A Critical Realist Perspective of Education


Author: Brad Shipway
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134010532
Category: Social Science
Page: 256
View: 5880

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This book clearly and comprehensively explores the capability of critical realism to throw new light on educational theory. It firstly investigates the convergence and divergence between two forms of critical realism, which have not previously been cross-examined. This task allows the book to outline the key characteristics that are necessary for a theological position to claim the term "critical realist". The remainder of the text deals with the implications of critical realism for the enterprise of education. This "enterprise" is taken to include the thoughts and actions of students, classroom teachers, principals, educational administrators, policy makers, teacher educators, and philosophers of education. This final part of the book widens the scope of evaluating education from a critical realist perspective. It utilises the convergent ideas of Collier, Walker, and Corson on "power" as a platform to propose a critical realist perspective on education. With attention paid to the fundamentals of critical realism, and education theory, A Critical Realist Perspective of Education is an ideal text for undergraduates as well as postgraduates and professionals with an interest in broadening their understanding of education theory.

Religious Education from a Critical Realist Perspective

Sensus Fidei and Critical Thinking
Author: Johnny C. Go
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 135101661X
Category: Social Science
Page: 144
View: 4868

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This book examines the possibility and necessity of critical thinking in religious education through the lenses of critical realism and the Christian doctrine of sensus fidei (‘sense of faith’). Drawing on Bhaskar’s original critical realism and data from a survey of over a thousand teachers in the Philippines, the author argues for a view of critical thinking based on components of ‘disposition’ and ‘competence’. As such, critical thinking becomes the expression of a commitment to judgemental rationality and, in a Christian religious education, is guided by the individual’s sensus fidei. A philosophical and theological discussion of the process of coming to know in the religious domain, Religious Education from a Critical Realist Perspective also offers concrete recommendations on how to promote the practice of religious critical thinking in confessional religious education classrooms. As such, it will appeal to scholars of philosophy, theology and pedagogy with interests in religious education and curriculum development.

Education, Epistemology and Critical Realism


Author: David Scott
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134027338
Category: Philosophy
Page: 160
View: 6582

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This book addresses fundamental questions in relation to education and its epistemology. The position taken by the author is critical realist; and thus throughout the relationship between education and critical realism is foregrounded. Themes and issues that surface at different times in the book are: a critical realist view of education research; a resolution of the quantitative/qualitative divide; criteria for judging the worth of educational texts and practices; differences between scientific and critical realisms; empirical research methods in education; structure-agency relationships; pragmatist views of educational research; foundations and paradigmatic differences; and educational critique and transformation.

Critical Realism for Marxist Sociology of Education


Author: Grant Banfield
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317411498
Category: Social Science
Page: 206
View: 9445

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This book offers a critical realist intervention into the field of Marxist Sociology of Education. Critical realism, as developed by British philosopher Roy Bhaskar, is known for its capacity to serve as a conceptual underlabourer to applied fields like education. Indeed, its success in clarifying and resolving thorny issues of educational theory and practice is now well established. Given critical realism’s sympathetic Marxist origins, its productive and critical engagement with Marxism has an even longer history. To date there has been little sustained attention given to the application of critical realism to Marxist educational praxis. The book addresses this gap in existing scholarship. Its conceptual ground clearing of the field of Marxist Sociology of Education centres on two problematics well-known in the social sciences: naturalism and the structure-agency relation. Marxist theory from the days of Marx to the present is shown to also be haunted by these problematics. This has resulted in considerable tension around the meaning and nature of, for example, reform, revolution, class determinism and class struggle. With its emergence in the 1970s as a child of Western Marxism, the field continues to be an expression of these tensions that seriously limit its transformative potential. Addressing these issues and offering conceptual clarification in the interests of revolutionary educational practice, Critical Realism for Marxist Sociology of Education provides a new perspective on education which will be of interest to students, scholars and practitioners alike.

Critical Realist Activity Theory

An engagement with critical realism and cultural-historical activity theory
Author: Iskra Nunez
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113512812X
Category: Social Science
Page: 144
View: 7169

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Critical Realist Activity Theory provides an exciting new contribution to the New Studies in Critical Realism and Education series by showing how the nature of learning is tantamount to the critical realist notion of the dialectic. The science of learning is too important to leave solely to the sciences; it needs philosophy as well. The task of this book is to take a further step and clear the conceptual field for an ontologically grounded view of the science of learning through critical realism, making use of dialectical critical realism and the philosophy of meta-Reality, as well as basic critical realism. The objective of the book is neither to accommodate the nature of learning to strategies and techniques, nor to adjust to the demands of institutions and authorities. Its key goal is to explain how the very nature of learning constitutes itself; that is, its aim is to explain how a stratum of learning emerges out of the need to absent something that has been left out in human reality. In this precise sense, the book does much more than simply reveal the aspects of reality that have been omitted from the conceptualization of learning, it helps to reformulate a proper understanding of the nature of learning. An implication of this understanding of learning is that it begins to advance the fundamental question of what it means to be a human being. This book will be of great interest to academics and students interested in Vygotsky, Luria, Activity Theory and Critical Realism more generally across both Europe and the US.

