A Critique of Proportionality and Balancing


Author: Francisco Urbina
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107175062
Category: Law
Page: 288
View: 400

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This book offers a comprehensive critique of the principle of proportionality and balancing as applied to human and constitutional rights.

Proportionality Balancing and Constitutional Governance

A Comparative and Global Approach
Author: Alec Stone Sweet,Jud Mathews
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0192578367
Category: Political Science
Page: 248
View: 1304

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In this book, Alec Stone Sweet and Jud Mathews focus on the law and politics of rights protection in democracies, and in human rights regimes in Europe, the Americas, and Africa. After introducing the basic features of modern constitutions, with their emphasis on rights and judicial review, the authors present a theory of proportionality that explains why constitutional judges embraced it. Proportionality analysis is a highly intrusive mode of judicial supervision: it permits state officials to limit rights, but only when necessary to achieve a sufficiently important public interest. Since the 1950s, virtually every powerful domestic and international court has adopted proportionality analysis as the central method for protecting rights. In doing so, judges positioned themselves to review all important legislative and administrative decisions, and to invalidate them as unconstitutional when such policies fail the proportionality test. The result has been a massive - and global - transformation of law and politics. The book explicates the concepts of 'trusteeship', the 'system of constitutional justice', the 'effectiveness' of rights adjudication, and the 'zone of proportionality'. A wide range of case studies analyse: how proportionality has spread, and variation in how it is deployed; the extent to which the U.S. Supreme Court has evolved and resisted similar doctrines; the role of proportionality in building ongoing 'constitutional dialogues' with the other branches of government; and the importance of the principle to the courts of regional human rights regimes. While there is variance in the intensity of proportionality-based dialogues, such interactions are today at the very heart of governance in the modern constitutional state and beyond.

Verhältnismäßigkeit im Völkerrecht


Author: Björnstjern Baade,Sebastian Ehricht,Matthäus Fink,Mirka Moldner,Robert Frau,Isabella Risini,Torsten Stirner
Publisher: Mohr Siebeck
ISBN: 9783161542435
Category:
Page: 180
View: 9701

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English summary: Proportionality has taken root in many fields of public international law. This volume approaches proportionality on an abstract as well as more tangible level. Not only is its theoretical and philosophical background analysed, but also its effect in specific fields of investment, the European Union, humanitarian law and human rights. Proportionality's increased popularity is critically reflected on in each contribution. German description: Das Prinzip der Verhaltnismassigkeit erhalt in verschiedenen Bereichen des Volkerrechts Aufmerksamkeit und Relevanz. Dies war Anlass fur den Arbeitskreis junger Volkerrechtswissenschaftler und die Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Internationales Recht, gemeinsam einen Blick auf dieses Prinzip zu werfen. Der daraus entstandene Tagungsband liefert Einsichten aus diversen Blickwinkeln: Er stellt allgemeine gebietsubergreifende Fragen, etwa ob Verhaltnismassigkeit als globales Verfassungsprinzip verstanden und als Mittel zur Harmonisierung und Defragmentierung nutzbar gemacht werden kann. Daruber hinaus enthalt der Band philosophische Grunduberlegungen. Es werden die Relevanz und Wirkungsweise in verschiedenen konkreten Teilgebieten wie dem humanitaren Volkerrecht und dem Menschenrechtsschutz untersucht. Auch aktuelle Fragen internationaler Schiedsgerichtsbarkeit werden kritisch aufgegriffen. Nicht zuletzt setzen sich die Beitrage mit der aktuellen Rechtsprechung des Europaischen Gerichtshofes zur Verhaltnismassigkeit als Kompetenzregulativ auf Unionsebene auseinander. Mit Beitragen von: Frederik Becker, Michael Goldhammer, Sue Gonzalez Hauck, Thomas Muller, Anne Peters, Lars Schonwald, Rike Sinder, Sebastian Wuschka

Demokratische Gesetzgebung in der Europäischen Union

Theorie und Praxis der dualen Legitimationsstruktur europäischer Hoheitsgewalt
Author: Jelena von Achenbach
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 364223917X
Category: Law
Page: 522
View: 8463

