional spaces. To do this, he had to establish the strong connection of geometry to topology--the study of qualitative questions about geometrical structures. The author created a new set of concepts, and the expression "Thurston-type geometry" has become a commonplace. Three-Dimensional Geometry and Topology had its origins in the form of notes for a graduate course the author taught at Princeton University between 1978 and 1980. Thurston shared his notes, duplicating and sending them to whoever requested them. Eventually, the mailing list grew to more than one thousand names. The book is the culmination of two decades of research and has become the most important and influential text in the field. Its content also provided the methods needed to solve one of mathematics' oldest unsolved problems--the Poincaré Conjecture. In 2005 Thurston won the first AMS Book Prize, for Three-dimensional Geometry and Topology. The prize recognizes an outstanding research book that makes a seminal contribution to the research literature. Thurston received the Fields Medal, the mathematical equivalent of the Nobel Prize, in 1982 for the depth and originality of his contributions to mathematics. In 1979 he was awarded the Alan T. Waterman Award, which recognizes an outstanding young researcher in any field of science or engineering supported by the National Science Foundation.

Lectures on the Infrared Structure of Gravity and Gauge Theory


Author: Andrew Strominger
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400889855
Category: Science
Page: 200
View: 2006

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A short, graduate-level synthesis of recent developments in theoretical physics, from a pioneer in the fieldshort, graduate-level synthesis of recent developments in theoretical physics, from a pioneer in the field Lectures on the Infrared Structure of Gravity and Gauge Theory presents an accessible, graduate-level synthesis of a frontier research area in theoretical physics. Based on a popular Harvard University course taught by the author, this book gives a concise introduction to recent discoveries concerning the structure of gravity and gauge theory at very long distances. These discoveries unite three disparate but well-developed subjects in physics. The first subject is the soft theorems, which were found by particle physicists in the 1950s to control the behavior of low-energy photons and are essential for all collider predictions. The second subject is asymptotic symmetries, found by general relativists in the 1960s to provide a surprising, infinite number of exact relations between distinct physical phenomena. The third subject is the memory effect, the measurement of which is sought in upcoming gravitational wave observations. An exploration of the physical and mathematical equivalence of these three subjects has provided a powerful new perspective on old results and led to a plethora of new results, involving symmetries of QED, gluon scattering amplitudes, flat-space holography in quantum gravity, black hole information, and beyond. Uniquely connective and cutting-edge, Lectures on the Infrared Structure of Gravity and Gauge Theory takes students and scholars to the forefront of new developments in the discipline. Materials are presented in a "lecture notes" style with problem sets included Concise and accessible pedagogical approach Topics include soft theorems, the memory effect, asymptotic symmetries with applications to QED, Yang-Mills theory, quantum gravity, and black holes

The complex analytic theory of Teichmüller spaces


Author: Subhashis Nag
Publisher: Wiley-Interscience
ISBN: N.A
Category: Mathematics
Page: 427
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An accessible, self-contained treatment of the complex structure of the Teichm?ller moduli spaces of Riemann surfaces. Complex analysts, geometers, and especially string theorists (!) will find this work indispensable. The Teichm?ller space, parametrizing all the various complex structures on a given surface, itself carries (in a completely natural way) the complex structure of a finite- or infinite-dimensional complex manifold. Nag emphasizes the Bers embedding of Teichm?ller spaces and deals with various types of complex-analytic co?rdinates for them. This is the first book in which a complete exposition is given of the most basic fact that the Bers projection from Beltrami differentials onto Teichm?ller space is a complex analytic submersion. The fundamental universal property enjoyed by Teichm?ller space is given two proofs and the Bers complex boundary is examined to the point where totally degenerate Kleinian groups make their spectacular appearance. Contains much material previously unpublished.

A Non-Random Walk Down Wall Street


Author: Andrew W. Lo,A. Craig MacKinlay
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400829097
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 448
View: 1307

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For over half a century, financial experts have regarded the movements of markets as a random walk--unpredictable meanderings akin to a drunkard's unsteady gait--and this hypothesis has become a cornerstone of modern financial economics and many investment strategies. Here Andrew W. Lo and A. Craig MacKinlay put the Random Walk Hypothesis to the test. In this volume, which elegantly integrates their most important articles, Lo and MacKinlay find that markets are not completely random after all, and that predictable components do exist in recent stock and bond returns. Their book provides a state-of-the-art account of the techniques for detecting predictabilities and evaluating their statistical and economic significance, and offers a tantalizing glimpse into the financial technologies of the future. The articles track the exciting course of Lo and MacKinlay's research on the predictability of stock prices from their early work on rejecting random walks in short-horizon returns to their analysis of long-term memory in stock market prices. A particular highlight is their now-famous inquiry into the pitfalls of "data-snooping biases" that have arisen from the widespread use of the same historical databases for discovering anomalies and developing seemingly profitable investment strategies. This book invites scholars to reconsider the Random Walk Hypothesis, and, by carefully documenting the presence of predictable components in the stock market, also directs investment professionals toward superior long-term investment returns through disciplined active investment management.

