A Human Error Approach to Aviation Accident Analysis

The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System
Author: Douglas A. Wiegmann,Scott A. Shappell
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351962353
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 184
View: 7928

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Human error is implicated in nearly all aviation accidents, yet most investigation and prevention programs are not designed around any theoretical framework of human error. Appropriate for all levels of expertise, the book provides the knowledge and tools required to conduct a human error analysis of accidents, regardless of operational setting (i.e. military, commercial, or general aviation). The book contains a complete description of the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS), which incorporates James Reason's model of latent and active failures as a foundation. Widely disseminated among military and civilian organizations, HFACS encompasses all aspects of human error, including the conditions of operators and elements of supervisory and organizational failure. It attracts a very broad readership. Specifically, the book serves as the main textbook for a course in aviation accident investigation taught by one of the authors at the University of Illinois. This book will also be used in courses designed for military safety officers and flight surgeons in the U.S. Navy, Army and the Canadian Defense Force, who currently utilize the HFACS system during aviation accident investigations. Additionally, the book has been incorporated into the popular workshop on accident analysis and prevention provided by the authors at several professional conferences world-wide. The book is also targeted for students attending Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University which has satellite campuses throughout the world and offers a course in human factors accident investigation for many of its majors. In addition, the book will be incorporated into courses offered by Transportation Safety International and the Southern California Safety Institute. Finally, this book serves as an excellent reference guide for many safety professionals and investigators already in the field.

Human Factors

Psychologie sicheren Handelns in Risikobranchen
Author: Petra Badke-Schaub,Gesine Hofinger,Kristina Lauche
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 9783642198861
Category: Psychology
Page: 365
View: 5543

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In Branchen wie Luftfahrt, Kernkraft oder Medizin können menschliche Fehler dramatische Konsequenzen haben. Deshalb werden in Risikobranchen Maßnahmen benötigt, die Fehlerquellen minimieren, sicheres Handeln fördern und dabei den „Faktor Mensch“ berücksichtigen. Die Psychologie sicheren Handelns wird im 1. Teil des Standardwerks von Wissenschaftlern erläutert, im 2. Teil stellen erfahrene Praktiker und Wissenschaftler aktuelle Herausforderungen einzelner Branchen vor und präsentieren Lösungsansätze. Mit vielen Fallbeispielen und Praxishinweisen.

Human Error in Aviation


Author: R.Key Dismukes
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351563475
Category: Psychology
Page: 608
View: 4196

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Most aviation accidents are attributed to human error, pilot error especially. Human error also greatly effects productivity and profitability. In his overview of this collection of papers, the editor points out that these facts are often misinterpreted as evidence of deficiency on the part of operators involved in accidents. Human factors research reveals a more accurate and useful perspective: The errors made by skilled human operators - such as pilots, controllers, and mechanics - are not root causes but symptoms of the way industry operates. The papers selected for this volume have strongly influenced modern thinking about why skilled experts make errors and how to make aviation error resilient.

Human Error and Commercial Aviation Accidents

A Comprehensive, Fine-grained Analysis Using HFACS
Author: N.A
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Aeronautics
Page: 19
View: 3899

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The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) is a theoretically based tool for investigating and analyzing human error associated with accidents and incidents. Previous research has shown that HFACS can be reliably used to identify general trends in the human factors associated with military and general aviation accidents. The aim of this study was to extend previous examinations of aviation accidents to include specific aircrew, environmental, supervisory, and organizational factors associated with 14 CFR Part 121 (Air Carrier) and 14 CFR Part 135 (Commuter) accidents using HFACS. The majority of causal factors were attributed to the aircrew and the environment, with decidedly fewer associated with supervisory and organizational causes. Comparisons were made between HFACS categories and traditional situational variables such as weather, lighting, and geographic region. Recommendations were made based on the HFACS findings presented.

Human Error and General Aviation Accidents

A Comprehensive, Fine-grained Analysis Using HFACS
Author: N.A
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Aircraft accidents
Page: 19
View: 9613

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The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) is a theoretically based tool for investigating and analyzing human error associated with accidents and incidents. Previous research performed at both the University of Illinois and the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute has successfully shown that HFACS can be reliably used to analyze the underlying human causes of both commercial and general aviation (GA) accidents. These analyses have helped identify general trends in the types of human factors issues and aircrew errors that have contributed to civil aviation accidents. The next step was to identify the exact nature of the human errors identified. The purpose of this research effort therefore, was to address these questions by performing a fine-grained HFACS analysis of the individual human causal factors associated with GA accidents and to assist in the generation of intervention programs. This report details those findings and offers an approach for developing interventions to address them.