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Das Mitentscheidungsverfahren (Art. 294 AEUV) ist seit dem Vertrag von Lissabon das ordentliche Gesetzgebungsverfahren der Europäischen Union. Mit der Monographie wird die Co-Gesetzgeberschaft von Europäischem Parlament und Rat als Mittel der demokratischen Legitimation europäischer Gesetzgebung untersucht. Im Zentrum steht dabei eine demokratietheoretische Auseinandersetzung mit dem Modell der dualen demokratischen Legitimation europäischer Hoheitsgewalt, das mit Art. 10 EUV nunmehr im Demokratieprinzip der Union verankert ist. Daneben steht eine empirisch gestützte Untersuchung der Praxis des Mitentscheidungsverfahrens, die sich insbesondere der zunehmenden Informalisierung des Gesetzgebungsprozesses („Triloge“) kritisch widmet.

The Constitutional Structure of Proportionality


Author: Matthias Klatt,Moritz Meister
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191639923
Category: Law
Page: 204
View: 4478

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As constitutional law globalizes, the quest for a common grammar or 'generic constitutional law' becomes more pressing. Proportionality is one of the most prominent and controversial components of the modern, global constitutional discourse. In view of the alarming tension between the triumphant success of proportionality and the severity of the criticism directed towards it, this book offers an in-depth analysis of the critics of proportionality and demonstrates that their objections against the proportionality test are not convincing. It clarifies and further develops the current theories of proportionality and balancing. Building upon on Robert Alexy's predominant principles theory, the book suggests several modifications to this theory. Drawing examples from the case law of the European Court of Human Rights, the European Court of Justice, and various national constitutional courts it illustrates the argument in favour of proportionality and demonstrates its relevance for deciding concrete cases.

Das Liebeskonzil


Author: Oskar Panizza
Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand
ISBN: 3843027951
Category: Drama
Page: 68
View: 9503

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Oskar Panizza: Das Liebeskonzil Ein alter, kranker und böser Gott Vater erzürnt sich über die zügellosen Orgien, die die Menschen und auch der Papst selbst im 15. Jahrhundert feiern. Die zu einem Konzil einberufene, etwas gewöhnliche Maria und ein kränklicher Christus können den tobenden Alten von der Idee abbringen, die Menschen auszulöschen und regen stattdessen einen Pakt mit dem Teufel an, der den Menschen ein Strafe für ihre Lüsternheit schicken soll. Dieser erfindet dazu die Syphilis und erhält im Gegenzug ein neues Portal zur Unterwelt und das Recht zu sagen, was er denkt. Panizzas groteske Himmelstragödie kommt ihn teuer zu stehen, er wird zu einem Jahr Einzelhaft verurteilt und verlässt nach Absitzen seiner Strafe Deutschland als gebrochener Mann, um sich in der Schweiz niederzulassen. Von dort ausgewiesen geht er nach Paris und veröffentlicht 1899 »Parisjana. Deutsche Verse aus Paris«, die in Deutschland sofort beschlagnahmt werden und Panizza eine Anklage wegen Majestätsbeleidigung einbringen. Der gelernte Nervenarzt Oskar Panizza leidet unter der Wahnvorstellung, Kaiser Wilhelm II. verfolge ihn und verbringt seine letzten Lebensjahre entmündigt in geschlossenen Nervenheilanstalten, bis er 1921 stirbt. Erstdruck: Zürich (Verlagsmagazin) 1895. Vollständige Neuausgabe mit einer Biographie des Autors. Herausgegeben von Karl-Maria Guth. Berlin 2015. Textgrundlage ist die Ausgabe: Oskar Panizza: Das Liebeskonzil und andere Schriften. Herausgegeben und mit einem Nachwort von Hans Prescher. Neuwied und Berlin: Luchterhand, 1964. Die Paginierung obiger Ausgabe wird in dieser Neuausgabe als Marginalie zeilengenau mitgeführt. Umschlaggestaltung von Thomas Schultz-Overhage unter Verwendung des Bildes: Paul Cézanne, Die Orgie (Ausschnitt), um 1870. Gesetzt aus Minion Pro, 11 pt.