The Little Book of Black Holes


Author: Steven S. Gubser,Frans Pretorius
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400888298
Category: Science
Page: 200
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Dive into a mind-bending exploration of the physics of black holes Black holes, predicted by Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity more than a century ago, have long intrigued scientists and the public with their bizarre and fantastical properties. Although Einstein understood that black holes were mathematical solutions to his equations, he never accepted their physical reality—a viewpoint many shared. This all changed in the 1960s and 1970s, when a deeper conceptual understanding of black holes developed just as new observations revealed the existence of quasars and X-ray binary star systems, whose mysterious properties could be explained by the presence of black holes. Black holes have since been the subject of intense research—and the physics governing how they behave and affect their surroundings is stranger and more mind-bending than any fiction. After introducing the basics of the special and general theories of relativity, this book describes black holes both as astrophysical objects and theoretical “laboratories” in which physicists can test their understanding of gravitational, quantum, and thermal physics. From Schwarzschild black holes to rotating and colliding black holes, and from gravitational radiation to Hawking radiation and information loss, Steven Gubser and Frans Pretorius use creative thought experiments and analogies to explain their subject accessibly. They also describe the decades-long quest to observe the universe in gravitational waves, which recently resulted in the LIGO observatories’ detection of the distinctive gravitational wave “chirp” of two colliding black holes—the first direct observation of black holes’ existence. The Little Book of Black Holes takes readers deep into the mysterious heart of the subject, offering rare clarity of insight into the physics that makes black holes simple yet destructive manifestations of geometric destiny.

Scalar, Vector, and Matrix Mathematics

Theory, Facts, and Formulas
Author: Dennis S. Bernstein
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400888255
Category: Mathematics
Page: 1600
View: 8068

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The essential reference book on matrices—now fully updated and expanded, with new material on scalar and vector mathematics Since its initial publication, this book has become the essential reference for users of matrices in all branches of engineering, science, and applied mathematics. In this revised and expanded edition, Dennis Bernstein combines extensive material on scalar and vector mathematics with the latest results in matrix theory to make this the most comprehensive, current, and easy-to-use book on the subject. Each chapter describes relevant theoretical background followed by specialized results. Hundreds of identities, inequalities, and facts are stated clearly and rigorously, with cross-references, citations to the literature, and helpful comments. Beginning with preliminaries on sets, logic, relations, and functions, this unique compendium covers all the major topics in matrix theory, such as transformations and decompositions, polynomial matrices, generalized inverses, and norms. Additional topics include graphs, groups, convex functions, polynomials, and linear systems. The book also features a wealth of new material on scalar inequalities, geometry, combinatorics, series, integrals, and more. Now more comprehensive than ever, Scalar, Vector, and Matrix Mathematics includes a detailed list of symbols, a summary of notation and conventions, an extensive bibliography and author index with page references, and an exhaustive subject index. Fully updated and expanded with new material on scalar and vector mathematics Covers the latest results in matrix theory Provides a list of symbols and a summary of conventions for easy and precise use Includes an extensive bibliography with back-referencing plus an author index

Noncommutative Algebra


Author: Benson Farb,R. Keith Dennis
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461208890
Category: Mathematics
Page: 226
View: 8595

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About This Book This book is meant to be used by beginning graduate students. It covers basic material needed by any student of algebra, and is essential to those specializing in ring theory, homological algebra, representation theory and K-theory, among others. It will also be of interest to students of algebraic topology, functional analysis, differential geometry and number theory. Our approach is more homological than ring-theoretic, as this leads the to many important areas of mathematics. This ap student more quickly proach is also, we believe, cleaner and easier to understand. However, the more classical, ring-theoretic approach, as well as modern extensions, are also presented via several exercises and sections in Chapter Five. We have tried not to leave any gaps on the paths to proving the main theorem- at most we ask the reader to fill in details for some of the sideline results; indeed this can be a fruitful way of solidifying one's understanding.

Hot-Wiring Your Creative Process

Strategies for print and new media designers
Author: Curt Cloninger
Publisher: New Riders
ISBN: 9780132798228
Category: Computers
Page: 264
View: 5857

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Design philosophies can be useful, but inspiration, creative strategies, and efficient work habits are what really get the job done. Designer, instructor, and author Curt Cloninger provides a multitude of strategies, tools, and practices that readers can use to inject a big dose of creativity into just about any design project. With illustrations drawn from 20th-century French philosophy, medieval manuscripts, punkrock posters, and more, Curt’s innovative text introduces readers to his personal toolkit for hot-wiring the creative process. You’ll learn strategies to: • Recognize and believe in your creative powers • Develop effective methods for evaluating your own work • Draw inspiration from the past • Use standard software in experimental ways, and find nonstandard applications to create new effects • Maintain a personal design playground • Mine your subconscious with the Oblique Strategies Cards, developed by Brian Eno and Peter Schmidt • Un-stick your imagination by “blitz-designing” mock-ups Curt Cloninger is an artist, designer, author, and instructor in Multimedia Arts & Sciences at the University of North Carolina at Asheville. His book Fresh Styles for Web Designers: Eye Candy from the U nderground (New Riders, 2002) is an industry standard on creative Web design solutions. Curt’s art and design work has been featured in I.D. Magazine, HOW Magazine, The New York Times, Desktop Magazine, and at digital arts festivals from Korea to Brazil. He regularly speaks at international events such as HOW Design, South by Southwest, Web Design World, and FILE. His pirate signal broadcasts from lab404.com to facilitate lively dialog.