The Design of Everyday Things

Psychologie und Design der alltäglichen Dinge
Author: Norman Don
Publisher: Vahlen
ISBN: 3800648105
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 320
View: 4567

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Apple, Audi, Braun oder Samsung machen es vor: Gutes Design ist heute eine kritische Voraussetzung für erfolgreiche Produkte. Dieser Klassiker beschreibt die fundamentalen Prinzipien, um Dinge des täglichen Gebrauchs umzuwandeln in unterhaltsame und zufriedenstellende Produkte. Don Norman fordert ein Zusammenspiel von Mensch und Technologie mit dem Ziel, dass Designer und Produktentwickler die Bedürfnisse, Fähigkeiten und Handlungsweisen der Nutzer in den Vordergrund stellen und Designs an diesen angepasst werden. The Design of Everyday Things ist eine informative und spannende Einführung für Designer, Marketer, Produktentwickler und für alle an gutem Design interessierten Menschen. Zum Autor Don Norman ist emeritierter Professor für Kognitionswissenschaften. Er lehrte an der University of California in San Diego und der Northwest University in Illinois. Mitte der Neunzigerjahre leitete Don Norman die Advanced Technology Group bei Apple. Dort prägte er den Begriff der User Experience, um über die reine Benutzbarkeit hinaus eine ganzheitliche Erfahrung der Anwender im Umgang mit Technik in den Vordergrund zu stellen. Norman ist Mitbegründer der Beratungsfirma Nielsen Norman Group und hat unter anderem Autohersteller von BMW bis Toyota beraten. „Keiner kommt an Don Norman vorbei, wenn es um Fragen zu einem Design geht, das sich am Menschen orientiert.“ Brand Eins 7/2013 „Design ist einer der wichtigsten Wettbewerbsvorteile. Dieses Buch macht Spaß zu lesen und ist von größter Bedeutung.” Tom Peters, Co-Autor von „Auf der Suche nach Spitzenleistungen“

Commercial Aviation Safety 5/E


Author: Clarence C. Rodrigues,Stephen K. Cusick
Publisher: McGraw Hill Professional
ISBN: 0071763066
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 382
View: 5361

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A Complete, Fully Updated Guide to COMMERCIAL AVIATION SAFETY Presenting the latest procedures and standards from U.S. and international air traffic and regulatory agencies, this extensively revised resource covers the entire commercial aviation safety system--from human factors to accident investigation. The introduction of Safety Management Systems (SMS) principles by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is discussed in detail. Commercial Aviation Safety, Fifth Edition delivers authoritative information on today's security concerns on the ground and in the air, changes in systems and regulations, new maintenance and flight technologies, and recent accident statistics. This is the most comprehensive, current, and systematic reference on the principles and practices of commercial aviation safety and security. COVERAGE INCLUDES: Regulatory information on ICAO, FAA, EPA, TSA, and OSHA NTSB and ICAO accident investigation processes Recording and reporting of safety data U.S. and international aviation accident statistics Accident causation models The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) Aircraft and air traffic control technologies and safety systems Airport safety, including runway incursions Aviation security, including the 9-11 Commission recommendations International and U.S. Airline Safety Management Systems Aviation Safety Management Systems

Human Factors Models for Aviation Accident Analysis and Prevention


Author: Thomas G.C. Griffin,Mark S. Young,Neville A. Stanton
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
ISBN: 1472432770
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 226
View: 3675

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The investigation and modelling of aviation accident causation is dominated by linear models. Aviation is, however, a complex system and as such suffers from being artificially manipulated into non-complex models and methods. This book addresses this issue by developing a new approach to investigating aviation accident causation through information networks. These networks centralise communication and the flow of information as key indicators of a system’s health and risk. This holistic approach focuses on the system environment, the activity that takes place within it, the strategies used to conduct this activity, the way in which the constituent parts of the system (both human and non-human) interact and the behaviour required. Each stage of this book identifies and expands upon the potential of the information network approach, maintaining firm focus on the overall health of a system. The book’s new model offers many potential developments and some key areas are studied in this research. Through the centralisation of barriers and information nodes the method can be applied to almost any situation. The application of Bayesian mathematics to historical data populations provides scope for studying error migration and barrier manipulation. The book also provides application of these predictions to a flight simulator study for the purposes of validation. Beyond this it also discusses the applicability of the approach to industry. Through working with a legacy airline the methods discussed are used as the basis for a new and prospective safety management system.