The Politics of International Law


Author: Martti Koskenniemi
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1847317766
Category: Law
Page: 388
View: 8790

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Today international law is everywhere. Wars are fought and opposed in its name. It is invoked to claim rights and to challenge them, to indict or support political leaders, to distribute resources and to expand or limit the powers of domestic and international institutions. International law is part of the way political (and economic) power is used, critiqued, and sometimes limited. Despite its claim for neutrality and impartiality, it is implicit in what is just, as well as what is unjust in the world. To understand its operation requires shedding its ideological spell and examining it with a cold eye. Who are its winners, and who are its losers? How - if at all - can it be used to make a better or a less unjust world? In this collection of essays Professor Martti Koskenniemi, a well-known practitioner and a leading theorist and historian of international law, examines the recent debates on humanitarian intervention, collective security, protection of human rights and the 'fight against impunity' and reflects on the use of the professional techniques of international law to intervene politically. The essays both illustrate and expand his influential theory of the role of international law in international politics. The book is prefaced with an introduction by Professor Emmanuelle Jouannet (Sorbonne Law School), which locates the texts in the overall thought and work of Martti Koskenniemi.

The Presumption of Innocence

Evidential and Human Rights Perspectives
Author: Andrew Stumer
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1847315879
Category: Law
Page: 258
View: 1824

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The presumption of innocence is universally recognized as a fundamental human right and a core principle in the administration of criminal justice. Nonetheless, statutes creating criminal offences regularly depart from the presumption of innocence by requiring defendants to prove specific matters in order to avoid conviction. Legislatures and courts seek to justify this departure by asserting that the reversal of the burden of proof is necessary to meet the community interest in prosecuting serious crime and maintaining workable criminal sanctions. This book investigates the supposed justifications for limitation of the presumption of innocence. It does so through a comprehensive analysis of the history, rationale and scope of the presumption of innocence. It is argued that the values underlying the presumption of innocence are of such fundamental importance to individual liberty that they cannot be sacrificed on the altar of community interest. In particular, it is argued that a test of 'proportionality', which seeks to weigh individual rights against the community interest, is inappropriate in the context of the presumption of innocence and that courts ought instead to focus on whether an impugned measure threatens the values which the presumption is designed to protect. The book undertakes a complete and systematic review of the United Kingdom and Strasbourg authority on the presumption of innocence. It also draws upon extensive references to comparative material, both judicial and academic, from the United States, Canada and South Africa.

The Games People Play

Theology, Religion, and Sport
Author: Robert Ellis
Publisher: Wipf and Stock Publishers
ISBN: 1630873845
Category: Religion
Page: 336
View: 1602

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In The Games People Play, Robert Ellis constructs a theology around the global cultural phenomenon of modern sport, paying particular attention to its British and American manifestations. Using historical narrative and social analysis to enter the debate on sport as religion, Ellis shows that modern sport may be said to have taken on some of the functions previously vested in organized religion. Through biblical and theological reflection, he presents a practical theology of sport's appeal and value, with special attention to the theological concept of transcendence. Throughout, he draws on original empirical work with sports participants and spectators. The Games People Play addresses issues often considered problematic in theological discussions of sport such as gender, race, consumerism, and the role of the modern media, as well as problems associated with excessive competition and performance-enhancing substances. As Ellis explains, Sporting journalists often use religious language in covering sports events. Salvation features in many a headline, and talk of moments of redemption is not uncommon. Perhaps, somewhere beyond the cliched hyperbole, there is some theological truth in all this after all.

War and Peace in Islam

A Critique of Islamic/ist Political Discourses
Author: SM Farid Mirbagheri
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137001313
Category: Political Science
Page: 214
View: 1180

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Mirbagheri traces the revival of Islamic/ist movements, and embarks on a theoretical study of some of the fundamental concepts in Islam and International Relations such as the self, Jihad, peace and universalism. Contemporary cases of conflict in the Middle East are analysed to pose a challenge to the universalist discourse of Western liberalism.

On the Limits of Constitutional Adjudication

Deconstructing Balancing and Judicial Activism
Author: Juliano Zaiden Benvindo
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642114342
Category: Philosophy
Page: 421
View: 3669

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Juliano Z. Benvindo investigates the current movement of constitutional courts towards political activism, especially by focusing on the increasing use of the balancing method as a “rational” justification for this process. From the critical perception of the serious risks of this movement to democracy, the book takes as examples two constitutional realities, Germany and Brazil, in order to discuss the rationality, correctness, and legitimacy of constitutional decisions within this context. Through a dialogue between Jacques Derrida’s deconstruction and Jürgen Habermas’s proceduralism, the author confronts Robert Alexy’s defense of the balancing method as well as those two constitutional realities. This confrontation leads to the introduction of the concept of limited rationality applied to constitutional democracy and constitutional adjudication, which affirms the double bind of history and justice as a condition for a practice of decision-making committed to the principle of separation of powers.