Making Sense of Education

An Introduction to the Philosophy and Theory of Education and Teaching
Author: David Carr
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134478135
Category: Education
Page: 320
View: 7872

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Making Sense of Education provides a contemporary introduction to the key issues in educational philosophy and theory. Exploring major past and present conceptions of education, teaching and learning, this book makes philosophy of education relevant to the professional practice of teachers and student teachers, as well of interest to those studying education as an academic subject. The book is divided into three parts: education, teaching and professional practice: issues concerning education, the role of the teacher, the relationship of educational theory to practice and the wider moral dimensions of pedagogy learning, knowledge and curriculum: issues concerning behaviourist and cognitive theories of learning, knowledge and meaning, curriculum aims and content and evaluation and assessment schooling, society and culture: issues of the wider social and political context of education concerning liberalism and communitarianism, justice and equality, differentiation, authority and discipline. This timely and up-to-date introduction assists all those studying and/or working in education to appreciate the main philosophical sources of and influences on present day thinking about education, teaching and learning

Christianity and Critical Realism

Ambiguity, Truth and Theological Literacy
Author: Andrew Wright
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136196080
Category: Social Science
Page: 336
View: 5389

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One of the key achievements of critical realism has been to expose the modernist myth of universal reason, which holds that authentic knowledge claims must be objectively ‘pure’, uncontaminated by the subjectivity of local place, specific time and particular culture. Wright aims to address the lack of any substantial and sustained engagement between critical realism and theological critical realism with particular regard to: (a) the distinctive ontological claims of Christianity; (b) their epistemic warrant and intellectual legitimacy; and (c) scrutiny of the primary source of the ontological claims of Christianity, namely the historical figure of Jesus of Nazareth. As such, it functions as a prolegomena to a much needed wider debate, guided by the under-labouring services of critical realism, between Christianity and various other religious and secular worldviews. This important new text will help stimulate a debate that has yet to get out of first gear. This book will appeal to academics, graduate and post-graduate students especially, but also Christian clergy, ministers and informed laity, and members of the general public concerned with the nature of religion and its place in contemporary society.

Critical Realism, Environmental Learning and Social-Ecological Change


Author: Leigh Price,Heila Lotz-Sistka
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317338480
Category: Social Science
Page: 364
View: 8429

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Southern Africa, where most of these book chapters originate, has been identified as one of regions of the world most at risk of the consequences of environmental degradation and climate change. At the same time, it is still seeking ways to overcome the century long ravages of colonial and apartheid impositions of structural and epistemic violence. Research deliberations and applied research case studies in environmental education and activism from this region provide an emerging contextualized engagement that is related to a wider internationally articulated quest to achieve social-ecological justice, resilience and sustainability through educational interventions. This book introduces a decade of mainly southern African critical realist environmental education research and thinking that asks the question: "How can we facilitate learning processes that will lead to the flourishing of the Earth’s people and ecosystems in more socially just ways?" The environmental education research topics represented in this book are wide-ranging. However, they all exhibit the common theme of social justice and wanting to create change towards a better future. All the authors have used critical realist or critical realist-influenced research methodologies. Offering contributions from a small but growing community of researchers working with critical realism in the global South, this book will be of interest to students, scholars and practitioners in the areas of environmental education, sustainability, development and the philosophy of critical realism in general.

Critical Realism meets kritische Sozialtheorie

Ontologie, Erklärung und Kritik in den Sozialwissenschaften
Author: Urs Lindner,Dimitri Mader
Publisher: transcript Verlag
ISBN: 3839427258
Category: Social Science
Page: 350
View: 2673

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Der Critical Realism, wie er seit den 1970er Jahren im angelsächsischen Raum entwickelt wurde, nimmt nicht nur viele Einsichten gegenwärtiger Realismusdebatten vorweg, sondern arbeitet diese zugleich für die Sozialwissenschaften aus. Jenseits des modernen Natur/Kultur-Dualismus schlägt dieser Ansatz eine nicht-deterministische Kausalitätskonzeption vor, die ein neues Verständnis von sozialen Strukturen, kulturellen Konfigurationen und Akteuren ermöglicht und mit einer Ethik des guten Lebens verbindet. Dieser Band führt den Critical Realism erstmals in den deutschsprachigen Kontext ein und setzt ihn in Dialog zu hiesigen Bemühungen um eine kritische Sozialtheorie. Mit Beiträgen von Margaret S. Archer, Hartmut Rosa, Uwe Schimank u.a.