Understanding the Human Factors Associated with Visual Flight Rules Flight Into Instrumental Meteorological Conditions


Author: N.A
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Aircraft accidents
Page: 11
View: 3258

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Visual Flight Rules (VFR) into Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) accidents are a major concern in the aviation industry. More than 70% of the fatal weather-related accidents involved General Aviation (GA) pilots operating under visual flight rules (VFR) that continued into IMC. The purpose of this study was to pair GA accident causal factors that had been classified with the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) categories and traditional demographic data in an effort to present a more complete picture of VFR flight into IMC accidents. To accomplish this, GA accidents associated with VFR flight into IMC were examined to determine if there were any causal factors that set these accidents apart from the rest of GA (RoGA) accidents. GA accident data (14 CFR Part 91) from 1990-2004 were analyzed. The dataset was divided into accidents that had VFR into IMC (VFR-IMC; N = 609) cited as a cause or factor versus the rest of the GA accidents (RoGA; N = 18, 528). Analyses were performed examining the human error associated with these accidents.

A Summary of Unmanned Aircraft Accident/incident Data

Human Factors Implications
Author: Kevin W. Williams
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Aeronautics
Page: 13
View: 4667

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A review and analysis of unmanned aircraft (UA) accident data was conducted to identify important human factors issues related to their use. UA accident data were collected from the U.S. Army, Navy, and Air Force. Classification of the accident data was a two-step process. In the first step, accidents were classified into the categories of human factors, maintenance, aircraft, and unknown. Accidents could be classified into more than one category. In the second step, those accidents classified as human factors-related were classified according to specific human factors issues of alerts/alarms, display design, procedural error, skill-based error, or other. Classification was based on the stated causal factors in the reports, the opinion of safety center personnel, and personal judgment of the author. The percentage of involvement of human factors issues varied across aircraft from 21% to 68%. For most of the aircraft systems, electromechanical failure was more of a causal factor than human error. One critical finding from an analysis of the data is that each of the fielded systems is very different, leading to different kinds of accidents and different human factors issues. A second finding is that many of the accidents that have occurred could have been anticipated through an analysis of the user interfaces employed and procedures implemented for their use. This paper summarizes the various human factors issues related to the accidents.

Spatial Disorientation in Aviation

An American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Series
Author: Fred H. Previc,William R. Ercoline
Publisher: AIAA
ISBN: 9781600864513
Category: Electronic book
Page: 580
View: 9478

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Development of an FAA-EUROCONTROL Technique for the Analysis of Human Error in ATM


Author: Julia Pounds
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Aeronautics
Page: 20
View: 3085

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Human error has been identified as a dominant risk factor in safety-oriented industries such as air traffic control (ATC). However, little is known about the factors leading to human errors in current air traffic management (ATM) systems. The first step toward prevention of human error is to develop an understanding of where it occurs in existing systems and of the system variables which contribute to its occurrence. This paper reports on the project to harmonize the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) and the Human Error Reduction in ATM (HERA) technique. Two groups of air traffic control subject-matter experts (SMEs) participated. The first group analyzed incident cases using each technique and identified the useful concepts from each technique for these cases. The second group evaluated the concepts identified by the first group. Based on these activities, the techniques were deemed to be compatible and harmonization proceeded. Elements from both techniques were retained and many were elaborated based on the SMEs' feedback. The integrated approach, called JANUS, is currently undergoing beta testing by seven European nations and the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration.

A Human Error Analysis of General Aviation Controlled Flight Into Terrain Accidents Occurring Between 1990-1998


Author: Scott A. Shappell
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Aircraft accidents
Page: 21
View: 7532

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Although all aviation accidents are of interest to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), perhaps none is more disconcerting than those in which a fully functioning aircraft is inexplicably flown into the ground. Referred to as controlled flight into terrain (CFIT), these accidents continue to be a major safety concern within aviation, in particular general aviation (GA). A previous study as part of the FAA's Safer Skies agenda examined 165 CFIT accidents using root cause analysis and developed 55 interventions to address their causes. While the study represented the work and opinions of several experts in the FAA and industry, the findings might have benefited from a more detailed human error analysis involving a larger number of accidents. In this study, five pilot-raters independently analyzed more than 16,500 GA accidents occurring between 1990-1998 using the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS). Of the GA accidents examined, 1407 were identified as CFIT and compared with non-CFIT accidents using HFACS. The analysis revealed a number of differences in the pattern of human error associated with CFIT accidents. Findings from this study support many of the interventions identified by the CFIT Joint Safety Analysis Team (ISAT) and Joint Safety Implementation Team (JSIT), permitting safety professionals to better develop, refine, and track the effectiveness of selected intervention strategies.