Public Policy in International Economic Law

The ICESCR in Trade, Finance, and Investment
Author: Diane Desierto
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191026484
Category: Law
Page: 432
View: 3342

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States reject inequality when they choose to ratify the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), but to date the ICESCR has not yet figured prominently in the policy calculus behind States' international economic decisions. This book responds to the modern challenge of operationalizing the ICESCR, particularly in the context of States' decisions within international trade, finance, and investment. Differentiating between public policy mechanisms and institutional functional mandates in the international trade, finance, and investment systems, this book shows legal and policy gateways for States to feasibly translate their fundamental duties to respect, protect, and fulfil economic, social and cultural rights into their trade, finance, and investment commitments, agreements, and contracts. It approaches the problem of harmonizing social protection objectives under the ICESCR with a State's international economic treaty obligations, from the designing and interpreting international treaty texts, up to the institutional monitoring and empirical analysis of ICESCR compliance. In examining public policy options, the book takes into account around five decades of States' implementation of social protection commitments under the ICESCR; its normative evolution through the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, and the Committee's expanded fact-finding and adjudicative competences under the Optional Protocol to the ICESCR; as well as the critical, dialectical, and deliberative roles of diverse functional interpretive communities within international trade, finance, and investment law. Ultimately, the book shoes how States' ICESCR commitments operate as the normative foundation of their trade, finance, and investment decisions.

Law, Rights and Discourse

The Legal Philosophy of Robert Alexy
Author: George Pavlakos
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 184731368X
Category: Law
Page: 390
View: 6608

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A philosophical system is not what one would expect to find in the work of a contemporary legal thinker. Robert Alexy's work counts as a striking exception. Over the past 28 years Alexy has been developing, with remarkable clarity and consistency, a systematic philosophy covering most of the key areas of legal philosophy. Kantian in its inspiration, his work admirably combines the rigour of analytical philosophy with a repertoire of humanitarian ideals reflecting the tradition of the Geisteswissenschaften, rendering it one of the most far-reaching and influential legal philosophies in our time. This volume has been designed with two foci in mind: the first is to reflect the breadth of Alexy's philosophical system, as well as the varieties of jurisprudential and philosophical scholarship in the last three decades on which his work has had an impact. The second objective is to provide for a critical exchange between Alexy and a number of specialists in the field, with an eye to identifying new areas of inquiry and offering a new impetus to the discourse theory of law. To that extent, it was thought that a critical exchange such as the one undertaken here would most appropriately reflect the discursive and critical character of Robert Alexy's work. The volume is divided into four parts, each dealing with a key area of Alexy's contribution. A final section brings together concise answers by Robert Alexy. In composing these, Alexy has tried to focus on points and criticisms that address new aspects of discourse theory or otherwise point the way to future developments and applications. With its range of topics of coverage, the number of specialists it engages and the originality of the answers it provides, this collection will become a standard work of reference for anyone working in legal theory in general and the discourse theory of law in particular.

Public Law after the Human Rights Act


Author: Tom Hickman
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1847317510
Category: Law
Page: 360
View: 7394

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It is remarkable that 10 years after the Human Rights Act came into effect, and with further reform possible, there are still no clear answers to basic questions about the relationship between the Human Rights Act, human rights principles and the common law. Such basic questions include: what is the Human Rights Act? What is the relationship between human rights principles and common law doctrines in public law? Do traditional public law principles need to be replaced? How has the Human Rights Act altered the constitutional relationship between the courts, government and Parliament in the UK? Public Law After the Human Rights Act proposes answers to these questions. Unlike other books on the Human Rights Act, the book looks beyond the Human Rights Act itself to its effect on public law as a whole. The book articulates in novel ways the relationship between the Act and administrative and constitutional law. It suggests that the Human Rights Act has built on the common law constitution. The discussion focuses on core topics in modern public law, including, the constitutional status of the Human Rights Act; the relationship between human rights and the common law; the Human Rights Act's effect on central doctrines of public law such as reasonableness, proportionality and process review; the structure of public law in the human rights era; derogation and emergencies; and the right of access to a court.