Emergent Pedagogy in England

A Critical Realist Study of Structure-Agency Interactions in Higher Education
Author: Bushra Sharar
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317482387
Category: Social Science
Page: 224
View: 452

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This book aims to show how a meta-theory of critical realism can be applied to research about pedagogy in the changing landscape of higher education in England. It introduces some of the key ideas of critical realism, and its potential to clarify complex issues that arise in research. This book draws on a critical realist study of structure/agency interactions in three contrasting higher education institutions. Seven case studies of lecturers, over the three universities, are considered to explore the interplay of global, national and institutional structures and processes in their everyday working lives and the extent of their agency in these settings. Conceptual approaches to pedagogy are developed through an application of critical realism to the nature of knowledge, human agency and structure-agency interactions against the changing landscape in higher education at global, national and institutional levels. The book offers a way out of the current malaise in educational research which appears to be stuck between empiricist reductionism and hermeneutic interpretive positions. Highlighting the importance of ontological analyses, this book explores a realist approach to learning, pedagogy and knowledge in English higher education and will be of interest to students, scholars and practitioners working in education, critical realism and philosophy more generally.

The Economics of Science: A Critical Realist Overview

Volume 1: Illustrations and Philosophical Preliminaries
Author: David Tyfield
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113658742X
Category: Science
Page: 248
View: 4686

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Dramatic and controversial changes in the funding of science over the past two decades, towards its increasing commercialization, have stimulated a huge literature trying to set out an "economics of science". Whether broadly in favour or against these changes, the vast majority of these frameworks employ ahistorical analyses that cannot conceptualise, let alone address, the questions of "why have these changes occurred?" and "why now?" Nor, therefore, can they offer much insight into the crucial question of future trends. Given the growing importance of science and innovation in an age of both a globalizing knowledge-based economy (itself in crisis) and enormous challenges that demand scientific and technological responses, these are significant gaps in our understanding of important contemporary social processes. This book argues that the fundamental underlying problem in all cases is the ontological shallowness of these theories, which can only be remedied by attention to ontological presuppositions. Conversely, a critical realist approach affords the integration of a realist political economy into the analysis of the economics of science that does afford explicit attention to these crucial questions; a ‘cultural political economy of research and innovation’ (CPERI). Accordingly, the book sets out an introduction to the existing literature on the economics of science together with novel discussion of the field from a critical realist perspective. In arguing thus across levels of abstraction, however, the book also explores how concerted engagement with substantive social enquiry and theoretical debate develops and strengthens critical realism as a philosophical project, rather than simply ‘applying’ it. Divided into two volumes, in this first volume the book explores the ‘top’ and ‘tail’ of the argument, regarding substantive and philosophical aspects. Starting with substantive illustrations, we explore the social challenges associated with the contemporary commercialization of science and the movement towards a knowledge-based bio-economy. Having shown the explanatory benefits of assuming a realist political economy perspective, the book then turns to the task of reconstructing and justifying that theoretical perspective. True to the overall argument regarding attention to ontological presuppositions, this starts with critical realism’s critique of mainstream economics but also develops critical realism itself towards what may be called a ‘transcendental constructivism’.

Enlightened Common Sense

The Philosophy of Critical Realism
Author: Roy Bhaskar
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134867956
Category: Philosophy
Page: 226
View: 478

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Since the 1970s, critical realism has grown to address a range of subjects, including economics, philosophy, science, and religion. It has become a complex and mature philosophy. Enlightened Common Sense: The Philosophy of Critical Realism looks back over this development in one concise and accessible volume. The late Roy Bhaskar was critical realism’s philosophical originator and chief exponent. He draws on a lifetime’s experience to give a definitive, systematic account of this increasingly influential, international and multidisciplinary approach. Critical realism’s key element has always been its vindication and deepening of our understanding of ontology. Arguing that realist ontology is inexorable in knowledge and action, Bhaskar sees this as the key to a new enlightened common sense. From the definition of critical realism and its applicability in the social sciences, to explanation of dialectical critical realism and the philosophy of metaReality, this is the essential introduction for students of critical realism.