Engineering Trustworthy Systems: Get Cybersecurity Design Right the First Time


Author: O. Sami Saydjari
Publisher: McGraw Hill Professional
ISBN: 1260118185
Category: Computers
Page: 512
View: 2967

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Cutting-edge cybersecurity solutions to defend against the most sophisticated attacks This professional guide shows, step by step, how to design and deploy highly secure systems on time and within budget. The book offers comprehensive examples, objectives, and best practices and shows how to build and maintain powerful, cost-effective cybersecurity systems. Readers will learn to think strategically, identify the highest priority risks, and apply advanced countermeasures that address the entire attack space. Engineering Trustworthy Systems: Get Cybersecurity Design Right the First Time showcases 35 years of practical engineering experience from an expert whose persuasive vision has advanced national cybersecurity policy and practices. Readers of this book will be prepared to navigate the tumultuous and uncertain future of cyberspace and move the cybersecurity discipline forward by adopting timeless engineering principles, including: •Defining the fundamental nature and full breadth of the cybersecurity problem•Adopting an essential perspective that considers attacks, failures, and attacker mindsets •Developing and implementing risk-mitigating, systems-based solutions•Transforming sound cybersecurity principles into effective architecture and evaluation strategies that holistically address the entire complex attack space

Commercial Aviation Safety, Sixth Edition


Author: Stephen K. Cusick,Antonio I. Cortes,Clarence C. Rodrigues
Publisher: McGraw Hill Professional
ISBN: 125964183X
Category: Transportation
Page: 464
View: 6838

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Up-To-Date Coverage of Every Aspect of Commercial Aviation Safety Completely revised edition to fully align with current U.S. and international regulations, this hands-on resource clearly explains the principles and practices of commercial aviation safety—from accident investigations to Safety Management Systems. Commercial Aviation Safety, Sixth Edition, delivers authoritative information on today's risk management on the ground and in the air. The book offers the latest procedures, flight technologies, and accident statistics. You will learn about new and evolving challenges, such as lasers, drones (unmanned aerial vehicles), cyberattacks, aircraft icing, and software bugs. Chapter outlines, review questions, and real-world incident examples are featured throughout. Coverage includes: • ICAO, FAA, EPA, TSA, and OSHA regulations • NTSB and ICAO accident investigation processes • Recording and reporting of safety data • U.S. and international aviation accident statistics • Accident causation models • The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) • Crew Resource Management (CRM) and Threat and Error Management (TEM) • Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) and Flight Data Monitoring (FDM) • Aircraft and air traffic control technologies and safety systems • Airport safety, including runway incursions • Aviation security, including the threats of intentional harm and terrorism • International and U.S. Aviation Safety Management Systems

Biomedical Engineering and Design Handbook, Volume 2

Volume 2: Biomedical Engineering Applications
Author: Myer Kutz
Publisher: McGraw Hill Professional
ISBN: 0071704744
Category: Medical
Page: 816
View: 5687

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A State-of-the-Art Guide to Biomedical Engineering and Design Fundamentals and Applications The two-volume Biomedical Engineering and Design Handbook, Second Edition, offers unsurpassed coverage of the entire biomedical engineering field, including fundamental concepts, design and development processes, and applications. This landmark work contains contributions on a wide range of topics from nearly 80 leading experts at universities, medical centers, and commercial and law firms. Volume 2 provides timely information on breakthrough developments in medical device design, diagnostic equipment design, surgery, rehabilitation engineering, prosthetics design, and clinical engineering. Filled with more than 400 detailed illustrations, this definitive volume examines cutting-edge design and development methods for innovative devices, techniques, and treatments. Volume 2 covers: Medical Product Design FDA Medical Device Requirements Cardiovascular Devices Design of Respiratory Devices Design of Artificial Kidneys Design of Controlled-Release Drug Delivery Systems Sterile Medical Device Package Development Design of Magnetic Resonance Systems Instrumentation Design for Ultrasonic Imaging The Principles of X-Ray Computed Tomography Nuclear Medicine Imaging Instrumentation Breast Imaging Systems Surgical Simulation Technologies Computer-Integrated Surgery and Medical Robotics Technology and Disabilities Applied Universal Design Design of Artificial Arms and Hands for Prosthetic Applications Design of Artificial Limbs for Lower Extremity Amputees Wear of Total Knee and Hip Joint Replacements Home Modification Design Intelligent Assistive Technology Rehabilitators Risk Management in Healthcare Technology Planning for Healthcare Institutions Healthcare Facilities Planning Healthcare Systems Engineering Enclosed Habitat Life Support