Metatheory for the Twenty-First Century

Critical Realism and Integral Theory in Dialogue
Author: Roy Bhaskar,Sean Esbjörn-Hargens,Nicholas Hedlund,Mervyn Hartwig
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317423828
Category: Social Science
Page: 358
View: 2756

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Metatheory for the 21st Century is one of the many exciting results of over four years of in-depth engagement between two communities of scholar-practitioners: critical realism and integral theory.?Building on its origins at a symposium in Luxembourg in 2010, this book examines the points of connection and divergence between critical realism and integral theory, arguably two of the most comprehensive and sophisticated contemporary metatheories. The Luxembourg symposium and the four more that followed explored the possibilities for their cross-pollination, culminating in five positions on their potential for integration, and began the process of fashioning a whole new evolutionary trajectory for both integral theory and critical realism. The contributors to this book bring together critical realism and integral theory in order to explore the potential of this collaboration for the advancement of both. Highlighting the ways in which these metatheories can transform scholarship and address the most pressing global issues of the 21st?century, this book will be of interest to students, scholars and practitioners in the areas of metatheory, philosophy, social theory, critical realism, integral theory and current affairs more generally.

Levinas, Subjectivity, Education

Towards an Ethics of Radical Responsibility
Author: Anna Strhan
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118312376
Category: Philosophy
Page: 232
View: 8227

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Levinas, Subjectivity, Education explores how thephilosophical writings of Emmanuel Levinas lead us to reassesseducation and reveals the possibilities of a radical newunderstanding of ethical and political responsibility. Presents an original theoretical interpretation of EmmanuelLevinas that outlines the political significance of his work forcontemporary debates on education Offers a clear analysis of Levinas’s centralphilosophical concepts, including the place of religion in hiswork, demonstrating their relevance for educational theorists Examines Alain Badiou’s critique of Levinas’swork Considers the practical implications of Levinas’ theoriesfor concrete educational practices and frameworks

Philosophies of Research into Higher Education


Author: Brian J. Brown,Sally Baker
Publisher: A&C Black
ISBN: 1441154558
Category: Education
Page: 202
View: 4662

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Research in higher education could be more useful, innovative and better designed if we were clearer about the philosophical and epistemological basis of the theories that underlie our research methods. People who have to interpret research would do a better job if they were able to interrogate research more critically and appreciate its strengths and weaknesses. This volume provides this information for an audience of researchers, policymakers, students and lecturers in higher education. The authors seek to create a dialogue with the reader about issues relevant to the philosophy of research and stimulate interest in how philosophy plays out in the real, everyday, political world, not least in education. Unlike many existing volumes on the market, this book creates a space in which readers can use the tools for thinking that the authors describe to interrogate their own experience.

The Formation of Critical Realism

A Personal Perspective
Author: Roy Bhaskar,Mervyn Hartwig
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134050658
Category: Social Science
Page: 248
View: 4350

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This series of interviews, conducted in the form of exchanges between Roy Bhaskar and Mervyn Hartwig, tells a riveting story of the formation and development of critical realism. Three intersecting and interweaving narratives unfold in the course of this unfinished story: the personal narrative of Roy Bhaskar, born of an Indian father and English mother, a child of post-war Britain and Indian partition and independence; the intellectual narrative of the emergence and growth of critical realism; and a world-historical story, itself theorized by critical realism in its discussion of the development of modernity. This book gives an invaluable account of the development of critical realism, and its consolidation as a leading philosophy of our times. It takes us through the major moments of its formation, the principal objections to and controversies within critical realism, the establishment of its institutions, and considers its limits and future development. Special features of the book include discussion of the genesis of critical realism, and the origins and nature of the so-called dialectical and spiritual turns. The informal dialogical style of The Formation of Critical Realism makes it compelling reading and an invaluable source for students of critical realism as well as all those interested in the intellectual story of our times.

Key Ideas in Educational Research


Author: David Scott,Marlene Morrison
Publisher: A&C Black
ISBN: 0826495699
Category: Education
Page: 302
View: 5818

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120 essays give definitions, use, and references for educational research terms.

Researching Student Learning in Higher Education

A social realist approach
Author: Jennifer M. Case
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135120765
Category: Education
Page: 156
View: 7984

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Many contemporary concerns in higher education focus on the student experience of learning.With a larger and much more diverse intake than ever before, linked with a declining unit of resource, questions are being asked afresh around the purposes of higher education. Although much of the debate is currently focused on issues of student access and success, a simple input-output model of higher education is insufficient. This book turns this conversation on its head, by inserting a full consideration of student agency into the context of higher education.Working sociologically, it explores the influence of the social context on what the individual student achieves. The theoretical tenets of a social realist approach are laid out in detail in the book; the potential value of this approach is then illustrated by a case study of student learning in engineering education.Employing Margaret Archer’s social realist theory, an analysis of student narratives is used to work towards a realist understanding of the underlying mechanisms that constrain and enable student success.Building on this analysis, the book develops a novel set of proposals for potential ways forward in improving student learning in higher education.